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Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea
Chapter 5 Section 1
p. 111-114
1. Greece is mountainous peninsula in the Mediterranean. There are 1400 Islands in the Aegean and Ionian Seas. The
Greeks had also annexed islands off the west coast of ________________.
2. The Greeks rarely traveled more than 85 miles from the coastline. Sea travel and trade were important because Greece
lacked natural resources.
3. 3/4th of Greece is covered with mountains, this made unification of Greece difficult. Greece developed small,
independent communities. Uneven terrain made land travel difficult.
4. Only 20 % of the land was arable – suitable for farming. Greece was never able to support a large population.
5. The desire for more living space and land for grazing animals led the Greeks to seek sites for colonies.
6. The Mycenaean were a group of Indo-European migrants. They settled on the Greek mainland around
2000 BC.
7. The city of Mycenae was built on a steep rocky ridge. It had 20 ft thick stone fortified walls.
8. Mycenaean warrior-kings invaded Crete. Minoan culture had thrived there for over 600 years. They adapted the
Minoan writing system to the Greek language.
9. Minoan legends formed the core of Greek religious practice, art, politics, and literature.
10. The Trojan War was fought between Mycenaeans (Greeks) and Trojans. It lasted 10 years.
11. Legend says the war started because a Trojan name Paris had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king
12. The German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found the remains of a nine layers of city
life in Turkey. One of the layers suggested that the stories of the Trojan War may have been based on real cities, people,
and events.
13. The German historian Manfred Korfmann found a cemetery near the site of ancient Troy
He believed the war was fought over control of a crucial waterway in the Aegean Sea
14. Greek culture declined under the Dorians. Mycenae collapsed after the Trojan War. Greeks appear to have lost the
art of writing during the Dorian Age.
15. The epics of Homer were passed down by oral tradition. He wrote The Iliad– about the Trojan War, and The
Odyssey about the return home of Odysseus after the war.
16. Arete was the Greek ideal of virtue and excellence.
17. Greek Gods were jealous, they loved and hated. They are thought to be immortal.
The chief god was Zeus. Athena was the goddess of wisdom.