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A.P. Psychology Unit 10 Schedule: Chapters 10 & 13 Personality and Intelligence NOTE: Please have all readings listed on a given day DONE for that day’s class! All page numbers refer to the Myers Psychology text. A 2/16 B 2/17 2/18 2/19 2/22 2/23 2/24 2/25 (1/2 day) 3/1 3/2 (1/2 day) 3/4 3/3 3/8 3/5 3/10 3/9 Agenda Intelligence, Influences on Intelligence Factor analysis (“g”), multiple intelligence, triarchic theory, “E-I.Q.” Dynamics of Intelligence Battle of the Brains Creativity and Mindset Extremes – savants, IQ, MENSA, creativity Test construction and validity Intelligence (Ch 10) Quiz (will include free-response) Personality Overview Psychodynamic theory overview Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory Id, Ego, Superego Defense Mechanisms Freud’s Psychosexual development Critiques of theory; Neofreudians Social Cognitive Theory Humanistic Theory Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Trait Theory The Big Five Test Binders Due Reading pp. 405 - 415 pp. 415 - 427 pp. 427 - 439 pp. 553 pp. 554 - 564 564 – 567, and 576 - 589 567 - 576 Big Questions: What defines an intelligent person? How can we make personality/intelligence testing a constructive endeavor? Which theory of personality best describes who we are? Are personality and intelligence stable over a lifespan? Unit 10 Objectives: After you have read the chapters and taken notes, you should be able to do the following: Chapter 10 Trace the origins of intelligence tests including the contributions of Galton, Binet, and Terman. Distinguish between aptitude and achievement tests and describe modern tests of mental abilities such as the WAIS and SAT. Describe principles of test construction including standardization, reliability, and validity, and explain how they are used to form accurate tests. Describe the nature of intelligence and discuss the implications of culture on intelligence. Explain whether intelligence should be considered a general mental ability or many specific abilities. Discuss the stability of intelligence scores and describe the two extremes of the normal distribution of intelligence. Identify the factors associated with creativity and describe the relationship between creativity and intelligence Discuss evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on intelligence. Chapter 13 Describe Freud’s view of personality structure Outline and describe Freud’s psychosexual stages of personality development Explain how defense mechanisms operate Discuss the major ideas of the neo-Freudians and today’s psychodynamic issues Explain how projective tests are used to assess personality and describe research findings regarding their validity and reliability Discuss trait theories of personality Identify the Big Five personality factors Discuss the basic ideas of Maslow and Rogers Evaluate the humanistic perspective Describe the social-cognitive perspective and define reciprocal determinism Chapter 10 Overview An enduring controversy in psychology involves attempts to define and measure intelligence. Chapter 10 describes the historical origins of intelligence tests and discusses several important issues concerning their use. These include the methods by which intelligence tests are constructed and whether such tests are valid, reliable, and free of cultural bias. The chapter also discusses research that attempts to assess the neurological basis of intelligence, the stability of intelligence, whether intelligence is a single general ability or several specific ones, and the extent of genetic and environmental influences on intelligence. Chapter 13 Overview Personality refers to each individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Chapter 13 examines four perspectives on personality. Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the unconscious and irrational aspects of personality. The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the effects of our interactions with the environment. Humanistic theory draws attention to the concept of self and to human potential for healthy growth. Trait theory led to advances in techniques for evaluating and describing personality. The text first describes and then evaluates the contributions and shortcomings of each perspective. In addition, within each section is a brief description of some of the techniques used by the perspective in analyzing personality. Key Terms Using your own words, write a brief definition or explanation of each of the following. Do this after or while reading the assigned pages for class. Chapter 10: Intelligence 1. intelligence – 2. mental age – 3. Stanford-Binet – 4. intelligence quotient (IQ) – 5. general intelligence (g) – 6. savant syndrome – 7. creativity – 8. emotional intelligence – 9. aptitude test – 10. achievement test – 11. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – 12. standardization – 13. normal curve – 14. reliability – 15. validity (types) – 16. mental retardation – 17. Down syndrome – 18. stereotype threat – Chapter 13: Personality 19. personality – 20. free association – 21. psychoanalysis – 22. unconscious – 23. id – 24. ego – 25. superego – 26. fixation – 27. defense mechanisms – 28. repression – 29. regression – 30. reaction formation – 31. projection – 32. rationalization – 33. displacement – 34. projective test – 35. terror-management theory – 36. collective unconscious – 37. self-actualization – 38. unconditional positive regard – 39. reciprocal determinism – 40. learned helplessness – 41. external locus of control – 42. internal locus of control – Intelligence Unit Study Guide – Chapter 10 Complete the following study guide as you read the assigned pages for class. What is Intelligence? pp. 405 - 415 1. Describe the nature of intelligence and discuss whether it is culturally defined or culturefree. 2. Describe the factor-analysis approach to understanding intelligence and discuss evidence regarding intelligence as general mental ability and/or as many specific abilities. 3. Make a brief statement about how you viewed “intelligence” before reading this section of the text. Did you view it as a single trait (the equivalent of “g”) or multi-faceted? Why? 4. After reading about Sternberg’s and Gardner’s theories, has this changed at all? How is your concept of intelligence more complex? 5. Based on the five components of creativity outlined by Sternberg and associates (p. 411), explain an example of creativity from your life or others. Assessing Intelligence pp. 415 - 422 6. Distinguish between aptitude and achievement tests and describe modern tests of mental abilities. 7. Identify the major principles of good test construction and explain their application to intelligence tests. The Dynamics of Intelligence pp. 422 - 427 8. Discuss the stability of intelligence test scores and the two extremes of intelligence. 9. Outside research - What did “SAT” originally stand for? What does it stand for now? How does this relate to your understanding of aptitude and assessment from the text? Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence pp. 427 - 439 10. Discuss evidence for both genetic and environmental influence on intelligence. 11. Describe group differences in intelligence test scores and show how they can be explained in terms of environmental factors. 12. Discuss whether intelligence test scores are biased and/or discriminatory. Personality Unit Study Guide – Chapter 13 The Psychoanalytic Perspective pp. 553 - 564 13. Describe how Freud’s search for the psychological roots of nervous disorders led to his study of the unconscious and explain psychoanalysis. 14. Describe and illustrate Freud’s views of personality structure. 15. Outline and describe Freud’s psychosexual stages of personality development. 16. Explain Freud’s view of maladaptive behavior and describe how defense mechanisms operate. 17. Discuss the major ideas of the neo-Freudians and today’s psychoanalytic theorists. 18. Explain how projective tests are used to assess personality and describe research findings regarding their validity and reliability. The Humanistic Perspective pp. 564 - 567 19. Describe the humanistic perspective on personality and discuss the basic ideas of Maslow and Rogers. 20. Discuss how culture affects one’s sense of self, including research findings on stigmatized groups and differences between individualist and collective cultures. The Trait Perspective pp. 567 - 576 21. Discuss trait theories of personality and trace their history. 22. Identify the Big Five personality factors and describe the assessment techniques associated with trait perspective. 23. Evaluate trait perspective on personality and describe research findings regarding the consistency of behavior over time and across situations. The Social-Cognitive Perspective pp. 576 - 589 24. Describe the social-cognitive perspective and define reciprocal determinism, giving two examples. 25. Discuss research findings on personal control.