Field Guide to the Manzano Mountains, NM GEOL 3402 Structural Geology JD P F SA PP A- -A’ LEGEND Figure 2. Figure 1. Archean and Proterozoic terranes of Laurentia from Whitmeyer and Karlstrom (2007). Thick red lines represent continental truncations; black lines with teeth represent sutures or convergent boundaries. Also shown are the contemporary, active tectonic provinces of the western Cordillera including the San Andreas transform fault, Gulf of California extensional provice (East Pacific Rise), Basin & Range, Cascade convergent boundary, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Cross section A- A’ in Figure 7. Red Cyn. CG map 60 60 Vaughn, NM Pedernal Hills Stop 60 FT. Sumner, NM 60/84 Clovis, NM 60/84 Hiway 60 to Mountainair, NM Mountainair, NM 60/84 Goat Draw/Hiway 60 map Hi gh wa y 84 84 to N Road map from Lubbock to the southern Manzano Mts. Cl ov is, N M 35 miles LUBBOCK Road map of southern Manzano Mountains & field areas Estadio Cyn. Entry to Tierra Grande ‘development’ & Estadio Cyn. N 47 Abo Cyn. entry to FS rd. 422 Priest Canyon rd. Junction 47 & 60 Overview Stop R TO 60 AINAI W T H UN MO 60 60 60 Goat Draw map area Day 1 Itinerary & directions: • Depart Lubbock at 7 AM via State Highway 84 toward Clovis, NM. We’ll stop here for the Whiz Palace and coﬀee; about 1.5 hrs. Continue on 84/60 through Melrose and Ft. Sumner; stay on Highway 60 to Vaughn. • Continue through hamlets of Yeso and we’ll stop in Vaughn for the whiz palace and coﬀee; about 3.5 hours of driving time from Lubbock. Continue on 60 through Yeso toward Encino on Highway 60. Geology Stop 1: • About 9 miles west of Encino, stop at roadcuts in Pedernal Hills on north-side of road. • Continue on highway 60 through Willard to Mountainair, NM, for a brief whiz palace stop. • Continue on highway 60 through Abo Pass and park near turnout for junction of Highway 60 and 47 to Belen. Geology Stop 2: • Near junction of highways 47 and 60 we’ll stop and spend some time identifying and measuring fabrics in road cuts as well as getting a brief over view of the southern Manzano Moutnains. • Head to Red Canyon Camp Ground 2 >2.5 Ga Jurassic Sevier Overthrust belt WYOMING PROVINCE B 105°W 110°W t e Cheyenn 2- 1. 8 Ga zal n zat Ma matio or def front PR O VI NC E Zo n itio s an Tr 1.8-1.7 Ga 40°N ne M OJ AV E el YAVAPAI PROVINCE MAZATZAL PROVINCE 1.7-1.4 Ga. 0 Figures 3 and 4 SOUTHERN GRANITE RHYOLITE 35°N PROVINCE 1.42-1.35 Ga (subsurface) vil n Gre 100 nt ro le F GRENVILLE PROVINCE 1.3-1.0 Ga km Figure 2. Regional index map of the southwestern United States. Exposed Precambrian metamorphic rocks (various shades of gray) and igneous rocks (black) are shown. Also displayed are major Precambrian tectonic provinces that are juxtaposed across variably exposed “sutures”, or regional contractional shear zones (teeth on hanging-wall). These provinces generally decrease in age from NW to SE. Modified after Jones et al., 2009. NOTES: 3 s S an dia Albuquerque Mo un tain Figure 3. Physiography of the Manzano Mountains and surrounding environments. Green color is Federal public lands, including National Forests, B.L.M. lands, and Nature Preserves. Cross sectio X-X’ in Figure 6. NOTES: e d i nc ta Es al aV RED CANYON CAMPGROUND 47 Pedernal Hills ley Manz a n a Tome Hill Volcano (3.5 Ma) Andesitic Salt Lakes 60 Willard G r Figure 6. no M ount ains Los Lunas Volcano (1.2 Ma) Andesitic X Sierra Ladrones 60 MOUNTAINAIR 60 Los Mo Pino un s tai ns o Black Butte R i X’ Abo Canyon Soccorro 20 km Sierra Magdalene 35° MANZANITA MOUNTAINS range front inferred normal fault 35° isleta shear zone e Monte Largo pluton, 1656 Ma PEDERNAL HILLS rg a eL nt Mo to Belen h os Phanerozoic fault with likely late Proterozoic ancestry 60 1680 Ma Encino MANZANO MOUNTAINS 1438 Ma. 34°30’ 285 e on z ar Proterozoic folds Proterozoic thrust, teeth on upper plate based on aeromagnetic trends Hell Canyon shear zone Ojito pluton, 1659 Ma 34°45’ 35° 1645 Ma Priest pluton, ~ 1427 Ma ~1.4 Ga (?) Granite inferred from aeromagnetic highs 60 60 Mountainair aul t sa F 1662 106°45’ Mo nto 1655 1658 1660 >1653 Los Pinos pluton ~1655 Ma ~1.65 Ga granite 0 LOS PINOS MOUNTAINS 10 km 20 N 106° schist and phyllite, including Blue Springs Schist quartzite, including Sais, White Ridge 1.67 Ga metarhyolite, including Sevilleta Metarhyolite amphibolite and mafic schist Figure 4. Tectonic map of the Manzano Mountains and related Proterozoic rocks and structures (modified from Karlstrom et al., 2004.) 4 Pennsylvanian outcrops at the crest of the Sandia and Manzano Mountains (~10,000’) and in the basin floor at > 10,000’ below sea-level! NOTES: Tertiary Permian Precambrian Crystalline Basement Rocks Pennsylvanian Figure 5. Schematic block diagram depicting the Albuquerque rift basin north of the Manzano Mts., thickness of Pennsylvanian through Tertiary rocks, half-graben structure, and origin of some of the rift magmatism. Modified from Kelley (2012). Also note hypothetical location of the brittle - plastic (ductile) transition and the the lower termination of the normal faults. X X’ from Cape et al., 1983 Figure 6. Schematic cross section across the Rio Grande rift zone At the latitude of Abo Pass based on COCORP seismic lines. To the east, the thickness of the Paleozoic - Mesozoic section could be thinner than shown due to pre-rift Laramide erosion and a corresponding increase in the thickness of the Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks to the west. 2:1 vertical exaggeration. From Cape et al. (1983). 5 Tectonophysics of the Rio Grande Rift Figure 7. Cross section at 37.5°N (see Fig. 1B for location) showing seismic results from the CREST experiment. Tomographic cross section (Brandon Schmandt, unpublished tomography) shows low relative mantle velocity under highest topography (topography exaggerated ~20×) based on data from the EarthScope Transportable Array, CD-ROM, and CREST data (Mac-Carthy, 2010). Moho interface (black line) is from P-wave receiver function (RF) image (Steve Hansen, unpublished data;Dueker et al., 2011). Negative velocity interfaces from S-wave receiver function image (Hansen et al., 2011) are interpreted to be a lithosphere-asthenosphere mixing zone (LAMZ) between 80 and 120 and 150–200 km interfaces (dashed lines). Absolute surface wave velocity contours show low-velocity crust under highest topography, and asthenosphere-like 4.2 km/s surface wave velocities at 80–100 km. Lithosphereasthenosphere mixing zone concept is supported by xenolith localities in the region: A—Devonian diamond-bearing xenoliths on the Stateline, Colorado, district to the north (Farmer et al., 2005); B—mantle lid xenoliths at ~900 °C in the eastern Colorado Plateau region (Porreca et al., 2006); C—lid xenoliths at ~140 km from Navajo volcanic fi eld (Smith et al., 2004). Low-velocity pipes in the deep mantle suggest infl uence of 410 km discontinuity diapirs (Dueker et al., 2011; Bercovici and Karato, 2003). Any viable mantle geodynamic model needs to explain correspondence of the highest elevations, thinnest crust, and low-velocity crust and mantle. - From Karlstrom et al., 2012. Road map to Red Canyon forest service campground from Mountainair, NM LEFT (WEST) ON CO. RD BO62/FS253 LEFT (WEST) ON CO. RD BO63/FS253 RED CANYON CAMPGROUND, NM LEFT (WEST) ON CO. RD BO64 RIGHT (WEST) ON FS 253 55 FS Rd. 422 (from Priest Cyn) ~ 1 mi. 6 HW55 NORTH FROM MOUNTAINAIR, a few miles to S. 55 Fun-n-games in the van! NOTES: cross word by Shari Kelley and Douglas Bland, NM Bureau. W E Figure 8. Eco zones in desert mountain regions such as the Manzano Mountains. Shamelessly stolen from the internets. We’ll be camping on the “dip-slope” side of the asymmetric Manzano Mts. in the “transition zone” of Ponderosa pines, various oaks, and a few aspen. Our field work will occur in the “Upper Sonoran” zones of Juniper (commonly - but inaccurately - referred to as “Cedar”) and Pinon pines. Acknolwedgements. We gratefully acknowledge the Tierra Grande Development Association and Sue Moran for access to the Manzanou Mountains. References Cape, C., et al., 1983 GSA Bulletin, v. 94, p. 3-14. Jones, J., et al., 2009, GSA Bulletin, v. 121, p. 247-264. Karlstrom, K., et al., 2004, NM Geol. Soc. Sp. Publ., 11, p. 1-34. Karlstrom, K., et al., 2012, Lithosphere. Kelley, 2012. “Lite Geology”, NMT Publications. 7 8 Miocene to recent Miocene-Pliocene Figure 9. Block diagrams of the Rio Grande rift from Black, 1982, NMGS Guidebook 33rd Conference. Star is the approximate location of the Manzano Mountains. The cross section in the lower diagram is approximately at the latitude of the northern Manzano Mountains. Compare with Figures 5 and 6. .. re.. , he ons ’ ’s o Lot ab ng” i v a m-w ic ton c e ut t -sc ati ret p r te e in al o “ar Lo t ’s o ’“ arm -w av in g” a bo ut tec to n ic- sca le int erp ret ati o ns ,h ere .... Figure 10. Cartoons depicting speculative model for the development and geometry of the Southern Rocky Mountain segment of the Yavapi-Mazatzal tectonic boundary. (A) Arc terranes belonging to the Yavapai and Mazatzal provinces collide at north-dipping subduction zone. (B) Subduction zone evolves into a low-angle thrust system as older Yavapai crust overrides Mazatzal arc. (C) Thrusting is facilitated by detachment system in the thermally weakened middle crust. Gently-dipping S1 simple-shear foliation develops in mid-crustal rocks. Fold-and-thrust deformation may have extended well into the foreland of the Yavapai crustal province. (D) Continued convergence coaxially shortens crust and folds suture and older foliation producing steep S2 foliation in Mazatzal terrane and in southern part of Yavapai province. Mazatzal front (MF) marks the limit of penetrative deformation associated with this late convergence. Mazatzal front is the northern limit of this deformation. (E) Magmas migrate vertically across boundary leading to emplacement of plutons derived from Mazatzal lower crust in Yavapai upper crustal country rocks. Finally, erosion exposes mid-crustal levels and complex metamorphic and structural mosaic resulting from folded low-angle boundary. Different segments of the suture may have focused magmatism and fluid flow through geologic time to create the Colorado mineral belt (CMB, 1700-50 Ma), Pikes Peak batholith ( ~1100Ma), San Juan volcanic field ( < 40 Ma), Jemez lineament volcanics ( < 10 Ma), and present mantle low-velocity anomaly. 9 Figure 11. Tectonic provinces & features of the western United States. Along the van ride to the mountains, work with your friends and colleagues to accurately locate and color the following features on the map below. The van that submits neatest and most precise map at the end of the drive will get and extra day to turn in any future lab plus a special surprise. Plates Juan de Fuca JDFP Gorda GP Pacific PP North America NAP Plate Boundary Features San Andreas Fault SAF East Pacific Rise EPR Mendocino Triple Junction MTJ Mendocino Transform MT Juan de Fuca Ridge JDFR Cascade Trench CT Gorda Ridge GR Tectonic Provinces Rio Grande Rift RGR Cascades Volcanic Arc CVA Basin & Range BR Colorado Plateau CP Great Valley GV Columbia River flood basalts CRB Sevier Fold and Thrust Best SFTB Franciscan Subduction Complex FSC Klamath Mountains Province Canadian Foothills Belt CFB Peninsular Ranges batholith PRB 10 Tectonic Features Salton Trough ST Trans Pecos extensional corridor TP Snake River - Yellowstone Hot Spot track YHS Western edge of stable craton Elsinore Fault San Jacinto Fault Hayward Fault Walker Lane Notable Cities Salt Lake City Helena Denver Boise Albuqureque Idaho Falls Flagstaff St. George Los Angeles Phoenix San Francisco Sacramento Seattle Portland Reno Calgary Lubbock Las Vegas Geographic Features Columbia River Colorado River Rio Grande R... (let’s not be redundant!) Colorado Front Range Rocky Mountains Sierra Nevada Mountains Mojave Desert Sonora Desert Chiuahua Desert Coast Ranges Wasatch Range Uinta Mountains Manzano Mountains Big Bend National Park Teton Mountains Owens Valley Pecos River Four Corners Gulf of California Death Valley Map drawing courtesy of Greg Davis, c. 1995.