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EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY * it is the study of the processes used in the separation and concentration (benefication) of raw materials. * The field is an applied science, covering all aspects of the physical and chemical processes used to produce mineral-containing and metallic materials, sometimes for direct use as a finished product, but more often in a form that requires further physical processing * Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. * In order to convert a metal oxide or sulfide to a purer metal, the ore must be reduced physically, chemically, or electrolytically. * Extractive metallurgists are interested in three primary streams: feed, concentrate (valuable metal oxide/sulfide), and tailings (waste). * After mining, large pieces of the ore feed are broken through crushing and/or grinding in order to obtain particles small enough where each particle is either mostly valuable or mostly waste. * Concentrating the particles of value in a form supporting separation enables the desired metal to be removed from waste products. * The sub disciplines are mineral processing, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy. , electrometallurgy PYROMETALLURGY : involves high temperature processes where chemical reactions take place among gases, solids, and molten materials. HYDROMETALLURGY : is concerned with processes involving aqueous solutions to extract metals from ores. * The most common hydrometallurgical process is leaching, which involves dissolution of the valuable metals into the aqueous solution. * After the solution is separated from the ore solids, the solution is often subjected to various processes of purification and concentration before the valuable metal is recovered either in its metallic state or as a chemical compound. ELECTROMETALLURGY : involves metallurgical processes that take place in some form of electrolytic cell.The most common types of electrometallurgical processes are electrowinning and electro-refining. CARBONYL METALLURGY : is used to manufacture products of iron, nickel, steel, and other metals. * Coatings are produced by vapor plating using metal carbonyl vapors. * Carbonyl metallurgy is useful as a low temperature metal coating technique that may well find many applications in the future.