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Animal Farm By George Orwell Allegory - Satire - Fable Source:www.d.umn.edu/~lunda009/images/Animal-Farm. Source:www.worldofteaching.com George Orwell British Author & Journalist 1903-1950 Born in India At that time India was a part of the British Empire, and Blair's father, Richard, held a post as an agent in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service. The Blair family was not very wealthy - Orwell later described them ironically as "lower-uppermiddle class". They owned no property, had no extensive investments; they were like many middle-class English families of the time, totally dependent on the British Empire for their livelihood and prospects (Ward). Noted as a novelist and critic, as well as a political and cultural commentator One of the most widely admired Englishlanguage essayists of the 20th century Best known for two novels critical of totalitarianism in general, and Stalinism in particular: Animal Farm Nineteen Eighty-Four Source: www.online-literature.com/orwell/ “Liberty is telling people what they do not want to hear” (Orwell). 1984 Source:www.worldofteaching.com The novel, published in 1949, takes place in 1984 and presents an imaginary future where a totalitarian state controls every aspect of life, even people's thoughts. The state is called Oceania and is ruled by a group known as the Party; its leader and dictator is Big Brother (Ward). Source: http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/ George Orwell and His Beliefs Orwell was a person who had a reputation for standing apart and even making a virtue of his detachment. This “outsider” position often led him to oppose the crowd. Orwell’s beliefs about politics were affected by his experiences fighting in the Spanish Civil War. He viewed socialists, communists, and fascists as repressive and self-serving. He was skeptical of governments and their willingness to forsake ideas in favor of power (Ward). Interesting Fact: George Orwell’s real name was Eric Blair. Source: http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/ Source:www.worldofteaching.com Why Animals? In explaining how he came to write Animal Farm, Orwell says he once saw a little boy whipping a horse and later he wrote, “It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the [worker].” Source:http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ Source:www.worldofteaching.com/ George Orwell in India He was born in India and spent his early years there since his father held a post there. He was a lonely boy who liked to make up stories and talk with imaginary companions. As an adult, he worked for the Imperial Police in British occupied India (Ward). Source:http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ What is Animal Farm? A masterpiece of political satire, Animal Farm is a tale of the society animals form into a totalitarian regime. It is generally viewed as Orwell's critique of the communist system in the former Soviet Union (Ward). Interesting Fact: Orwell initially struggled to find a publisher for Animal Farm. Source:http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.teachwithmovies.org Significance Today But why – now that Soviet Communism has fallen and the Cold War is over – does Animal Farm deserve our attention? The answer lies in the power of allegory. Allegorical fables, because they require us to make comparisons and connections, can be meaningful to any reader in any historical period (Ward). Source:http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ Children’s Book? – No! After Animal Farm was published in 1945, George Orwell discovered with horror that booksellers were placing his novel on children’s shelves. According to his housekeeper, he began traveling from bookstore to bookstore requesting that the book be shelved with adult works. This dual identity — as children’s story and adult satire — has stayed with Orwell’s novel for more than fifty years (Ward). Source:http://www.netcharles.com/orwell/ The Fable Source: chicago.broadwayworld.com/article/Northwester… The fable is one of the oldest literary forms - much, much older than the novel or the short story (Ward). A fable is usually short, written in either verse or prose, and conveys a clear moral or message. The earliest fables still preserved date back to 6th Century Greece B.C.E. The author of these fables, Aesop, used animal characters to stand for human "types." For example, a fox character might embody the human characteristics of cunning and cleverness. Though Aesop's animal fables were ostensibly about animals, they were really instructional tales about human emotions and human behavior (Ward). Animal Fables The most popular animal fables of the 20th Century are the Just So Stories (1902) written by Rudyard Kipling. Kipling's fables were adapted by Disney in the movie The Jungle Book. Orwell admired Kipling and the Just So Stories would seem to have influenced the form of Animal Farm. Orwell took the short animal fable and expanded it to the length of a short novel in the form of an allegory (Ward). Source:officialmdub.wordpress.com/.../14/jungl e-book/ Vocabulary Chapter One Autocracy-government in which one person has uncontrolled or unlimited authority over others; the government or power of an absolute monarch. Utopia- an ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects; a work of fiction describing a utopia. Ensconced-to settle securely or snuggly. Cynical-pessimistic, having a disbelief in the sincerity of human motives. Vocabulary Chapter One Plaited-a braid, especially of hair or straw Dissentient-one who differs in sentiment or opinion, especially from the majority; one who disagrees Enmity-hostility, hatred, ill will, animosity Literary Terms Chapter One Allegory-Most fables have two levels of meaning. On the surface, the fable is about animals. But on a second level, the animals stand for types of people or ideas. The way the animals interact and the way the plot unfolds says something about the nature of people or the value of ideas. Any type of fiction that has multiple levels of meaning in this way is called an allegory (symbolic narrative). Source: www.metro.co.uk/.../281364-film-animal-farm-u Source: www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ulbricht.htm Literary Terms Chapter One (cont’d) Allegory (cont’d) Yet there is no reason that allegory must be limited to two levels. It is possible to argue that Animal Farm also has a third and more general level of meaning. It could represent people with character traits in a very general manner. For example, Molly is a very vain, comfort-loving character; she could represent all people with those character traits. Source: www.northernstarart.com/photos/paintingsMolly... Allegory (cont’d) Boxer Animal Farm is strongly allegorical, but it presents a very nice balance between levels of meaning. On the first level, the story about the animals is very moving. But at the same time, each of the animals does serve as a symbol. The story's second level involves the careful critique Orwell constructed to comment on Soviet Russia (Ward). Source:www.worldofteaching.com Literary Terms Chapter One (Cont’d) Rhetoric- the study of the technique of using language effectively; the art of using speech to persuade, influence, or please; oratory Literary Terms Chapter One (cont’d) Anthropomorphism -Attribution of human motivation, characteristics, or behavior to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena. Sporce:metro.co.uk Vocabulary Chapter Two pre-eminent-outstanding, superior, surpassing apathy-lack of interest or concern, indifference gambolled-to skip about as in dancing or playing, frolicked Literary Terms Chapter Two Beast Fable-a beast fable is usually short, written in either verse or prose, and conveys a clear moral or message using animal characters to stand for human types. Characterization-description of character traits. Satire In a satire, the writer attacks a serious issue by presenting it in a ridiculous light or otherwise poking fun at it. Orwell uses satire to expose what he saw as the myth of Soviet socialism. Thus, the novel tells a story that people of all ages can understand, but it also tells us a second story— that of the real-life revolution (Ward). Soviet Coat of Arms Source: www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=73950. .. Vocabulary Chapter Three Conceived- imagined, to form a notion or idea of Acute- keen, sharp or severe in effect, intense Cryptic- mysterious in meaning, puzzling, ambiguous Maxim-proverb, a principle or rule of conduct Literary Terms Chapter Three Propaganda is information or ideas methodically spread to promote or injure a cause, movement, nation, etc. It is used as advertisements to "sell" a product or idea or to persuade a person to do or believe something. Examples include commercials, advertisements, movie trailers, lawn signs, etc. Source:www.dictionary.reference.com/browse/propaganda The Hoof and Horn Literary Terms Chapter Three Utopia- an ideal community or society possessing a perfect sociopolitico-legal system Vocabulary Chapter Four Tractable- obedient, easily managed or controlled Contemptible- despicable, deserving of contempt. Flogging-beating, especially with a whip, strap Irrepressible-uncontrollable Ignominious-dishonorable Impromptu-unrehearsed, made or done without previous preparation Vocabulary Chapter Five Pretext-excuse, something put forward to conceal a true purpose or objective Publican-tavern keeper Manifestly-evidently, apparently, obviously Liable-likely or apt Innovations-changes, introduction of new things or methods Procured-obtained, the use of special means Vocabulary Chapter Six Arable-farmable, capable of producing crops Malignity-ill will, intense spite Scapegoat-a person or thing made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place. Vocabulary Chapter Seven Capitulated-surrendered Attribute-blame Graphically- vividly Categorically- absolutely Countenance-face Incited-urged Retribution-punishment Vocabulary Chapter Eight Skulking- lurking, to lie or keep in hiding Rash-hasty, acting without due consideration Machinations-plots, crafty schemes Censured-criticized, strong or vehement disapproval Conciliatory-pacifying, overcoming the distrust or hostility of Unscathed-unharmed, unhurt Contrived-schemed, obviously planned or forced Vocabulary Chapter Nine Superannuated- retired because of age or infirmity Complicity- partnership, the fact or condition of being an accomplice Demeanor-behavior, conduct, deportment Vocabulary Chapter 10 Inebriate-drunkard, an intoxicated person Morose-gloomy, given to depressed or sullen moods Taciturn- silent, inclined to silence, reserved Subsisted- existed, to remain alive, live as on food Irony Irony results when there is a disparity between what an audience would expect and what really happens. Orwell uses a particular type of irony – dramatic irony. He relies on the difference between what the animals understand and what we, the audience, can conclude about the situation at Animal Farm (Ward). Pig below the commandments. Pig overindulging himself. Source:http://images.google.com/images?q=pictures+of+ani mal+farm&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en Dystopia An imaginary place or state in which the condition of life is extremely bad, as from deprivation, oppression, or terror. A work describing such a place or state: "dystopias such as Brave New World" (Times Literary Supplement). Source:http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/dystopia Theories of Misery and Revolution “No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth[…]” (Orwell 28). “Why then do we continue in this miserable condition? Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labor is stolen from us by human beings[…] (28). “Remove man from the scene ad the root of hunger and overwork is abolished forever[…] (29). “What must we do?[...] Rebellion!” (30). Theories of Misery and Revolution Old Major expands on Marx’s theory of misery and gives the animals Lenin’s theory of revolution as presented in What is to be Done, a pamphlet published in 1902. In the pamphlet Lenin echoed Marx: “The life of the worker is misery- he is exploited by the capitalist and he never enjoys the full benefits of his labor.” Source:www.worldofteaching.com When History and Literature Merge Critics often consider Animal Farm to be an allegory of the Russian Revolution. In the early 1900s, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II faced an increasingly discontented populace. Freed from feudal serfdom in 1861, many Russian peasants were struggling to survive under an oppressive government (Ward). By 1917, amidst the tremendous suffering of World War I, a revolution began. In two major battles, the Czar’s government was overthrown and replaced by the Bolshevik leadership of Vladimir Lenin. When Lenin died in 1924, his former colleagues Leon Trotsky, hero of the early Revolution, and Joseph Stalin, head of the Communist Party, struggled for power. Stalin won the battle, and he deported Trotsky into permanent exile (Ward). Source:http://www.netcharles.com/orwel Source:www.worldofteaching.com Czar Nicholas II Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin Once in power, Stalin began, with despotic urgency and exalted nationalism, to move the Soviet Union into the modern industrial age. His government seized land in order to create collective farms (Ward). Stalin’s Five Year Plan was an attempt to modernize Soviet industry. Many peasants refused to give up their land, so to counter resistance Stalin used vicious military tactics. Rigged trials led to executions of an estimated 20 million government officials and ordinary citizens (Ward). The government controlled the flow and content of information to the people, and all but outlawed churches (Ward). Source:www.worldofteaching.ct Joseph Stalin What does the windmill represent? The Windmill- What does the windmill represent? The NEP- the New Economic Policy/ Stalin’s Five Year Plan to modernize industry and agriculture in the Soviet Union o oThe infrastructure of a nation The New Economic Policy (NEP 1921-1928) Announced March 1921 by Lenin. Designed to replace worn-out machines with new ones. Let the peasants sell most of their grain for whatever they could get to stimulate the production of consumer goods through an open market or capitalistic approach. The partnership between the proletariat and the peasant masses was hailed as a great Communist accomplishment. Ended with Stalin’s realization that the peasants’ pace was too slow- production was not increasing at all. Stalin replaced it with wholesale transition to collective farming. The Hen’s Rebellion “You can’t make an omelet without breaking some eggs.” Ch. 7 The Hen’s Rebellion Hens refuse to lay eggs for Napoleon’s cashproducing scheme Let their eggs fall and smash rather than surrender them. Hens were starved into submission Annihilation of the Kulaks In 1928 Stalin initiated collective farming Converted all kulak farms to collective farms Kulaks slaughtered their own livestock rather than surrender it. Kulaks were murdered and deported , 1928 through 1929 Annihilation of the Kulaks Back in the Ukraine, by 1932 the farmers remaining were forced to work on large collective run by the state on land that they had seized. http://www.google.com/search?q=pictures+of+the+kulaks&hl=en&client=fi refox-a&hs=0NU&rls=org.mozilla:enUS:official&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=GU_JTfrV N8fa0QH3weTbCA&ved=0CBoQsAQ&biw=886&bih=483 Annihilation of the Kulaks All were forced to give major portions of their grain harvest to Stalin to be sold on the foreign market to finance his military and infrastructure projects. All that would not participate were branded Kulaks and shipped to be with the others in Siberia. So much grain was taken that the farmers were in many times left with nothing and this created a huge forced famine by the winter of 1933. http://www.google.com/search?q=pictures+of+the+kulaks&hl=en&client= firefox-a&hs=0NU&rls=org.mozilla:enUS:official&prmd=ivns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=GU_JTfr VN8fa0QH3weTbCA&ved=0CBoQsAQ&biw=886&bih=483 Annihilation of the Kulaks The Holodomor, literal translation “Killing by Hunger”) was a manmade famine in the Ukrainian SSR, part of the Soviet famine of 1932– 1933. During the famine, which is also known as the "terror-famine in Ukraine" and "faminegenocide in Ukraine”, millions of Ukrainians died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holodomor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holodomor Battle of the Windmill=WWII Stalin’s disloyalty to the Western Allies (Pilkington) led to his signing a nonaggression pact with Hitler (Frederick) in 1939, after Hitler clearly threatened Europe. The cries from England, France, and the United States criticizing the pact fell on deaf ears. Battle of the Windmill In 1941 Hitler betrayed the pact and invaded Russia. When Stalin cried for help, some remembered his rebuffs with revenge in mind, but most Western leaders were glad to have Stalin’s friendship, however selfserving it may have been. Battle of the Windmill Though Hitler was eventually defeated, his army left the Soviet Union in ruin. Many historians credit Hitler’s decision to attack Russia, opening a second front of battle to support, as the cause of his ultimate defeat. Characters Old Major An old boar whose speech about the evils perpetrated by humans rouses the animals into rebelling. His philosophy concerning the tyranny of Man is named Animalism. He teaches the animals the song “Beasts of England” Dies before revolution Karl Marx The inventor of communism Wants to unite the working class to overthrow the government. Dies before the Russian Revolution Lenin took Marxist principles to create Leninism. Who is Karl Marx? Many of the ideals behind the Soviet revolution were based on the writings and teachings of Karl Marx. A German intellectual who lived in the mid-1800s, Marx believed that societies are divided into two segments, a working class and an owner class (Ward). The working class creates all the products, while the owner class enjoys all the benefits of these products. This class division leads to inequality and oppression of the working class. Marx’s objective was to create a classless society in which the work is shared by all for the benefit of all, and he believed revolution was the way to achieve this goal (Ward). Source:www.worldofteaching.com Farmer Jones = Czar Nicholas II Farmer Jones The irresponsible owner of the farm Lets his animals starve and beats them with a whip Sometimes shows random kindness Czar Nicholas II Weak Russian leader during the early 1900s Often cruel and brutal to his subjects Displays isolated kindness Napoleon = Joseph Stalin Napoleon Boar who leads the rebellion against Farmer Jones After the rebellion’s success, he systematically begins to control all aspects of the farm until he is an undisputed tyrant. Source: www.greatdreams.com/political/animal_farm.htm Joseph Stalin The communist dictator of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953 who killed all who opposed him. He loved power and used the KGB (secret police) to enforce his ruthless, corrupt antics. Source: www.georgianbiography.com/bios/s/stalin.htm Snowball = Leon Trotsky Snowball Boar who becomes one of the rebellion’s most valuable leaders. After drawing complicated plans for the construction of a windmill, he is chased off of the farm forever by Napoleon’s dogs and thereafter used as a scapegoat for the animals’ troubles. Leon Trotsky A pure but ruthless communist leader who was influenced by the teachings of Karl Marx. He wanted to improve life for people in Russia, but was driven away by Lenin’s Secret Police. Characterization in Fables We already know that a fable is a narration intended to enforce a useful truth. Fables have two important characteristics. First, they teach a moral or lesson. In Animal Farm, the moral involves Orwell’s views about Soviet politics. Second, the characters are most frequently animals. These animal characters often function as a satiric device to point out the follies of humankind. Though Old Major, Snowball, and Napoleon may represent Karl Marx, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin, many of the story characters are much more general. Some animals are grouped together as a single character—“the sheep,” “the hens,” and “the dogs.” Orwell also capitalizes on the traits generally associated with particular animals, such as sheep as followers and dogs as loyal (Ward). Source:www.worldofteaching.com Boxer-an allegory within an allegory A dedicated and hard working horse who aids in the building of the windmill but is sold to a glue-boiler after collapsing from exhaustion. Represents the proletariatdedicated, but tricked communist supporters of Stalin. Many stayed loyal even after it was obvious Stalin was a tyrant. Eventually they were betrayed, ignored, and even killed by him (Ward). Source:www.worldofteaching.com Squealer A big mouth pig who becomes Napoleon’s mouthpiece. Throughout the novel, he displays his ability to manipulate the animals’ thoughts through the use of hollow, yet convincing rhetoric (Ward). Represents the propaganda department that worked to support Stalin’s image; the members of the department would use lies to convince the people to follow Stalin (Ward). Jessie & Moses Jessie The farm's sheepdog, she keeps tabs on the pigs and is among the first to suspect that Napoleon is changing the commandments (Ward). Moses A tame raven and sometimes pet of Jones who tells the animals stories about a paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain. Moses represents the abuse of religion. Stalin used religious principles to influence people to work and to avoid revolt (Ward). Source:www.worldofteaching.com Jessie Moses More Characters Pilkington Jones' neighbor, he finds a way to profit from Animal Farm by forming an alliance with the pigs. Represents the allied forces. Muriel A goat who believes in the rebellion, she watches as Animal Farm slips away from its founding principles. Mollie A vain horse who resists the animal rebellion because she doesn't want to give up the petting and treats she receives from humans. Mollie represents vain, selfish people in Russia and throughout the world who ignored the revolution and sought residence in more inviting countries. Also known as czartists /luxurious bourgeois class. Benjamin The most cynical of all the animals, the farm's donkey doubts the leadership of the pigs but is faithfully devoted to Boxer. Benjamin represents all the skeptical people in Russia and elsewhere who weren’t sure revolution would change anything. Survivor at any cost. The Sheep Not tremendously clever, the sheep remind themselves of the principles of animalism by chanting "four legs good, two legs bad." The Dogs Napoleon’s private army that used fear to force the animals to work; they killed any opponent of Napoleon. The dogs represent Stalin’s loyal OGPU later KGB (secret police). Source:www.worldofteaching.com Animalism = Communism Animalism Taught my Old Major No rich, but no poor Better life for workers All animals are equal Everyone owns the farm Source:www.worldofteaching.com Communism Invented by Karl Marx All people are equal Government owns everything People own the government Animal Farm Revolution = Russian Revolution Animal Farm Revolution Was supposed to make life better for all, but . . . Life was worse at the end. The leaders became the same as, or worse than the other farmers (humans) they rebelled against. Source:www.worldofteaching.com Russian Revolution Was supposed to fix the problems created by the Czar, but . . . Life was even worse after the revolution. Stalin’s policies killed millions of people. Works Cited Ward, Lisa. “Animal Farm 1.” Power point presentation. World of Teaching. World of Teaching, 23 Feb. 2010. Web. 7 Apr. 2010. www.worldofteaching.com. "anthropomorphism." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. 13 Apr. 2010. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/anthropomo rphism>.