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A Solar Inverter
A Solar Inverter
 The main aim of this project is to use solar energy for household
loads using an inverter. Solar energy is converted to electrical
energy by photo- voltaic(PV) cells. This energy is stored in
batteries during day time for the utilization purpose whenever
 A solar inverter, or PV inverter, converts the direct current (DC)
output of a photovoltaic solar panel into a utility frequency
alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical
grid or used by a local, off-line electrical network.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Project Block Diagram
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types
 Stand-alone inverters
 Grid-tie inverters
 Battery backup inverters
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Stand-Alone Inverters
 It is used in isolated systems.
 The inverter draws its DC energy from batteries charged by
 Many stand-alone inverters also incorporate integral battery
chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source.
 Normally these do not interface in any way with the utility grid.
 It does not required to have anti-islanding protection.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Grid-Tie Inverters
 It match phase with a utility-supplied sine wave.
 Grid-tie inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon
loss of
utility supply.
 They do not provide backup power during utility outages.
 Grid tie inverter converts DC power produced by PV array to AC
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Battery Backup Inverters
 These are special inverters which are designed to draw energy
from a battery.
 It manage the battery charge via an on board charger, and export
energy to the utility grid.
 These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to
selected loads during a utility outage
 The battery backup inverters are also required to be installed with an
antiislanding protection.
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A Solar Inverter
Hardware Requirements
 Bridge-MOSFETs drive
 Step up Transformer
 Voltage regulator
 MOSFET driver
 PWM inverter IC
 Solar Panel
 Battery
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
 An electrical battery is a combination of one or more
electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy
into electrical energy.
 The battery has become a common power source for many
robotics and industrial applications.
 Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone
exchanges or computer data centers.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
PWM Inverter IC
 The PWM Inverter is used to develop the PWM pulses based on
a fixed frequency using common oscillator.
 The IC SG3524 operates at a fixed frequency, the oscillation
frequency is
determined by one timing resistor RT and one timing capacitor CT.
 The SG3524 contains an inbuilt 5V regulator that supplies as a
reference voltage, also providing the SG3524 internal regulator
control circuitry.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
PWM Inverter IC
 Comparator provides a linear control of the output pulse
width (duration) by the error amplifier.
 The resultant PWM pulse from the comparator is passed to the
corresponding output pass transistor (Q1, Q2 refer block diagram)
using the pulse steering flip flop, which is synchronously toggled
by the oscillator output.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Inverter IC Block Diagram
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
 The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET,
MOS- FET, or MOS FET) is a device used for amplifying or
switching electronic signals.
 The basic principle of the device a voltage on the oxideinsulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel
between the two other contacts called source and drain.
 It is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog
circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time
much more common.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
BC547 (NPN –Transistor)
 The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
 It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification
series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
 The ratio of two currents (Ic/Ib) is called the DC Current Gain
of the device and is given the symbol of hfe or nowadays
Beta, (β).
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
BC547 (NPN –Transistor)
 The current gain from the emitter to the collector terminal, Ic/Ie, is
called Alpha, (α), and is a function of the transistor itself
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
Solar Panel
 Solar panel refers to a panel designed to
absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy
for generating electricity.
 Solar Panel is an array of Several solar
cells (Photovoltaic cells).
 The arrays can be formed by connecting
them in parallel or series connection
depending upon the energy required.
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A Solar Inverter
Working of Solar Panel and Inverter
 Expose the cell to light, and the energy from each photon (light
particle) hitting the silicon, will liberate an electron and a
corresponding hole.
 If this happens within range of the electric field’s influence, the
electrons will be sent to the N side and the holes to the P one,
resulting in yet further disruption of electrical neutrality.
 This flow of electrons is a current; the electrical field in the cell
causes a voltage and the product of these two is power.
 The solar energy is stored in the battery from Photo-Voltaic cells.
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A Solar Inverter
Working of Solar Panel and Inverter
 This stored energy of the battery is converted to AC supply of 50Hz
frequency using PWM inverter IC with MOSFET gate driver IC to the
driver MOSFET bridge and step-up the voltage by a transformer.
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A Solar Inverter
Needs Of Solar Power
 Electricity rate has hiked in last four years.
 We need to focus on alternate option because of environmental
 It has several advantages over other forms of electricity generation.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
About The Inverter
 This energy generated by the panel, in the form of direct current
(DC), is transmitted to the inverter. The job of the inverter is to
convert the DC power the solar panel has generated to
alternating current (AC) that is transmitted on the grid. The
inverter converts DC to AC by using two switches which convert
the positive only DC power to an alternating positive to negative
AC power.
 The inverter will then step up the voltage from 12 volts to 120volts,
which is the voltage used throughout the US electrical grid. This
conversion of voltage is what allows a 12 volt DC solar polar to be
tied into a 120 volt AC grid.
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A Solar Inverter
 High efficiency and outstanding energy harvest in a small
modular design.
 Ease of installation to save time and money.
 Is compatible with other GT Series models to
customize the inverters to the array.
 Central and micro inverters can be up to 95% efficient.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
 Cental inverters is difficult to do properly and is usually the
hardest part of designing a solar array.
 For central inverter, the output from your whole array can drop
significantly, if any one of the panel is shaded.
 Another weakness of a central inverter is that you won’t be
able to monitor how each individual panel is performing.
 Micro inverters are more expensive.
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A Solar Inverter
 Can use Solar Inverter for domestic application.
 It can be plugs in your house for your TV, computer, and other
 Can use Solar Power Inverters For Industrial Application.
Smarten power system
A Solar Inverter
 Inverters are usually about 95% efficient. Inverters play a
significant role in providing alternate current supplies at the times
of crucial power requirements. The primary use of solar inverters
is to convert direct current to alternating current through an
electrical switching process.
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