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```4-1 DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
In this section, we see how we can represent digital
data by using digital signals. The conversion involves
three techniques: line coding, block coding, and
scrambling. Line coding is always needed; block
coding and scrambling may or may not be needed.
Topics discussed in this section:
 Line Coding
 Line Coding Schemes
 Block Coding
 Scrambling
4.1
Line Coding
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4.2
Converting a string of 1’s and 0’s
(digital data) into a sequence of signals
that denote the 1’s and 0’s.
For example a high voltage level (+V)
could represent a “1” and a low voltage
level (0 or -V) could represent a “0”.
Figure 4.1 Line coding and decoding
4.3
Line Coding
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Characteristics
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4.4
Signal Element Versus Data Element
Data Rate Versus Signal Rate
Bandwidth
Baseline Wandering
DC Components
Self-synchronization
Built-in Error Detection
Immunity to Noise and Interference
Complexity
Signal Element Versus Data Element
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4.5
In data communications, our goal is to send data
elements.
A data element is the smallest entity that can represent
a piece of information: this is the bit.
In digital data communications, a signal element carries
data elements.
A signal element is the shortest unit (timewise) of a
digital signal.
In other words, data elements are what we need to
send; signal elements are what we can send.
Data elements are being carried; signal elements are the
carriers.
Mapping Data symbols onto
Signal Elements
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A data symbol (or element) can consist of a
number of data bits:
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A data symbol can be coded into a single
signal element or multiple signal elements
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4.6
1 , 0 or
11, 10, 01, ……
1 -> +V, 0 -> -V
1 -> +V and -V, 0 -> -V and +V
The ratio ‘r’ is the number of data elements
carried by a signal element.
Figure 4.2 Signal element versus data element
4.7
Relationship between data
rate and signal rate
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4.8
The data rate defines the number of bits sent
per sec - bps. It is often referred to the bit
rate.
The signal rate is the number of signal
elements sent in a second and is measured in
bauds. It is also referred to as the modulation
rate.
Goal is to increase the data rate while
reducing the baud rate.
Data rate and Baud rate
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4.9
The baud or signal rate can be
expressed as:
S = c x N x 1/r bauds
where N is data rate
c is the case factor (worst, best & avg.)
r is the ratio between data element &
signal element
Example 4.1
A signal is carrying data in which one data element is
encoded as one signal element ( r = 1). If the bit rate is
100 kbps, what is the average value of the baud rate if c is
between 0 and 1?
Solution
We assume that the average value of c is 1/2 . The baud
rate is then
4.10
Bandwidth
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4.11
The bandwidth reflects the range of frequencies we need.
There is a relationship between the baud rate (signal rate) and the
bandwidth.
Bandwidth normally defines a range of frequencies.
We need to know where this range is located as well as the values of
the lowest and the highest frequencies.
Bandwidth (range of frequencies) is proportional to the signal rate
(baud rate).
The minimum bandwidth can be given as
Bmin = c X N X 1/ r
We can solve for the maximum data rate if the bandwidth of the
channel is given.
Nmax = 1/c x B x r
Note
Although the actual bandwidth of a
digital signal is infinite, the effective
bandwidth is finite.
4.12
Baseline wandering
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4.13
A receiver will evaluate the average power of
the received signal (called the baseline) and use
that to determine the value of the incoming
data elements. If the incoming signal does not
vary over a long period of time, the baseline will
drift and thus cause errors in detection of
incoming data elements.
A good line encoding scheme will prevent long
runs of fixed amplitude.
DC components
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4.14
When the voltage level in a digital signal is constant for a while, the
spectrum creates very low frequencies.
These frequencies around zero, called DC (direct-current)
components, present problems for a system that cannot pass low
frequencies or a system that uses electrical coupling
For example, a telephone line cannot pass frequencies below 200 Hz.
Also a long-distance link may use one or more transformers to isolate
different parts of the line electrically.
For these systems, we need a scheme with no DC component.
Self synchronization
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4.15
The clocks at the sender and the receiver must have the same bit
interval.
If the receiver clock is faster or slower it will misinterpret the
incoming bit stream.
110111000011 as receiver has shorter bit duration
A self-synchronizing digital signal includes timing information in the
data being transmitted.
This can be achieved if there are transitions in the signal that alert
the receiver to the beginning, middle, or end of the pulse.
If the receiver's clock is out of synchronization, these points can
reset the clock.
Figure 4.3 Effect of lack of synchronization
4.16
Example 4.3
In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent
faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per
1 kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps?
Solution
bps.
1,000,000 bps.
4.17
Built-in Error detection
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4.18
Errors occur during transmission due to
line impairments.
Some codes are constructed such that
when an error occurs it can be detected.
For example: a particular signal
transition is not part of the code. When
it occurs, the receiver will know that a
symbol error has occurred.
Immunity to Noise and Interference
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4.19
There are line encoding techniques that
make the transmitted signal “immune”
to noise and interference.
This means that the signal cannot be
corrupted, it is stronger than error
detection.
Complexity
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4.20
The more robust and resilient the code,
the more complex it is to implement
and the price is often paid in baud rate
or required bandwidth.
For example, a scheme that uses four
signal levels is more difficult to interpret
than one that uses only two levels.
Figure 4.4 Line coding schemes
4.21
4-3 TRANSMISSION MODES
The transmission of binary data across a link can be
accomplished in either parallel or serial mode. In
parallel mode, multiple bits are sent with each clock
tick. In serial mode, 1 bit is sent with each clock tick.
While there is only one way to send parallel data, there
are three subclasses of serial transmission:
asynchronous, synchronous, and isochronous.
Topics discussed in this section:
 Parallel Transmission
 Serial Transmission
4.22
Figure 4.31 Data transmission and modes
4.23
Parallel transmission
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4.24
In parallel transmission by grouping, we can send data n
bits at a time instead of 1.
The advantage of parallel transmission is speed.
 All else being equal, parallel transmission can increase
the transfer speed by a factor of n over serial
transmission
But there is a significant disadvantage: cost.
 Parallel transmission requires n communication lines
(wires in the example) just to transmit the data
stream.
 Because this is expensive, parallel transmission is
usually limited to short distances.
Figure 4.32 Parallel transmission
4.25
Serial transmission
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4.26
In serial transmission one bit follows another, so we need
only one communication channel rather than n to transmit
data between two communicating devices
The advantage of serial over parallel transmission is that
with only one communication channel, serial transmission
reduces the cost of transmission over parallel by roughly a
factor of n.
Since communication within devices is parallel, conversion
devices are required at the interface between the sender
and the line (parallel-to-serial) and between the line and
Serial transmission occurs in one of three ways:
asynchronous, synchronous, and isochronous.
Figure 4.33 Serial transmission
4.27
Serial transmission
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Asynchronous Transmission
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4.28
Asynchronous transmission is so named because the timing of a signal is
unimportant.
Information is received and translated by agreed upon patterns.
As long as those patterns are followed, the receiving device can retrieve the
information without regard to the rhythm in which it is sent
Patterns are based on grouping the bit stream into bytes.
The sending system handles each group independently, relaying it to the link
whenever ready, without regard to a timer.
To alert the receiver to the arrival of a new group extra bits are added to the
beginning and ending of each byte ,0 and 1 called the start bit and stop bits, stop
bits can be one or more.
By this method, each byte is increased in size to at least 10 bits, of which 8 bits is
information and 2 bits or more are signals to the receiver.
The transmission of each byte may then be followed by a gap of varying duration.
This gap can be represented either by an idle channel or by a stream of additional
stop bits.
Note
In asynchronous transmission, we send
1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or
more stop bits (1s) at the end of each
byte. There may be a gap between
each byte.
4.29
Serial transmission
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Asynchronous Transmission
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4.30
At the byte level, the sender and receiver do not have to be
synchronized.
But within each byte, the receiver must still be synchronized
with the incoming bit stream.
The receiving device resynchronizes at the onset of each new
byte.
When the receiver detects a start bit, it sets a timer and begins
counting bits as they come in.
After n bits, the receiver looks for a stop bit.
As soon as it detects the stop bit, it waits until it detects the
next start bit.
Note
Asynchronous here means
“asynchronous at the byte level,”
but the bits are still synchronized;
their durations are the same.
4.31
Figure 4.34 Asynchronous transmission
4.32
Serial transmission
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Asynchronous Transmission
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4.33
 The addition of stop and start bits and the insertion
of gaps into the bit stream makes transmission
slower
 Cheap and effective
 Eg: Keyboard connection to computer
 A user types only one character at a time, types
extremely slowly in data processing terms, and
leaves unpredictable gaps of time between each
character.
Synchronous Transmission
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4.34
In synchronous transmission, the bit
stream is combined into longer "frames,"
which may contain multiple bytes.
Data are transmitted as an unbroken
string of 1s and 0s, and the receiver
separates that string into the bytes, or
characters, it needs to reconstruct the
information
Note
In synchronous transmission, we send
bits one after another without start or
stop bits or gaps. It is the responsibility
of the receiver to group the bits. The bits
are usually sent as bytes and many
bytes are grouped in a frame. A frame is
identified with a start and an end byte.
4.35
Figure 4.35 Synchronous transmission
4.36
Synchronous Transmission
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4.37
If the sender wishes to send data in separate bursts, the gaps between
bursts must be filled with a special sequence of 0s and 1s that means idle.
The receiver counts the bits as they arrive and groups them in 8-bit units
Timing becomes very important because the accuracy of the received
information is completely dependent on the ability of the receiving device to
keep an accurate count of the bits as they come in.
Advantage of synchronous transmission is speed.
With no extra bits or gaps to introduce at the sending end and remove at
the receiving end synchronous transmission is faster than asynchronous
transmission.
For this reason, it is more useful for high-speed applications such as the
transmission of data from one computer to another.
Although there is no gap between characters in synchronous serial
transmission, there may be uneven gaps between frames
Isochronous
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4.38
In Real time audio and video have uneven
delays between frames which is not acceptable
For example, TV images are broadcast at the
rate of 30 images per second; they must be
viewed at the same rate.
In isochronous transmission there are no
uneven gaps between frames
The isochronous transmission guarantees that
the data arrive at a fixed rate.
```
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