Download Prevention

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
DEFINITION
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), and it can pass on
during any kind of sexual contact. When a doctor diagnoses the issue early, they
can usually treat it effectively. But if a person does not receive treatment,
gonorrhea can result in long-term complications.
Gonorrhea is a notifiable disease, which means that a doctor must report all
diagnoses to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. This
information enables health authorities to plan treatment and prevention strategies.
Gonorrhea is usually easy to treat, but delaying treatment can result in serious, and
sometimes permanent, complications. For example, pelvic inflammatory disease
(PID) occurs in females when gonorrhea affects the uterus or fallopian tubes. It can
lead to infertility.
Possible complicationsTrusted Source in males with gonorrhea include
epididymitis, which is inflammation of the tube that carries sperm. This, too, can
result in infertility
OCCURRENCE OF GONORRHEA
The Gonorrhea mostly occur at:
 Male
 Female
 Adult
 Child
1
GONORRHEA SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
Gonorrhea symptoms in women
Women may not have any gonorrhea symptoms. When symptoms are present, they
may include:

Unusual vaginal discharge (white or yellow).

Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis.

Pain or burning when peeing.

Bleeding between periods.

Throat infection and pain (when infected due to oral sex).
Symptoms of gonorrhea in men
In men, symptoms include:

White or yellow discharge from the penis.

Pain or burning (possibly severe) when peeing.

Throat infection and pain.
CONTROL AND PREVENTION
Ways of avoiding gonorrhea include:

avoiding sexual activity if there is the possibility of infection

using a barrier method of protection, such as condoms, during vaginal or
anal intercourse

using condoms or dental dams during oral intercourse
2

only having sexual activity with a mutually monogamous partner who does
not have the infection
TREATMENT
Anyone with gonorrhea needs treatmentTrusted Source to stop the infection from
progressing. The treatment typically involves antibiotics.
It cannot repair any problems that the infection has already caused, so it is
important to receive treatment as soon as possible.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source recommend
a single dose of 250 milligrams of intramuscular ceftriaxone (Rocephin) and 1
gram of oral azithromycin (Zithromax). These are different types of antibiotics.
The CDC urge people to take all the medication that a doctor prescribes and to
avoid sharing it with anyone else.
However, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria that cause gonorrhea, have
developed resistance to nearly all the antibiotics that doctors have traditionally
used to treat it.
This resistance is making gonorrhea increasingly difficult to treat. If a person does
not notice any improvement in their symptoms after several days, they should
return to their healthcare provider. They may need further testing to determine
whether the treatment is working.
3
A person should also attend any follow-up appointments and avoid having sex
until a healthcare provider says that it is safe to do so.
If gonorrhea occurs during pregnancy, it is essential to let the healthcare team
know. The infection can pass on to the baby during delivery, so the newborn will
usually need antibiotics right away.
Some newborns develop conjunctivitis, and gonorrhea is one possible cause. The
symptoms usually appear 2–4 days Trusted Source after birth and include red eyes,
thick pus in the eyes, and swollen eyelids.
If any of these symptoms arise, seek medical attention immediately. They can also
result from a more serious condition, such as meningitis or bacteremia.
COMPLICATIONS
There are a number of severe complications of gonorrhea. For this reason, it is
important to receive treatment as soon as possible.
In females, gonorrhea can lead to:

PID

chronic pelvic pain

infertility

ectopic pregnancy, which can be a medical emergency
Further complications of the infection can occur during pregnancy and delivery.
Without treatment, it causes an increased risk of preterm labor or stillbirth.
4
Gonorrhea can also pass to the newborn, who can develop a joint infection, loss of
vision, or bacteremia — a life threatening blood infection — as a result.
In males, gonorrhea can lead to epididymitis, which can cause problems with
fertility.
CAUSES GONORRHEA
The cause of gonorrhea, the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, can infect the mucous
membranes of the reproductive tract in men and women, as well as those of the
mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum.

Being a sexually active female under 25

Being a man who has sex with men

Having a new sex partner

Having multiple sex partners or having sex with someone who has multiple sex
partners

Not using condoms consistently or correctly

Having a history of gonorrhea or another sexually transmitted disease
PEPTIC ULCERS
Definition
Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus,
or small intestine. They’re usually formed as a result of inflammation caused by
the bacteria H. pylori, as well as from erosion from stomach acids. Peptic ulcers
are a fairly common health problem.
There are three types of peptic ulcers:

gastric ulcers: ulcers that develop inside the stomach

esophageal ulcers: ulcers that develop inside the esophagus
5

duodenal ulcers: ulcers that develop in the upper section of the small
intestines, called the duodenum
CAUSES OF PEPTIC ULCERS
Different factors can cause the lining of the stomach, the esophagus, and the small
intestine to break down. These include:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a type of bacteria that can cause a stomach
infection and inflammation

frequent use of aspirin (Bayer), ibuprofen (Advil), and other antiinflammatory drugs (risk associated with this behavior increases in women
and people over the age of 60)

smoking

drinking too much alcohol

radiation therapy

stomach cancer
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PEPTIC ULCERS
The most common symptom of a peptic ulcer is burning abdominal pain that
extends from the navel to the chest, which can range from mild to severe. In some
cases, the pain may wake you up at night. Small peptic ulcers may not produce any
symptoms in the early phases.
Other common signs of a peptic ulcer include:

changes in appetite

nausea

bloody or dark stools
6

unexplained weight loss

indigestion

vomiting

chest pain
TREATMENT A PEPTIC ULCER
Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of your ulcer. If tests show that you
have an H. pylori infection, your doctor will prescribe a combination of
medication. You’ll have to take the medications for up to two weeks. The
medications include antibiotics to help kill infections and proton pump inhibitors
(PPIs) to help reduce stomach acid.
You may experience minor side effects like diarrhea or an upset stomach from
antibiotic regimens. If these side effects cause significant discomfort or don’t get
better over time, talk to your doctor.
If your doctor determines that you don’t have an H. pylori infection, they may
recommend a prescription or over-the-counter PPI (such as Prilosec or Prevacid)
for up to eight weeks to reduce stomach acid and help your ulcer heal.
Acid blockers like famotidine (Pepcid) can also reduce stomach acid and ulcer
pain. These medications are available as a prescription and also over the counter in
lower doses.
Your doctor may also prescribe sucralfate (Carafate) which will coat your stomach
and reduce symptoms of peptic ulcers.
COMPLICATIONS OF A PEPTIC ULCER
Untreated ulcers can become worse over time. They can lead to other more serious
health complications such as:
7

Perforation: A hole develops in the lining of the stomach or small intestine
and causes an infection. A sign of a perforated ulcer is sudden, severe
abdominal pain.

Internal bleeding: Bleeding ulcers can result in significant blood loss and
thus
require
hospitalization.
Signs
of
a
bleeding
ulcer
include lightheadedness, dizziness, and black stools.

Scar tissue: This is thick tissue that develops after an injury. This tissue
makes it difficult for food to pass through your digestive tract. Signs of scar
tissue include vomiting and weight loss.
All three complications are serious and may require surgery. Seek urgent medical
attention if you experience the following symptoms:

sudden, sharp abdominal pain

fainting, excessive sweating, or confusion, as these may be signs of shock

blood in vomit or stool

abdomen that’s hard to the touch

abdominal pain that worsens with movement but improves with lying
completely still
PREVENTION PEPTIC ULCERS
Certain lifestyle choices and habits can reduce your risk of developing peptic
ulcers. These include:

not drinking more than two alcoholic beverages a day

not mixing alcohol with medication

washing your hands frequently to avoid infections

limiting your use of ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen (Aleve)
8
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle by quitting smoking cigarettes and other tobacco
use and eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will help
you prevent developing a peptic ulcer.
SOURCES
https://www.healthline.com/health/peptic-ulcer#overview
https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/peptic-ulcer-overview
9
Related documents