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 Early humans built primarily for shelter,
using simple methods.
Building materials came from the land,
and fabrication was dictated by the limits
of the materials and the builder’s hands and
structures,, like beams and arches
could be also observed in nature
 Building design was
all about repeating what was already known
Until about 1850, structural design was largely an art.
 Usage of iron material in buildings was
a new era in structural building
• Iron (tools, weapon)
• Cast ironiron-very high carbon content >2 percent
bridges-1779 Coalbrookdale Bridge)
• Wrought ironiron-very low carbon content<0.15 percent
(second half of 18.century18.century1850 Britannia Bridge)
• Steel
Steel-- carbon content from 0.15 percent to 1.7 percent
(second half of 19.century19.centuryEads Bridge
Bridge and high rise buildingbuilding1874 Eads Bridge, St. Louis Missouri)
Eiffel Tower
Cast iron bridges
The Coalbrookdale Bridge (1779)
Span : 30m
Still used.
This bridge was a turning point in engineering
history because it changed the course of the
Industrial Revolution by introducing iron as a
structural material.
Thomas Wilson's Wear Bridge
Telford's Mythe Bridge
Southwark Bridge
Span 73 m.
The longest cast iron bridge.
Pont du Caroussel Bridge
Span : 3x48 m
Her biri 48m olan üç açıklıktan
Grandfey ViaductViaduct-Fribourg
Span : 7x 49m
Wrough iron
Steel bridges
Eads BridgeBridge- St. Louis,
Louis, Missouri
Span : 159 m
Garabit Viaduct
Viaduct--South of France
Span : 165 m
During the construction
42000 ton steel and 4600 workers is used.
Firth of Forth Bridge
(1883 – 1890
Maximum Span : 521 m
Bayonne Bridge
Bridge-- New Jersey
Span : 504 m
Sydney Harbour Bridge
Span : 503 m
The first cast iron and steel buildings
St George's Church
Everton, UK (1812(1812-14)
Bibliotheque Nationale
White doors (1726), Wales
Oxford Museum (1860)
Bibliotheque Sainte Geneviève
The first cast iron and steel industrial buildings
Albert Dock Buildings, Liverpool
Charles Bage's Flax Mill,
Shrewsbury, (1796
Greene's Boat House
Sheerness, UK (1858)
Gardener's store
furniture,, Glasgow
Menier Chocolate Factory
sur--Marne, (1872
Eiffel Tower (Gustave Eiffel, Paris, France
France,, 1887 ~ 1889)
9000 ton wrought iron
The second step in the development of steel construction is
the use of welded joints in the beginning of 20th century
Advancement in the methods of analysis turned design
from art into science.
Since those beginnings, steel has been vastly improved in
both material and in methods and types of applications.
The largest boom for steel building construction began
during World War II when airplane hangars were produced
utilizing an all steel construction for military use. Many
structures were produced and required only the use of a
small labour force and hand tools to assemble and, if
necessary, could later just easily be disassembled and
moved to another location.
Cost of labour and materials started to increase in the
following years and being economic become as important as
The necessity to be sensitive in preserving environment and
ing natural sources is a point that has to be taken into
(Safety, economy, aesthetics, environment and sustainability)
Tyne BridgeBridge-Newcastle
Milennium Bridge
(Safety, economy, aesthetics, environment and
Structural design may be defined as a mixture of art and
science,, combining the experienced engineer’s intuitive
feeling for the behaviour of a structure with a sound
knowledge of principles of statics, dynamics,
mechanics of materials and structural analysis,
produce a safe economical structure which will serve its
intended purpose. At the same time it is necessary to be
sensitive to preserve environment and natural materials in
structural design. So structural design should be safe,
economic, aesthetic and sustainable.
2.1 Responsibilities of the structural
Structures must have enough strength, rigidity and
toughness while they are used and at the same time they
should have enough safety to overcome extra possible
loads or loss of elements resistance
resistance.. Provisions must be
made for overload or understrength
In general, the expression for structural safety
requirement may be written as,
Rn iQi
Left side represents the design resistance or strength and
right side represents the factored loads.
Φ: Resistance factor < 1
γ : Load factor >1
 The study what constitutes the proper formulation of
structural safety has been continuing during nearly the past
30 years. (Failure occurring in a member, connection or
 Limit states are the conditions of a structure at which it
ceases to fulfill its intended function. These are
Strength (safety): Behavioral phenomena as achieving
maximum strength, buckling, fatigue, fracture, overturning
and sliding.
erviceability:: Concerned with occupancy of building
(deflection, vibration, permanent deformation and
Failure of structures
 Insufficient attention to the details of connections, erection
problems, and foundation problems.
 To neglect some of the forces acting on the connection.
 Insufficient bearing or anchorage.
 Foundation settlements cause a large number of structural
failures like cracks.
 Inadequate attention to deflection or vibration.
 For steel structures some structural failures occur because
inadequate attention is given to , fatigue of members,
bracing against swaying, stability of members or system,
buckling of compression members, lateral buckling of
beams. When structure is completed, it should be
sufficiently braced with floors, walls, connections, and
special bracing. During erection some special temporary
bracing may be required.
All the factors affecting the total cost of the structure have
to be taken into consideration
consideration.. And the designer needs to
keep in mind the factors that can lower cost without
sacrifice of strength
strength.. (The use of standard size members,
simple connections and details, and members and materials
that will not require an unreasonable amount of maintance
through the years
The structure should be aesthetic and in harmony with the
environment.. Appearance may often be the major factor in
selecting the type of structure
 The construction and use of buildings, roads and
bridges have an effect on the environment.
 “Natural resources are used to a minimum, energy is
used economically and pollution is reduced.”
 The choice of materials by contractors; architects and
engineers has ecological importance.
 It is essential to respect the environment, row
materials and natural resources.
 The extraction and transport of row materials; the
production and manufacture of construction materials;
transport to the site; construction and its
maintenance; and ability to recycle materials must be
 Sustainability is “respond to the needs of the present
without compromising the capacity of future
generations to respond to theirs”
 Human
 The success of the project has to be measured on
ecological, economic and social sustainability
 For sustainability, cost of whole life cycle of the
building should be calculated and evaluated with
economy and environmental effects.
 Sustainable development means optimising the
utilisation of row materials and energy during their
entire life cycle, and reducing to a minimum any
adverse effects on the environment.
It needs four processes to make a complete steel structure.
Production, Detailing
Detailing,, Fabrication
Fabrication,, Erection
Production & Recycling
Generally, high quality steel can be produced from steel
scraps within 3 hours. These scraps are collected with a
crane and they are put in a furnace having at 75MW
current (electricity) for 60 minutes with carbon
electrodes. Then, the molten metal is poured into the
container of required shape.
The properties of steel are varied by its carbon content
because it is the major composition of steel with iron. As
per the requirements, Mn, Ni and Cr also are added to
make changes the properties of steel. Finally, the
chemical composition and physical properties are
checked. The unshaped steel pieces are in the form of
flats, billets, ingots and near net shapes before getting
required structural member.
It is the process to create drawings and giving so
precise and accurate dimensions to them which help
much for complete fabrication and erection of steel
structures. Nowadays, the drawing files are created as
NC files also to give the direct input to CNC machines
and the fabrication time also is reduced.
This is to be done in workshop with the help of detailed
shop drawings. Generally, the required holes in a steel
member are drilled at one go. Most of the cuttings are
performed with flame cutting. The other processes like
welding, punching and bending, etc. also are done in
workshop. Finally, the parts are assembled according to
the assembly drawings and they are marked with
separate assembly number.
After fabrication, the marked assemblies are taken to
working site by transport. It is a difficult process
compared to detailing and fabrication. The detailed
drawings should be more comfortable to erection
labours working and safety wise. So while detailing,
the safety standards should be considered and
Structures can be fabricated and erected without great
problems arising. Designers need to understand
fabrication methods and field erection (transportation
of the materials to the job site, labor conditions,
equipment available for erection) of steel. So
reasonable, practical and economical designs can be
2.2 Design procedure
Functional design
(adequate working areas, ventilation, air
conditioning, transportation facilities, lighting, aesthetics)
Structural framework design
•Conceptual design (Establishment
of functions, general
shape, layout of spaces, types of supports, accurate dimensions)
•Preliminary structural configuration
(Arrangement of
•Establishment of the loads
•Preliminary design (Member selection, approximate sizes,
rough details)
•Final design
(Working drawings, shop drawings, project
It is important architect and engineers work together
2.3 Material choice
Major factors that may affect material choice are,
•Function of the structure,
•Soil conditions,
•Geographical location,
•Whether it is going to be permanent or temporary,
•Time period it is going to be in function,
•Determined date of operation,
•Funds dedicated to construction,
•Operational expenses,
•Changes in the costs of materials,
•Experience, local customs and habits.
3.1 Mechanical properties
Homogenous and isotropic
High strength
High Young Modulus
Equal tension and compression strength
•Homogenous and isotropic
The properties of steel do not change with time, and is same in every part of the
•High strength
The high strength of steel per unit of weight means that the weight of the structures
will be small
small.. Safety coefficients used in the calculations are smaller than the other
•High Young Modulus
Steel behaves closer to design assumptions than most materials because it follows
Hook’s law up to fairly high stresses
stresses.. The moments of inertia of steel structure can
be accurately calculated
•Equal tension and compression strength
No other structural material has this property and this makes steel preferable in
buildings that differ in their architectural design
The property of a material by which it can withstand extensive deformation without
failure under high tensile stresses is ductility. When a mild or lowlow -carbon structural
steel member is being tested in tension, a considerable reduction in cross section
and a large amount of elongation will occur at the point of failure before the actual
fracture occurs. A material that does not have this property generally unacceptable
and is probably hard and brittle, and might break if subjected to sudden shock.
Structural steels are toughtough-that is they have both strength and ductility. A steel
member loaded until it has large deformations will still be able withstand large
forces. This is a very important characteristics, because it means that steel members
can be subjected to large deformations during fabrication and erection without
fracture--thus allowing them to be bent, hammered, and sheared, and to have holes
punched in them without visible damage. The ability of a material to absorb energy
in large amounts is called toughness.
 If a piece of ductile structural steel is subjected to tensile force
it will begin elongate.
 The amount of elongation will increase linearly within certain
 When tensile stress reaches roughly equal to threethree-fourths of
the ultimate strength the elongation will begin to increase at a
greater rate without a corresponding increase is the stress.
 Proportional limit: The highest point of the linear portion
(Hook’s law applies)
 Elastic limit: The largest stress that material can withstand
without being permanently deformed
 Yield stress: A significant increase in the elongation, or strain,
without a corresponding increase in stress (The most important
property for design)
 Elastic strain: The strain occurs before the yield stress
 Plastic strain : The strain occurs after the yield stress (with no
increase in stress)
A steel structure has a reserve plastic strain that enables it
to resist overloads and sudden shocks (ductility). If it did
not have this ability it might suddenly fracture, like glass.
 Strain hardening: Following
the plastic strain, the range
additional stress is necessary
to produce additional strain
3.2 Structural steel production
Steel is defined as a combination of iron and a small amount of
carbon (Less than 1 percent) and also small percentages of some
other elements.
The first steel were accidentally present when iron was heated in
contact with charcoal.
Kelly and Bessemer added some needed elements to restore the
impurities of molten iron.
Today most of the structural steel shapes and plates are made by
melting scrap steel. The molten steel is poured into mold
mol ds that
have approximately the final shapes of the member.
The shapes may be further proceed by cold rolling, by applying
various coatings, and by process of annealing (heated to an
intermediate temperature range, held that temperature for several
hours, and allow to slowly cool to room temperaturetemperature-less hardness,
greater ductility).
Steel falls in between cast iron (≥2 percent carbon) and rough
iron (≤ 0.15 percent carbon) and has carbon contents in the range
of 0.15 and 1.7 percent.
3.3 Sections
• W – Shape (Wide Flange Beam): Most commonly used
for its good strength and easy availability. WW-shapes have
large moments of inertia around their principal axes,
making them ideal for flexure with parallel inner and outer
flange surfaces that are of constant thickness. This flange
design provides greater strength than that of S shape.
• S – Shape (American Standard II- Beam): S-shape was
the first beam section rolled in America but no longer
widely used in building construction. It is a rolled section
with two parallel, narrow flanges whose inner surfaces are
sloped approximately 17 degrees connected by a web. It is
used in monorails and crane runways.
• HP – Shape: This is similar to WW-shape. But it is having
width of web and flange equal but thicker than that of WWshape. Due to it’s higher strength, it is used only for
withstanding the high impacts of a pile hammer.
• C – Channel
Channel:: Similar to SS-shape, C shape has two narrow,
tapering, parallel flanges except that it extends only on one
side of the web. It is not effective as a beam or column.
However, it is best to use for framing floor openings,
stringers for steel stairs and stairwells. Efficient built
members can be constructed out of channel assembled
together with other structural shapes and connected by
bolts or welds. The profiles of CC-shapes available from
different manufacturers are essentially the same.
• M – Shape: M-shapes are similar to WW-shapes in cross
sectional profile. These shapes are lightweight and cannot
be classified as W, S, or HP shapes.
• MC – Channel: It is very similar to channel but differs with
the width and slope of it’s flange. MCMC-shapes are special
purpose channel other than the standard CC-shapes. The
availability of these shapes is limited and should be
checked prior to specifying their use.
• L – Angle: It’s legs may be equal or unequal and it is used
for bracings, connections and trusses.
• WT – Shape: These shapes are manufactured directly from
W, M, and SS-shapes split longitudinally at midmid-depth.
However, these can also be produced by offoff-centre splitting
as specified on order to the manufacturer. Structural tees
are often used as top and bottom chords of prepre-fabricated
trusses and sometimes as lintels.
• Pipe: Steel pipe is also used as a structural member,
specifically as column, in building construction. It has three
classifications-- the standard weight, extra strong, and
double--extra strong. Its high strengthdouble
to--weight ratios give
it excellent load bearing capabilities. It has also uniform
wall thickness and exceptional concentricity simplifying
fabrication and reducing material costs. It is used for
handrails, columns and bollards.
• HSS (Hollow Structural Shape): Earlier, it was referred
as tubular section. Hollow Structural Section is high
strength welded steel tubing used as structural elements in
buildings and other structures and a variety of
manufactured products. It is produced in round, square and
rectangular shapes and a broad range of sizes. Benefits
include aesthetic appeal, high strength toto-weight ratios,
uniform strength, cost effectiveness and recycling.
• PL and FL Bars: They are having a thickness greater than
1/8”. They are used as base plate, cap plate, shear plate
and end plate connections.
• Sheet Metal:
Metal: Thickness less than 1/8” and is mostly not
under the scope of a steel fabricator. It is referred as gage
• Metal Deck: Steel deck is made by cold forming structural
grade sheet steel into a repeating pattern of parallel ribs.
Standard deck width varies with the product used but full
sheets are usually 12", 18", 24", 30" or 36". Deck is
typically attached to the building frame with arc puddle
welds, self drilling screws or powder or pneumatically
driven pins. Sheet to sheet fastening is done with screws,
button punching (crimping), or welds.
Rapid construction in all weathers
Ease of fabrication and speed of erection
Easy field repair
Design flexibility
Components can be rere-used
Dimensional stability
Repairing and strengthening
Restoration and renovation
Reduced form and scaffold
Structure can start to function right after its completion
Quality and comfort
4.1 Architectural
Steel creates architectural creativity and diversity.
Small offices
Altunizade residences
Borusan ShowroomShowroom-İstanbul
• Reduced number of columns.
• Smaller beam and column
• Thin slabs.
Column crosscross-sections
1000 kN, 3.6 m buckling length,
length, 25 mm fire proof
B 45
235 MPa
235 MPa
235 MPa
355 MPa
10 000 kN, 3.6 m buckling length,
length, 25 mm fire proof
B 45
355 MPa
355 MPa
355 MPa
460 MPa
Space for installation.
Space : Clear spans achieved by using steel reduced number of supports,
thereby increasing useable space, leading to increase flexibility of use of the
enclosed space
Comfort: The use of insulating materials improves acoustic, thermal and
vibration comfort to acceptable or better levels, making the internal
environment more peaceful and pleasant, bathing it in natural light coming
through wide openings from outside.
Aesthetics: Slender, elegant steel structures fit harmoniously into every kind
of rural and urban environment. Steel structures are often used to renovate
old buildings and can be adopted to both classical and contemporary styles.
Flexibility: Steel solutions such as those used in office space with spans 18
meters, make it possible to rearrange the space to suit changes in use and
thus support changing lifestyles and accommodate the any changes that lie
Freedom: Opening up spaces, steel gives free rein to creativity. Because of
its mechanical properties steel can accommodate any architectural design. It
offers virtually infinite opportunities with respect to shape, colour and
Creativity: Steel encourages architectural creativity and diversity. Though its
ability to meet the highest technical standards while imposing few constrains
with respect to shape, steel has given rise to an explosion in inventiveness.
Quality and comfort:
comfort: Because its structures have optimum weight/strength
ratio steel opens up optimum, luminous space. Premises can be modified or
enlarged to adapt to new uses or lifestyles and to improve the quality of life
and comfort. The small amount of work required on site improves safety and
convenience during the project.
4.2 Earthquake
Steel structural systems are advantageous in earthquake areas.
• Steel systems have low self
weigh.. So earthquake load is less
than the other systems (F=m*a)
• The ability to absorb energy is in large amounts
• Plastic hinges may occur and this gives more safety in design
4.3 Recycling
Steel is 100% recyclable.
100% of the steel used in construction (all products) are recyclable. More
over 80% of these steel have now themselves been produced from
recycled steel. They conserve the planet’s natural sources during
construction by limiting the need for such materials as water and
aggregates. Additionally, steel structures can be partly or completely
dismantled and reused.
4.4 Quality
Structural steel is an industrial product.
All parts of the structural system are built in a factory environment,
according to standards and regulations and they have industrial quality
guarantee. All structural steel materials can be seen and control, during
the construction of the building and after it is built and used. This means
transparency in every state of production and construction.
4.5 Environment
To built in steel is to respect the environment.
environment .
Steel construction may be recycled indefinitely
Sections are produced exclusively from steel scrap
Use natural recourses and energy in a rational way
It is possible to construct buildings in very small
construction sites
sites.. Work site is clean and does not
generate dust and waste
• The amount of work on site is limited and requires less
• Does not harm the environment in any stage of the
construction.. (Dry methods
4.6 Sustainability
Less weight
Small cross
Transparent facades
Flexibility in design
Easily modification or enlarging
A sustainable building,
building, or green building is an outcome
of a design philosophy which focuses on:
 increasing the efficiency of resource use
— energy
energy,, water
water,, and materials —
 reducing building impacts on human
health and the environment
during the building's lifecycle, through better siting, design
construction,, operation, maintenance, and removal.
•Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
•Protecting occupant health and improving employee
•Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation
Effective green building can lead to:
reduced operating costs by increasing productivity and
using less energy and water,
improved public and occupant health due to improved
indoor air quality,
quality, and
reduced environmental impacts by, for example, lessening
storm water runoff and the heat island effect.
 Green building brings together a vast array of practices
and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the
impacts of buildings on the environment and human
health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of
renewable resources,
resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive
solar,, active solar,
solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using
plants and trees through green roofs,
roofs, rain gardens,
gardens, and
for reduction of rainwater runrun-off.
 Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include
rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo
 The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests
using recycled industrial goods.
Reduced energy use
 To increase the efficiency of the building envelope,
envelope, (the
barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space), they
may use highhigh-efficiency windows and insulation in walls,
ceilings, and floors. Another strategy, passive solar building
design,, is often implemented in lowdesign
low-energy homes.
 Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power,
wind power,
power, hydro power,
power, or biomass can significantly reduce
the environmental impact of the building.
Reduced waste
 During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce
the amount of material going to landfills
landfills.. WellWell-designed
buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by
the occupants as well, by providing onon-site solutions such as
compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.
 Wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing
machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated,
for nonnon-potable purposes.
The steel industry is an integral part of sustainable society.
•Safe working environment
•Employee training and education
•Community healtcare and schools
Eco--efficient:%100 recyclable
•Synergies with other industries
•Responsible use of natural recources
•Quality steel products
•Taxes and shareholders dividents
•Employees wages and benefits
•Talented employees
•License to operate
Natural recources
Recycled steel
Enviromental laws and regulations
•Demand for steel products
4.7 Reconstruction without destruction
When steel buildings no longer have a reason for existence
at the place in which they are located, they can be
dismantled and rebuilt elsewhere. This solution has proved
itself for buildings and car parks intended as temporary
remedies to problems posed by current requirements.
So steel is reused in an optimum manner, and the costs of
dismantling and reconstruction are generally less than
those of a new construction.
4.8 Cost
All the factors affecting total cost has to be taken
into consideration.
• Steel saves time. Prefabrication cuts construction time and
allows accurate sequencing of the various building trades.
• Faster construction means reduced financing costs and
leads to earlier rent income.
• The mechanical properties of steel make it both sturdy and
lightweight, so smaller foundations are needed and
structures can be built on soils with limited bearing
• Longer spans and large volumes can be achieved.
• Structural system elements are small this means more
space to use.
• Re
Re--use, recycling.
Economical design of steel members
The labor cost of structural steel run close to 60 percent
and material cost close to 25 percent of total cost.
Economical steel structures are the following:
Open communications between all involved in a particular
Information from the steel companies and steel
warehousers about the sizes and lengths of sections
To smooth out the sizes by selecting many members of
the same sizes although some of them may be slightly
The cost of erection and fabrication are approximately
the same for light and heavy members (beams should be
spaced as far apart as possible).
Should be painted only if so required by the applicable
 Repeating the same section will reduce the detailing,
fabrication and erection costs.
 For larger sections (particularly the builtbuilt-up ones) the
designer needs to have information about transportation
 Sections should be selected that are reasonably easy to
erect and which have no conditions that will make them
difficult to maintain (bridge members may be periodically
 Every effort should be made to select steel members that
will fit in with the requirements of filling (pipes, ducts,
conduits) of the building.
Economy can be realized when fabrication is minimized.
Reinforced concrete
Structural steel
Span or
Number of floor
4.9 With other materials
Visible or invisible, steel is paired with many other materials in
It facilitates suitable combinations to enable both materials to be used to
best effect.
Steel and concrete
Composite construction makes the most of characteristics and advantages
of both materials (floors, bridges and engineering structures). Composite
construction achieves the best tradetrade-off between mechanical performance,
weight saving, aesthetics and cost.
Steel and glass
In conjunction with glass, steel is light and transparent. Spectacular statestate of--the
the--art solutions are possible (skylights, atriums, glass facades). Glass
allows natural lighting so the combination saves energy.
Steel and wood
Within the dry construction sector, steel is a natural partner for wood in all
assembly functions (structure, facades, interior finishing, etc.), with warm,
aesthetic and comfortable results.
4.10 Fireproofing
Although structural members are incombustible, their strength is
tremendously reduced at temperatures commonly reached in
fires. Furthermore steel is an excellent heat conductor nonnonfireproofed steel members may transmit enough heat from
burning section or compartment of a building to ignite materials
with which they are in contact in adjoining sections of the
building. When steel is used in combination with other acceptable
materials such as concrete and plaster, building code fire
resistance requirements can be met or exceeded. And the building
may have to include a sprinkler system.
Fire safety analysis.
 Fire safety
Active systems (fire
(fire detection systems, sprinkler systems)
Passive systems (To
(To design the structure in such a way that it will
achieve to resist in case of fire;
fire; some partitioning;
partitioning; special doors)
s for Fire
 Fire resistance:
resistance: A period of time.
 Fire protection:
 Unprotected Steel
 Board Fire Protection
 Sprayed Fire Protection
 Intumescent Coatings
 Composite Floors
 SlimFloor System
 Composite HMembers
 Concrete filled tubular columns
 Shielded Members
ater Filled
4.11 Corrosion
• Most steels are susceptible to corrosion when
freely exposed to air and water, and therefore
must be painted periodically.
4.12 Susceptibility to buckling
As the length and slenderness of a compression member is
increased, its danger of buckling increases.
4.13 Fatigue
If steel is subjected to a large number of stress reversals or
even to a large number of variations of tensile stress its
strength may be reduced.
4.14 Brittle fracture
Under certain conditions steel may loose its ductility and
brittle fracture may occur at places of stress
concentrations. (Fatigue type of loadings; very low
temperatures; three
three axial stress conditions.)
Structures may be divided into three general categories
 Framed structures
Most typical buildings
 Shell Type Structures
 Suspension Type Structures
Bridges,, roofs
It is advantageous to use steel structural systems
in the following type of buildings
Buildings on poor soil conditions
Buildings in earthquake regions
Multi storey and high rise buildings
Industrial buildings
Car parks
Temporary buildings
Rapid constructions
Restoration and renovation constructions
Repair and retrofitting
High rise buildings
Industrial buildings
Car parks
Train station
Swimming pool
Leisure center
Shopping center
 The design of most structures is controlled by building codes and
 Governments establish building codes which are actually laws or
ordinances and vary from country to country. Codes specify
design loads, design stresses, construction type, material quality
and other factors.
IBC: International Building Code; EC: Euro Codes;
EN: Euro Norms; BS: British Standards;
DIN: Germen Norms
 Organizations publish recommended practices for regional or
national use and their specifications are not legally enforceable.
AISI: American Iron and Steel Institute
AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction
AASHTO: America Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials
Turkish Specifications and Building Codes for Steel Structures
TS 498 : Design Loads for Buildings
TS 648 : Building Code for Steel Structures
TS 3357 : Building Code for the Design and Execution of
Welded Connections in Steel Structures
Turkish Earthquake CodeCode-2007
6.1 Loads
Loads are classified according to their character and
duration of application. (Dead Loads, Live Loads,
Environmental Loads.)
Dead Loads: Loads of constant magnitude that remain in one
position (Structural frames own weight and other loads that
are permanently attached to the frame).
Live Loads: Loads that may be change in position and
magnitude. Floor loads, Traffic loads for bridges, Impact
loads, Longitudinal loads, Soil pressure, Hydrostatic
pressure, Thermal force, Centrifugal force.
Environmental Loads: Snow load, Rain load, Wind load,
Earthquake load.
 These loads are referred to as service or working loads.
 Various combinations of these loads that feasibly occur at
the same time are grouped together.
6.2 Loads and Loading Cases due to (TS 498)
1. First Group loads
For Buildings: Weights, snow load, crane load, dead loads
(loads permanently attached to the structure).
For Bridges: Weights, traffic loads.
2. Second Group loads
For Buildings: Wind load, earthquake load, temperature
effects, mounting loads.
For Bridges: Wind load, earthquake load, temperature
effects, snow load, support friction load, mounting loads.
Loading Case I (LC I) : First Group loads
Loading Case II (LC II): First Group loads +
Second Group loads
AISC Specification provides two acceptable methods:
• Allowable Stress Design (ASD): Rn/Ω ≥ Ra
(Nominal strength of member)
member)/(Safety factor)
factor) ≥ Largest computed force
• Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD): Φ Rn≥Ru
(Resistance factor)x(
Nominal strength of member)
member) ≥ Computed factor force
Nominal strength: Calculated theoretical strength with no safety
factors or resistance factors.
Safety factor (Ω) is a number greater than 1.0
Resistance factor (Φ) is a number less than 1.0
In general Ω= Φ/1.5
Load factors and safety factors are subject to so many
• Material strength may vary from their assumed
values (creep, corrosion, fatigue).
• The method of analysis are often subject to errors.
• Hurricanes, earthquake etc. cause conditions difficult
to predict.
• The stresses produced during fabrication and erection
are often severe. They may exceed the stresses occur
after the structure is completed.
• There are technological changes that affect the
magnitude of live loads. (Dead loads can usually be
estimated quite closely.)
• Presence of residual stresses and stress
concentrations, variation of dimensions of the
member cross section and so on.
“The European Steel Design Awards
given by
European Convention for
Constructional Steelwork
Winner Turkish Projects since 1997
Tatilya1997 ECCS Design Award
Glass Pyramid -Antalya
1999 ECCS Design Award
Sabiha Gökçen AirportAirport-İstanbul
2001 ECCS Design Award
Bahar Car Park
2003 ECCS Design Award
Bilgi University CampusCampus-İstanbul
2005 ECCS Design Award
Adnan Menderes Airport
2007 ECCS Design Award
Greengrocers & Fishmongers Market – Bursa
2009 ECCS Design Award
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Henn, H. Sontag,
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Deprem Bölgelerinde Yapılacak Binalar Hakkında YönetmelikYönetmelik-DBYBHY
Thanks to
Borusan Mannesmann
Türk Yapısal Çelik Derneği
Yapı Endüstri Merkezi