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Research I
Quarter 3 – Module 5:
Research Proposal
Research I – Grade 9
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 3 – Module 5: Research Proposal
First Edition, 2021
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Research I
Quarter 3 – Module 5:
Research Proposal
Introductory Message
This Self-Learning Module (SLM) is prepared so that you, our dear learners,
can continue your studies and learn while at home. Activities, questions, directions,
exercises, and discussions are carefully stated for you to understand each lesson.
Each SLM is composed of different parts. Each part shall guide you step-bystep as you discover and understand the lesson prepared for you.
Pre-tests are provided to measure your prior knowledge of lessons in each
SLM. This will tell you if you need to proceed with completing this module or if you
need to ask your facilitator or your teacher’s assistance for a better understanding
of the lesson. At the end of each module, you need to answer the post-test to selfcheck your learning. Answer keys are provided for each activity and test. We trust
that you will be honest in using these.
In addition to the material in the main text, notes to the Teacher are also
provided to our facilitators and parents for strategies and reminders on how they can
best help you with your home-based learning.
Please use this module with care. Do not put unnecessary marks on any part
of this SLM. Use a separate sheet of paper in answering the exercises and tests. And
read the instructions carefully before performing each task.
If you have any questions in using this SLM or any difficulty in answering the
tasks in this module, do not hesitate to consult your teacher or facilitator.
Thank you.
What I Need to Know
This module was designed and written with you in mind. It is here to help you
master the nature of the research proposal. The scope of this module permits it to be
used in many different learning situations. The language used recognizes the diverse
vocabulary level of students. The activities are arranged to follow the standard
sequence of the course. However, the order in which you read them can be changed
to correspond with the textbook you are now using.
The module contains:
Lesson 1 – Research Proposal
(Formulate a good research proposal – MELC Q3W6-8)
After going through this module, you are expected to:
describe the parts of a research proposal,
develop a researchable topic,
formulate a research question and hypothesis,
create a research title, and
determine the elements of an introduction/rationale.
What I Know
Directions: Read each question carefully. Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which of the following best describes a research proposal?
a. statement of the dos and don’ts of research
b. written structure of the data gathered in experiment
c. a plan on how the experimentation will be conducted
d. a detailed written plan of how the project will be done
2. Which
of the following formulate a cause-and-effect hypothesis?
People smoke a cigarette as a hobby.
People who smoke are proven to have a shorter life span.
Smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the last 10 years.
If you smoke cigarettes, then your chances of getting cancer increase.
3. What is a possible explanation that we may or may not agree with?
4. Which statement signifies a null hypothesis?
a. A good study habit results in good grades.
b. A good study habit increases students’ grades.
c. A good study habit affects the grades of the students.
d. A good study habit does not affect the grades of the students.
5. Which of the following is NOT an element in a research proposal?
a. experimentation
b. hypothesis
c. problem
d. rationale
6. Which are the four (4) essential elements of a research proposal?
a. Introduction, Rationale, Methodology, Conclusion
b. Introduction, Related Literature, Methodology, Conclusion
c. Rationale, Problem, Description of Methodology, Bibliography
d. Rationale, Related Literature, Description of Methodology, Bibliography
7. Which of the following are excellent sources for research topics?
a. myths
b. dreams
c. personal experience
d. replication of prior research
8. What does a research problem determine?
a. length of report
b. the methodology used
c. support from teachers
d. research skills of the researcher
9. Which is NOT part of the introduction/rationale?
a. significance of the study
b. overview of the previous relevant research
c. research question, hypothesis, and objectives
d. analysis of the data and conclusions based on the results
10. Which of the following statements exhibits the scope of the study?
a. area of focus
b. literature review
c. previous research study
d. narrowed research area
Research Proposal
A science investigatory project (SIP) refers to a science-based research project
or study that is performed by science research students. A SIP is typically a science
experiment performed in a school laboratory setting with the class separated into
small groups and can form part of a scientific congress or fair project. It aims to
provide students with an engaging way to learn more about science and the skills of
performing scientific research.
Students often find it difficult to start making an investigatory project.
However, taking the investigatory project by phase makes it easier.
Phases of Conducting Science Investigatory Project:
Phase I: The Proposal - detailed written plan and design of the
Phase II: The Experimentation – soon after the proposal is approved,
and entails skills for laboratory investigation
Phase III. The Output – consist of the written report, the exhibit, and
oral defense
The proposal is a detailed written plan of how the project will be done. It is
like designing an experiment. It is simply a structured, formal document that
explains what you plan to research (i.e., research topic), why it is worth researching
(i.e., significance and relevance), and how you plan to investigate it (i.e.,
methodology). Since it is yet to be done, the future tense of the verbs is used.
Important points to remember:
An organized, well-written, concise, and complete proposal is the key
to conduct a more straightforward experiment.
In the world of scientific research, a good proposal leads to secure
possible funding.
Good writing, when paired with a thorough understanding of the
subject matter, is a valuable skill to possess.
What’s In
In our previous lesson about experimental design, you were introduced to the
experimental processes. These different processes can all be checked off during the
design phase of an experiment. If all the parts of the experiment have been accounted
for and considered carefully before the experiment is started it is more likely to be a
successful and beneficial experience for the student.
A hypothesis is a prediction for the outcome of the experiment. Normally
stating a hypothesis is using an independent and dependent variable following the
format, “If the (Independent Variable) is (describe change), then the (Dependent
Variable) will (describe change).”
After developing your initial research hypothesis (the prediction that you want
to investigate), it is important to restate the null (Ho), and alternative (Ha)
hypothesis in terms of the population parameter. The alternate hypothesis is usually
your initial hypothesis that predicts a relationship between variables. The null
hypothesis is a prediction of no relationship between the variables you are interested
Let us Practice Formulating Hypothesis
Directions: Formulate hypothesis (Cause-and-Effect, Null, and Alternative) for each
of the statements.
1. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of lung cancer.
Hypothesis: If _______________________________, then ______________________.
Null hypothesis: _________________________________________________________
Alternative hypothesis: ___________________________________________________
2. A statistics class suspects that students at their school are getting less than
8 hours of sleep on average. To test their theory, they randomly sample 42
students and ask them how many hours of sleep they get per night. The mean
from the sample is x=7.5.
A. Complete the sentence with appropriate null and alternative hypotheses
for their significance test. (Note: Do not state hypothesis in terms of sample
value, use population value)
The average amount of sleep students at their school get per night is...
Ho: _______________________________________________________________________
Ha: _______________________________________________________________________
B. Which of the hypothesis is accepted? Why?
What’s New
What do I want to Know?
Directions: Read each question carefully. Relate each question to your interest either
in life and physical sciences or engineering projects. Your honesty and
open-minded attitude in answering the questions will help you develop
higher-order thinking skills and better prepare you to develop a study.
Guide Questions:
1. WHAT DO YOU WANT TO KNOW? (What is the problem, issue, or specific topic?)
2. WHY DO YOU WANT TO KNOW IT? (What good will it bring if you will know it?)
3. WHAT DO YOU THINK THE ANSWER IS? (What is the tentative answer?)
What is It
Before any research project begins, detailed plans are essential. Designing and
planning a whole research project involves choosing a researchable topic and
preparing a well-developed research proposal. These activities need to be carried out
under the guidance of a teacher-coach and qualified scientist who will advise on
methodological issues and reading materials that will help refine the research
project. Ultimately, a good proposal serves as a valuable direction finder that helps
the researchers to get going on their project with more confidence.
A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it is important,
and how you will do the research. The format of a research proposal varies between
fields, but most scientific research proposals should contain at least these elements:
A. Rationale/Introduction
B.1. Research Question
2. Hypothesis or Engineering Goal(s) (for engineering project only)
C. Detailed description of the following:
1. Procedures
a. Materials
b. Methods
2. Risk and Safety Considerations
3. Data Analysis
D. Bibliography
Note: Subject-specific guidelines for additional items to be included in your research
Let us begin to unfold the elements of a scientific research proposal. In this
module, you will be guided in choosing a topic and will lead you to develop the
rationale, question/problem, and hypothesis. Other elements will be discussed in the
next module.
Good topic
The ability to develop a good research topic is an important skill. A teacher
may assign a specific topic, but most often, the researcher is required to select a
topic of interest.
Use the following guide questions to help generate topic ideas:
Do you have a strong opinion on current social, health, and
environmental issues?
Did you read or see a news story recently that has caught your interest
or made you think about it?
What is the science-related topic of interest that you would like to know
more about?
What Makes a Good Research Topic?
A topic must be narrowed and focused enough to be interesting yet
broad enough to find adequate information.
When you “think like a researcher” you are focused on a research
question rather than a research topic.
Be able to articulate the problem that underlies the question.
This problem must have social significance.
The solution being argued for in the proposal must be arguable and
feasible based on reliable evidence.
Let us take a
What is the
issue or
topic that
look at a sample topic:
What is the
What is a
problem that
makes your
you want to investigating?
investigate? Is this an
problem or an
Agricultural Are fruits
farming may
grown on
with pesticide
leaving the
than those
plants with
grown on
conventional contamination
of toxic
Figure 1: Development of a research topic
Does your
problem have
What is your
proposal for
addressing this
Is your
proposal both
arguable &
should choose
foods grown
Furthermore, consider the other practicalities such as the requirements of the
curriculum, the amount of time the research should be completed, and how difficult
it will be to access sources and data on the topic before moving onto the next stage.
Note: Connect your chosen topic to the ISEF Categories and Subcategories. Click on the
link: subcategories/
Research Title
The title summarizes the main idea or ideas of a study. A good title contains
the fewest possible words needed to adequately describe the content and/or purpose
of the research paper. It is the part of a paper that is read the most, and it is usually
read first, therefore, the most important element that defines the research study.
Create a Working Title
The working title should be developed early in the research process because
it can help anchor the focus of the study in much the same way the research problem
does. It can help reorient the researcher back to the main purpose of the study if
went wandering while writing.
Effective titles have several characteristics that reflect general principles:
Indicate accurately the subject and scope of the study.
Suggest a relationship between variables that supports the major
Highlight the research problem under investigation.
Is limited to 10 to 15 substantive words.
Takes the form of a declarative statement and does not use an
exclamation mark at the end.
Is concise and comprehensive.
Like your hypothesis, the title of your experiment also has a specific
arrangement that shows the relationship between the independent and dependent
variables. It is written in the following format:
“The effect of (Independent Variable) on the (Dependent Variable).”
Example: “The Effect of (Pesticides) on the (Contamination of Plants).”
Typically, a final title is created after the research is completed so that the title
accurately captures what has been done. It describes (a) the topic, (b) the method,
(c) the sample, and (d) the results of your study. (Detailed discussion of the final title
in the next module)
A research problem is a specific issue, difficulty, contradiction, or knowledge
gap which aims to be addressed. It pinpoints exactly what the study wants to find
out and gives a clear focus and purpose.
Main Problem
A broad problem area is the under-explored aspect, concern, conflict, or
controversy. The goal is to find a gap that the research project can fill. Identify this
main problem by reading reports, following up on previous research, and talking to
people who work and are experts in the relevant field. The main research problem is
usually divided into more manageable sub-problems. When writing the problem,
formulate it as a problem statement or research question.
Sub‐problems are solved to solve the overall research problem or sub‐
questions are answered to answer the overall research question.
A good research question is essential to guide your scientific research paper
or project. It pinpoints exactly what the study wants to find out and gives a clear
focus and purpose.
The kind of question to be used depends on what to discover and the type of
research to be conducted. Scientific questions require explanations, prior knowledge
and are testable. A testable question can be answered by designing and conducting
an experiment. Note: Use prior knowledge regarding scientifically testable questions.
Let us look at our examples:
Main Problem: What are the effects of using conventional farming?
1. What are the major components used in conventional farming?
2. What are the effects of chemically made pesticides when used on plants?
3. What are the health and environmental issues related to the use of pesticides?
4. What is an efficient alternative to counter the issues?
A hypothesis is an educated guess about the answer to the problem/question
or sub-problems/question will be. When the problems or questions have been stated,
then formulate one of the hypotheses.
Can you formulate hypotheses with the example problems on conventional
Let us state first the title:
“The Effect of Pesticides on the Contamination of Plants”
Then, formulate hypotheses on one of the problems:
“If the amount of pesticides given on plants increases, then their
contamination increases.
Ha: An increase in the amount of pesticides given to plants will increase their
Ho: An increase in the amount of pesticides given to plants will not increase
their contamination.
Hypothesis vs. Engineering Goals
Engineering projects are different from controlled experiments. While
scientists study how nature works and discover new knowledge about the universe,
engineers create or construct new things such as products, websites, environments,
and experiences. Because engineers and scientists have different objectives, they
follow different processes in their work. Scientists perform experiments using the
scientific method, whereas engineers follow the creativity-based engineering design
In real life, the distinction between science and engineering is not always clear.
Scientists often do some engineering work, and engineers frequently apply scientific
principles, including the scientific method. Your project may fall in the gray area
between science and engineering, and that is all right. Many projects, even if related
to engineering, can use the scientific method. However, if your project’s objective is
to invent a new product, computer program, experience, or environment, it makes
sense to follow the engineering design process.
These are the steps of each process in the flowcharts:
Figure 3: Scientific Method vs. Engineering Goal
Both processes can be broken down into a series of steps, as seen in the
diagram table:
The Scientific Method
The Engineering Design Process
State your question
Define the problem
Do background research
Do background research
Formulate your hypothesis,
identify variables
Specify requirements
Design experiment, establish
a procedure
Create alternative solutions, choose the
best one, and develop it
Test your hypothesis by doing
an experiment
Build a prototype
Analyze your results and
draw conclusions
Test and redesign as necessary
Communicate results
Communicate results
Figure 4: Diagram of Scientific Method and Engineering Goal
The rationale for research outlines why you wanted to research the topic of
your choice. It is the justification of the study and specifies the need to research the
Begin by doing a thorough literature review to understand what is already
known. Then, identify the gaps in knowledge or the problems that are yet to be solved.
Justify that the study will address a knowledge gap since no previous research was
done on this aspect. Explain the problem that the study addresses. Then, give a brief
background of the problem. After that, you should mention if it has been addressed
in any form before. It will lead up to the research question and the aims of the study.
These key elements are summarized as:
• Present the topic and get the reader interested - what is the topic and why
it is interesting or important.
• Provide background or summarize existing research - provide an overview
of the most relevant research that has already been conducted and a sort
of miniature literature review.
• Detail the specific research problem - clarify how the research fits in and
what problem it addresses.
• Position your approach - specify what it intends to find out by presenting
the research question, hypothesis, and objectives clearly and directly.
An example of a rationale is shown below with the key elements:
Ever since there has been urbanization and
industrialization, the population explosion has also
been one of the causes of concern for
environmentalists and governments alike. To fulfill
the hunger of our growing population, harmful
agricultural practices have been employed to
increase crop production and decrease the time of
production through artificial ways. These ways
include the use of chemical fertilizers, harmful
insecticides to improve the production rate of the
crops. While these techniques might help farmers to
improve their yield, they are short-sighted of the
adverse effect of these on human health and the natural
cycle in the ecosystem. More so, a further increase in
the chemically made pesticides given to plants then
also increases the contamination of the food we
consume. Hence organic farming is given full attention
as an alternative strategy…
Bold – Background
Italic – Problem
Underline - Hypothesis
It is on this premise that the researcher is prompted to
investigate the chemical pesticides commonly used in
agricultural farming practices. It aims to….
Figure 2: Sample rationale
Other Elements of Rationale/Introduction
A. Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is a written statement that explains why your
research was needed. It is a justification of the importance of your work and the
impact it has on your research field, its contribution to new knowledge, and how
others will benefit from it.
In the example rationale, the knowledge gap may be the adverse effect of
pesticides on plants, its chain effects on humans as consumers, and the balance in
the ecosystem. The broad significance of the study would be in the understanding of
conventional farming using these chemically made pesticides. The specific
contribution has been to show a significant difference in the use of the alternative
solution to the problem, its benefits, and the improvements it offers.
B. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Scope and delimitations are important elements of a study. The scope of a
study explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and
specifies the parameters within which the study will be in use.
In the above example, the researcher wants to know the effect of pesticides on
the contamination of plants. However, there is only a certain aspect the researcher
can cover, so the scope will have to be narrowed down to a certain section like what
specific chemicals are involved and on what specific plants will be used as
experimental units, and the method of testing to be performed.
Other practices in agricultural farming like chemical fertilizers, fungicides,
herbicides, and insecticides related to the contamination of plants will not be
investigated. These would form the delimitations of the study.
What’s More
ACTIVITY 1: Developing Topics
Directions: Develop the topics accordingly and find keywords to use for gathering
Guide Questions:
1. What are two narrow areas you could investigate that fit into these very broad
Bacteria/Virus: _______________________ ; _____________________________________
Plants: _______________________________ ; _____________________________________
2. What broader topic would cover the following narrow topics? In other words,
how could you expand these topics to find more information?
Organic fertilizer: _________________________________________________________
Graphene: ________________________________________________________________
3. What are the five keywords to be used to gather information on each
How does air quality affect our health?
_______________; ______________; ______________; ________________; ______________
What are the possible measures to prevent Corona Virus?
_______________; ______________; ______________; ________________; ______________
Activity 2: Rationale
Directions: Read the article below and write the portion of the key element being
Daphnia magna are small zooplankton found in freshwater inland
lakes and are thought to switch their mode of reproduction from asexual to
sexual in response to extreme temperatures (Mitchell 1999). Lakes containing
D. magna have an average summer surface temperature of 20°C (Harper
1995) but may increase by more than 15% when expose to warm water
effluent from power plants, paper mills, and chemical industry (Baker et al.
2000). Could an increase in lake temperature caused by industrial thermal
pollution affect the survivorship and reproduction of D. magna?
We hypothesized that D. magna (study organism) populations reared in
water temperatures ranging from 24-26 °C (independent variable) would have
lower survivorship, higher [direction] male/female ratio among the offspring,
and more female offspring carrying ephippia (dependent variables) as
compared with D. magna grown in water temperatures of 20-22°C.
Guide Questions:
1. Write a good title for the article.
2. Write the background of the study.
3. Write the question/problem.
4. Write the hypothesis.
What Have I Learned
Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect.
_________1. An organized, well-written, concise, and complete proposal is the key in
conducting an easier experiment.
_________2. An ideal research proposal ranges from 3-7 pages only.
_________3. Ideally, a research proposal should contain a detailed literature review.
_________4. A scientific research proposal should contain a conclusion.
_________5. A good topic must be narrowed and focused, yet broad enough to find
adequate information.
_________6. Both testable and non-testable questions require experimentation to be
_________7. The first step to do when developing your rationale is a thorough
literature review.
_________8. If the objective of your project is to invent a new product, then it makes
sense to follow the engineering design process.
_________9. In the engineering goal/process, a prototype is used to test or validate
ideas and design.
_________10. Scientific method uses prototype to test a hypothesis.
What I Can Do
Directions: Choose a good topic to start a research proposal.
1. Select three broad topics you find interesting. List them according to your
1st choice: ________________________________________
2nd choice: ________________________________________
3rd choice: ________________________________________
2. Based on the three broad topics you have selected, list two narrow topics you
find most interesting.
1st choice: ______________________________; _____________________________
2nd choice: ______________________________; _____________________________
3rd choice: ______________________________; _____________________________
3. Present these narrowed topics to the teacher for additional inputs and final
approval on which topic is feasible and researchable.
4. Read articles, journals, and published papers related to the approved topic.
5. Develop and write the research proposal in the fillable template. Be guided
using the rubric for the research plan. (Note: Modified version of the research
proposal template and rubric are provided below).
A complete research proposal is
required for ALL projects.
Category (Field of Study – if applicable)
Research Teacher
Question or Problem being addressed
Hypothesis/Engineering Goals
A brief synopsis of the background that supports your research problem and
explains why this research is important scientifically and, if applicable, explain your
research's societal impact.
Review Related Literature (IMRAD format includes this part in the introduction,
however, it is a good practice to have a file of the sources used in the study)
Provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic
and demonstrate how the current study fits within a larger field of study.
Materials List
List of ALL items used in research. Ensure concentrations of all chemicals, source
and amount of all living organisms, and all equipment used.
Procedures (Research Methods)
DETAIL description of method/procedures, risk and safety, and proper disposal (if
needed). See statements ABOVE for more information.
To be completed AFTER experimentation.
List at least five (5) major references (e.g., scientific journal articles, books, internet
sites) from the literature review. Please use a variety of sources; five sources from
the internet will NOT suffice.
Rubric for Research Plan
Tentative Title:
A. Rationale for the
• Include a brief
synopsis of the
background that
supports your
research problem (3)
• Explain why this
research is important
• Include at least 2
internal citations in
APA format (2)
B. Research
Expected Outcome,
Engineering Goals(s)
• Is there a clear
connection between
this section & the
rationale above (3)
If Experimental
• Research Question is
clearly stated &
specific and logical
• Hypothesis clearly
stated with
explanation: specific
cause & effect
identified (3)
If Engineering
• If an engineering
project, goals are
specific & clearly
stated (6)
C. Procedures
• Sequential & detailed
• Includes Risk &
Safety (1)
If Experimental
• Tests hypothesis that
is stated in the above
section (2)
• Method for data
collection clearly
state (2)
• Control &
experimental group
identified & designed
correctly (2)
• Repeated Trials used
If Engineering
• Clear building plan
(thought was given to
materials) (4)
• Method of testing (4)
D. Bibliography
• Minimum of at least
major journal
articles, must
pertain to project
topic in proper APA
format (10) (minus 1
point for each error
in references, max 5
• No spacing within
citation, single space
between citations (2)
• 2-point bonus for 10
or more references
(can only receive
E. Format
• FUTURE tense (2)
• A, B, C, D Format (2)
• Times New
Roman/Size 12 font,
Double Spaced (2)
• Title – Bold-faced
and centered (2)
• Research Plan is
written above title (2)
Total Points Earned
Date of Submission
Numeric Value
Directions: Read each question carefully. Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which of the following is the best way to do research?
a. use a variety of sources
b. use electronic sources only
c. use books and magazines only
d. use as few resources as possible
2. Which is not part of developing the research plan??
a. choosing a topic
b. listing of sources
c. writing a conclusion
d. developing questions
3. Which of the following is NOT to be considered when choosing a topic?
a. budget
b. peer pressure
c. time to complete
d. available sources and data
4. Which part of the proposal states the background of the study?
a. hypothesis
b. problem
c. rationale
d. topic
5. Which statement describes the purpose of a research proposal?
a. document to critique the related study of other researchers
b. reference document to show how the research was carried out
c. document for scientific scrutiny for others to judge the appropriateness of
the project
d. overall plan, structure, and strategy designed to obtain answers to the
research questions
6. Which of the following is the correct order to write a research proposal?
a. Problem, Topic, Rationale, Methodology, Hypothesis
b. Rationale, Problem, Hypothesis, Methodology, Topic
c. Topic, Rationale, Hypothesis, Problem, Methodology
d. Topic, Rationale, Problem, Hypothesis, Methodology
7. What is being tested when a researcher must perform multiple trials in an
a. accuracy
b. errors
c. significance
d. validity
8. What process is to be conducted when the objective of your project is to invent
a new product?
survey study
trial and error
engineering goal
scientific method
9. Which of the following is NOT to be undertaken in the engineering goal?
a. build a prototype
b. identify a problem
c. gather information
d. formulate hypothesis
10. What is required for a testable question to be answered?
a. classification
b. experimentation
c. observation
d. prediction
Additional Activities
Directions: In addition to the five (5) references required by the ISEF, find five (5)
more references other than the ones used in your proposal. Use science
journal articles, books, and internet sites. Follow the correct APA format.
Journal articles:
Internet sites:
1. a
2. c
3. b
4. c
5. d
6. c
7. d
8. c
9. d
10. b
What’s More
What’s More
Additional Activities
Answers may vary for this
additional activity depending
on the submitted references
by the students.
What Can I Do
Answers may vary
depending on the students’
presented research
Activity 2:
3. Question:
Could an increase in lake
temperature caused by
industrial thermal
pollution affect the
survivorship and
reproduction of D. magna?
4. Hypothesis:
We hypothesized that D.
magna… compared with
D. magna grown in water
temperatures of 20-22°C.
What’s New
What’s In
2. Ho- not equal to 8 hours
answer may
Ha- less than 8 hours
Alternative hypothesis is
accepted because based on
the result, the students
mean sleep hors is 7.5
which is less than 8 hours
and they predicted that
their hour of sleep is less
than 8 hours.
Activity 1:
Students’ answers may vary
depending on the
topic/problem presented.
Activity 2:
1. Title may vary.
2. Background of the study
Daphnia magna are small
zooplankton found in
freshwater inland lakes and
are thought to switch their
mode of… by more than 15%
when expose to warm water
effluent from power plants,
paper mills, and chemical
industry (Baker et al. 2000).
What's In
1. Hypothesis: If cigarette
smoking increases, then the
risk of lung cancer also
Alternative hypothesis:
Cigarette smoking will
increase the risk of lung
What I Have
1. True
2. True
3. False
4. False
5. True
6. False
7. True
8. True
9. True
10. False
What I Know
Null Hypothesis: Cigarette
smoking will not increase the
risk of lung cancer.
Answer Key
Electronic Sources
International Rules: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs 2019– 2020,” Accessed January 2, 2021.
ISEF Categories and Subcategories.” Accessed January 3, 2021. subcategories/
Info for All. Accessed January 10, 2021.
Harris, Michelle and Batzli, Janet. “Writing an Introduction for a Scientific Paper.”
Accessed January 8, 2021.
MacCombes, Shona. “Developing strong research questions.” Last modified October
22, 2020.
“Science Investigatory Project.” Last Modified October 2009.
Science Buddies. n.d. “Comparing the Engineering Design Process and the
Scientific Method.” Science Buddies. Science Buddies. Accessed January 10,
Wichmanowski, S. Taylor. “Experimental Design Worksheet Scientific Method.”
Last modified July 29, 2014.
“Writing null and alternative hypotheses.” Accessed January 20, 2021.
For inquiries or feedback, please write or call:
Department of Education – Region III – Division of Angeles City
Jesus St., Pulungbulu, Angeles City
Telephone No.: (045) 322-5722; 322-4702; 888-0582; 887-6099
E-mail Address: [email protected]
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