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Transcript
Making of the Modern World 13
New Ideas and Cultural Contacts
Spring 2016, Lecture 4
Fall Quarter, 2011

“Two things: the first is that you are the sultan of the
universe and the ruler of the world, and I do not beliee
that there has appeared among men from Adam until this
epoch a ruler like you. I am not one of those who speak
about matters by conjecture, for I am a scholar and I will
explain this, and say: Sovereignty exists only because of
group loyalty (‘asabiyya), and the greater the number in
the group, the greater is the extent of sovereignty.”
Ibn Khaldun
Tamerlane
d.1405
Built a central Asian empire
(building on Chinggis Khan’s tradition)
Mid-1390s: Invaded India and
subjected Delhi
Helped Spread Persianized
Turkish
Culture
Today’s lecture

Nomadic contribution

Documentary about Ghengiz Khan

Film on Tuesday
QUESTION
“Identify how differently (if at all) Ghengiz Khan is depicted
in these two films.”
Le Bourgeois gentilhomme
“Genghiz Khan”
or Universal Ruler
●Temüjin (b. 1167-1227) “Iron worker”
●His father a famous warrior.
● His father poisoned by Tatars (1175)
● Influence of his mother
● In 1190s he made an alliance
With other Mongol tribes and fought against the
Tatars
1. Socio-Political accomplishment
● Reorganized tribal loyalty and by detribalizing the
Mongols into a Confederacy

Tribal Confederacy” a loose association of
sovereign clans that join for a common, shared
identity or interest
2.Military accomplishment
3. Eurasian Integration
How the Mongols helped open up
contact?

Building and protecting trade routes

Commerce

Communication

People (migration, travel)

Ideas (religious ideas, intellectual, etc.)
What were the Mongol
Contributions to World History?
1.
2.
3.
4.
COMMERCE &Trade: Increased the integration of
Eurasia. SILK ROAD!!!
Migration & Travel: Human contact
Spread of Religions: Specially Islam & Buddhism.
By facilitating commerce the Mongols unintentionally
spread bubonic plague, which erupted in south-western
China (1330-1340).
Land-based
15th century: Maritime-land routes
1250-1350
A “World System of Commerce”:
Cities located along major land and sea routes (Europe,
West Asia, Indian Ocean regions and China)

Europe played a minor role
The Vikings
Vikings (English) or “Northmen” (Carolingian)
Old Norse: seaman who take up raiding

Raided, explored and settled in Europe, Parts of Asia and
North Atlantic between 8th and 11th centuries.

Pirates, raiders, but mostly explorers and merchants

1200:Vikings were becoming sedentary, farmers and
settlers in the territories they conquered

Eventually settled, assimilated and built a large trade
network
Opening western with eastern and
southern Europe

Europe, Russia, the Middle East, Northern India, and even
China
Northern tip of Newfoundland
Viking Factor prior to the Mongol incursion in EasternWestern Europe and North Africa

Movement of people: migrations; Charlemagne.

Expanded the trade routes between Abbasid and Frank
(Western European) territories.

Expansion of Christianity

Paved the path toward the emergence of late medieval
Mediterranean-Mesopotamian contact zones.
4. Imperial legacy: charismatic,
cosmological, spiritual
Khwarezmian Empire (1077-1231)

1218 Genghiz Khan sends trade mission and diplomats

1220 conquest of Samarqand
The Ilkhanate (1256–1335/1353)
● Khwarazm Shah
●Hülegü established the Ilkhanate in Persia and
Mesopotamia. (1218-1265)
● 1295 Ilkhan Ghazan converted Mongols to
Islam.
Used Persian and Arab administrators to run the
empire.
Persianate: aesthetic, cultural, literary
and political
Timur (d.1405)
Military, political, and legal leadership
Promotion of Persianate
TURKS
“Original” Turks





Nomadic people from Central Asia.
Various tribes who migrated from Central Asia to
India, Persia and Anatolia (modern Turkey).
Highly skilled warriors.
Religiously diverse: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim…
Unlike the Mongols, their Nomadic Empires became
great civilizations, establishing the most enduring
imperial orders in world history (e.g. OTTOMANS)
First Turkish Migrations
At first: mostly random

Uyghur Turks, lived mostly on the oasis cities along the
silk roads.

Abbasids: Slave Soldiers or Mamluks

Oghuz (tribe) Turks

1055: the Abbasid caliph recognized Saljuq Turk, Tughril
Beg as Sultan (Ruler)

1071 Saljuq Turks defeated the Byzantine.

Led the Crusades.
Mahmud of Ghazni, 997-1030

Expansion into Punjab
Gujarat and Bengal.
Mamluks Sultanate (1250-1517)
Persianized Turks

Persian as the official language of the courts.

Persian poetry and literature.

Persian administration based on the Sassanid imperial
order (pre-Islamic).
Osman I
1258-1326






1299 declared independence from Saljuq sultan.
Expanded his emirates
Ghazi: Spiritual warriors (a myth or a latter Ottoman
construct).
CONFEDERACY: Christian and Turkish Muslim
forces.
Heterodox Muslim
Established Osmanlis or Ottomans.
Shah Ismail I (1487-1524)
Three major Mongol-Turkish
Imperial Orders
1)
Ottoman
2)
Safavid (1501-1722)
3)
Mughal