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Making of the Modern World 13
New Ideas and Cultural Contacts
Spring 2016, Lecture 4
Fall Quarter, 2011
“Two things: the first is that you are the sultan of the
universe and the ruler of the world, and I do not beliee
that there has appeared among men from Adam until this
epoch a ruler like you. I am not one of those who speak
about matters by conjecture, for I am a scholar and I will
explain this, and say: Sovereignty exists only because of
group loyalty (‘asabiyya), and the greater the number in
the group, the greater is the extent of sovereignty.”
Ibn Khaldun
Built a central Asian empire
(building on Chinggis Khan’s tradition)
Mid-1390s: Invaded India and
subjected Delhi
Helped Spread Persianized
Today’s lecture
Nomadic contribution
Documentary about Ghengiz Khan
Film on Tuesday
“Identify how differently (if at all) Ghengiz Khan is depicted
in these two films.”
Le Bourgeois gentilhomme
“Genghiz Khan”
or Universal Ruler
●Temüjin (b. 1167-1227) “Iron worker”
●His father a famous warrior.
● His father poisoned by Tatars (1175)
● Influence of his mother
● In 1190s he made an alliance
With other Mongol tribes and fought against the
1. Socio-Political accomplishment
● Reorganized tribal loyalty and by detribalizing the
Mongols into a Confederacy
Tribal Confederacy” a loose association of
sovereign clans that join for a common, shared
identity or interest
2.Military accomplishment
3. Eurasian Integration
How the Mongols helped open up
Building and protecting trade routes
People (migration, travel)
Ideas (religious ideas, intellectual, etc.)
What were the Mongol
Contributions to World History?
COMMERCE &Trade: Increased the integration of
Eurasia. SILK ROAD!!!
Migration & Travel: Human contact
Spread of Religions: Specially Islam & Buddhism.
By facilitating commerce the Mongols unintentionally
spread bubonic plague, which erupted in south-western
China (1330-1340).
15th century: Maritime-land routes
A “World System of Commerce”:
Cities located along major land and sea routes (Europe,
West Asia, Indian Ocean regions and China)
Europe played a minor role
The Vikings
Vikings (English) or “Northmen” (Carolingian)
Old Norse: seaman who take up raiding
Raided, explored and settled in Europe, Parts of Asia and
North Atlantic between 8th and 11th centuries.
Pirates, raiders, but mostly explorers and merchants
1200:Vikings were becoming sedentary, farmers and
settlers in the territories they conquered
Eventually settled, assimilated and built a large trade
Opening western with eastern and
southern Europe
Europe, Russia, the Middle East, Northern India, and even
Northern tip of Newfoundland
Viking Factor prior to the Mongol incursion in EasternWestern Europe and North Africa
Movement of people: migrations; Charlemagne.
Expanded the trade routes between Abbasid and Frank
(Western European) territories.
Expansion of Christianity
Paved the path toward the emergence of late medieval
Mediterranean-Mesopotamian contact zones.
4. Imperial legacy: charismatic,
cosmological, spiritual
Khwarezmian Empire (1077-1231)
1218 Genghiz Khan sends trade mission and diplomats
1220 conquest of Samarqand
The Ilkhanate (1256–1335/1353)
● Khwarazm Shah
●Hülegü established the Ilkhanate in Persia and
Mesopotamia. (1218-1265)
● 1295 Ilkhan Ghazan converted Mongols to
Used Persian and Arab administrators to run the
Persianate: aesthetic, cultural, literary
and political
Timur (d.1405)
Military, political, and legal leadership
Promotion of Persianate
“Original” Turks
Nomadic people from Central Asia.
Various tribes who migrated from Central Asia to
India, Persia and Anatolia (modern Turkey).
Highly skilled warriors.
Religiously diverse: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim…
Unlike the Mongols, their Nomadic Empires became
great civilizations, establishing the most enduring
imperial orders in world history (e.g. OTTOMANS)
First Turkish Migrations
At first: mostly random
Uyghur Turks, lived mostly on the oasis cities along the
silk roads.
Abbasids: Slave Soldiers or Mamluks
Oghuz (tribe) Turks
1055: the Abbasid caliph recognized Saljuq Turk, Tughril
Beg as Sultan (Ruler)
1071 Saljuq Turks defeated the Byzantine.
Led the Crusades.
Mahmud of Ghazni, 997-1030
Expansion into Punjab
Gujarat and Bengal.
Mamluks Sultanate (1250-1517)
Persianized Turks
Persian as the official language of the courts.
Persian poetry and literature.
Persian administration based on the Sassanid imperial
order (pre-Islamic).
Osman I
1299 declared independence from Saljuq sultan.
Expanded his emirates
Ghazi: Spiritual warriors (a myth or a latter Ottoman
CONFEDERACY: Christian and Turkish Muslim
Heterodox Muslim
Established Osmanlis or Ottomans.
Shah Ismail I (1487-1524)
Three major Mongol-Turkish
Imperial Orders
Safavid (1501-1722)