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UNIT 1 Name _________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 32 – Part I The Internal Environment of Animals: Organization and Regulation Campbell Biology in Focus, 3rd Ed. 1. Define the following terms: a. anatomy b. physiology Concept 32.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization 2. List the levels of structural organization of an animal’s body from cells to organism. 3. Name and describe the functions of the four types of animal tissues. a. b. c. d. Concept 32.2: The endocrine and nervous systems act individually and together in regulating animal physiology 4. Contrast the endocrine system and the nervous system by completing the chart below. Endocrine System Nervous System Signal Type Transmission Speed Duration of Effects 5. Compare negative feedback and positive feedback. Provide an example of each. Concept 32.3: Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals 6. What is the difference between an animal that is regulator and one that is a conformer? 7. What is homeostasis? 8. List a few examples in which the human body exhibits homeostasis. (Refer to Concepts 32.2-32.5.) 9. Describe the basic idea of how homeostatic control systems work. 10. What is thermoregulation? 11. How is thermoregulation achieved in endotherms vs. ectotherms? 12. What are the 4 ways in which an organism can exchange heat with its environment? 13. Describe the principle of countercurrent exchange. 14. Compare the metabolic rate of large animals vs. small animals. Concept 32.4: A shared system mediates osmoregulation and excretion in many animals 15. Describe the process of osmoregulation. 16. Contrast osmoregulation in marine fishes vs. freshwater fishes. 17. List the 3 different forms of nitrogeneous wastes and examples of animals that excrete these forms. a. b. c. Concept 32.5: The mammalian kidney’s ability to conserve water is a key terrestrial adaptation 18. The basic unit of the mammalian kidney is the nephron. What is the main function of each of the following regions of the nephron in filtering blood? a. Proximal tubule b. Loop of Henle c. Distal tubule d. Collecting duct 19. Describe the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in osmoregulation.