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Senior Seminar
ECE 4890 Lecture Notes
Spring 2013
Engineer
Customer
Manufacturer
© 2006–13
Mark A. Wickert
.
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Introduction
• Major themes:
– Electrical and computer engineering design
– Professional development
– Preparing for ECE 4899
• Team presentations
• Instructor policies
• Course syllabus
• Engineering design introduction
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Major Course Themes
Electrical and Computer Engineering Design
• The design process
• Requirements analysis
• System design
• Managing the design process
• Detail design, testing, and design management
• An integrated case study
Professional Development
• Beyond engineering design
• Team presentations on key ABET professional development
curriculum issues
– economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health
and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability
– professional and ethical responsibility
– impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic,
environmental, and societal context
Preparing for ECE 4899
• Choosing a project and project advisor(s)
• Prepare and deliver a pre-proposal presentation with your
design team
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Course Syllabus
Course Syllabus
ECE 4890
Senior Seminar
Spring Semester 2013
.*/012$0)1&
Dr. Mark Wickert
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[email protected]
http://www.eas.uccs.edu/wickert/ece4890/
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Friday 9:15–10:00 AM, others by appointment.
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J. Eric Salt and Robert Rothery, !"#$%&'()*'+,"-.*$-/,'/&0'1)234."*'+&%$&""*#,
John Wiley, New York, 2002. ISBN 0-471-39146-8.
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2.)
3.)
4.)
5.)
Topic A, B, or C, learning presentation 20%.
Topics A, B, and C learning notes 20%.
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Team design requirements document 25%.
Pre-proposal oral presentation 25%.
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Library and
internet research
Student presentations spread
throughout the
semester
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ECE 4890 Senior Seminar
1.0
1–3
Chapter 1 • Introduction and Course Overview
Syllabus (cont)
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• ECE 4899 proposal presentations Friday February 1, 8:00 – 11:00 AM, EN
101. ECE 4890 students must attend.
• ECE 4890 case study presentation by an industry engineer, Friday TBD (as
early as February 15), 8:00 – 9:15 AM, EN 101. ECE 4890 students must
attend. This date will be announced well in advance during a Friday class
meeting, and it will also be posted on the course Web site.
• ECE 4890 ABET Topic A, B, & C presentations. ECE 4890 students must
attend to either make their presentation and also to take notes on the other
team presentations. There will likely be 3 total presentations spread over at
most two weeks. Approximate dates are February 22 and/or March 1.
• ECE 4899 design review presentations Friday March 15, 8:00 – 11:00 AM,
EN 101. ECE 4890 students must attend.
• Research librarian visit, TBD, to learn about search engines and other research related topics. Friday March 22.
• ECE 4890 design requirements documents due Friday April 12, for review
by ECE faculty and project sponsors.
• ECE 4890 Pre-proposal presentations Friday May 3, 8:00 – 10:30 AM, EN
101. ECE 4890 students must participate.
• ECE 4899 final project presentations and demonstrations Friday May 10,
8:00 AM – 12:30 PM, EN 101. ECE 4890 students must attend. Note that
this is the Friday before finals. Lunch is included.
• ECE 4890 Design Requirements Document Final Draft (paper copy and
PDF via E-mail) due Wednesday May 15, 12:00 PM.
Ralph M. Ford and Chris Coulston, !"#$%&'()*'+,"-.*$-/,'/&0'1)234."*'+&%$5
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ECE 4890 Senior Seminar
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Instructor Policies
• In-class participation is a very important part of this course,
and is in fact required most of the time
• If business travel or similar activities prevent you from
attending class and participating in team presentations, classroom discussions, please inform me beforehand
• Grading is done on a straight 90, 80, 70,... scale with curving
below these thresholds if needed
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The Engineering Profession
• Consider first the definition of engineering as found in two
sources
• From Webster’s New World Dictionary –
1.a) the science concerned with putting scientific knowledge
to practical uses, divided into different branches, as civil,
electrical, mechanical, or chemical engineering.
• From the Accreditation Board for Engineers and Technologists (ABET) –
Engineering is the profession in which a knowledge of the
mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgement to develop ways
to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for
the benefit of mankind.
• Mathematical and scientific knowledge is at the core of engineering
• Engineer’s solve problems, for the benefit of society, using
synthesis of what is currently known about a problem’s solution, and new ways of solving it
• Engineer’s design
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The Role of the Design Engineer
• In general terms, there are three stakeholders in any engineering design problem
Engineer
Customer
Manufacturer
• The customer is also referred to as the client or end-user
• In a larger company the customer is represented by the marketing department
• The engineer is a member of research and development
(R&D)
• The manufacturing department may in fact be a separate
company, that in this time of outsourcing and globalization,
is in a different country
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Introduction
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• Engineering and problem solving go together
• Scientific and mathematical knowledge are combined to form
the solution
General Engineering Process
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• Analysis and synthesis (Oxford American dictionary):
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• Analysis is typically performed on an existing system, while
synthesis is usually associated with a new system
• The process of analysis/synthesis may be repeated to find
multiple solutions
– Many implementations can perhaps meet the requirements,
which is the best one?
– How many solutions should be obtained?
– The cost of generating possible solutions is expensive and
drives up the non-recurring engineering (NRE) budget
– Will the next solution attempted really be significantly better?
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Applying the General Engineering Process:
Engine Block Heater Extension Cord
• In colder climates, northern US and Canada, engine block
heaters are used to insure easy starting in the morning and
when leaving work in the late afternoon
• Problem:
– A breaker may blow and there is no indication to the
employee that their heater is actually working
– The heater may also burn out and become an open circuit
• The solution is a smart extension cord that gives an indication of the above two conditions at the cord end
• A marketing study says that this cord enhancement is worth a
price increase of about $7
• The new extension cord must sell for less than $6 above the
dumb model
• A first iteration design (synthesis):
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– LEDs must carry too much forward current (4A) making
the cost prohibitive
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• Analyze the designs and choose the best:
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– The lower cost solution is not hands-free, so the engineer
must consult with marketing (customer) to see if this is
acceptable
– What do you think?
Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
• In practice, truly optimal solutions are not possible, so we
must choose from the best among the available alternatives
• Cost and performance are the main factors in an engineering
solution
• Reliability and maintainability are also very important
– Maintainability has hidden costs as highly skilled individuals my be needed to fix problems
– Increasing reliability would reduce maintenance costs, but
may drive up manufacturing cost too much
• The various criteria overlap, so sorting all of this out becomes
complicated
• A design exceeding requirements is not always better, as cost
objectives may then be exceeded
– As a student the temptation is exceed the performance
requirements
– A lower performance design may be more reliable and easier to maintain
• When deadlocked over two near equal choices, just pick!
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Design Methodologies
Factors
• Complexity of the design
• Size of the design team
• Experience
• Personal style and preferences
Bottom Line
• Best possible solution, within a set of constraints
• Obtained in the shortest possible time
Methodology A
• Consider one possible solution and complete a detailed
design
• Implement it and evaluate its performance, manufacturing
cost, reliability, and maintainability
• Repeat until a satisfactory solution is obtained
Methodology B
• Consider multiple solutions only to the block-level design
(system design)
• The team evaluates the block-level designs using the same
criteria as A
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• Some solutions will be discarded early on, without the time
and expense of detailed design and implementation
• Just a small number of solutions goes through detailed
design, implementation, and evaluation
Methodology Pros and Cons
• Methodology B should result in better performance, reliability, and maintainability since more effort was put into obtaining the go-forward solutions (say two)
• Methodology A should be cheaper to manufacture since the
lack of a block-level design likely means that circuit functions are shared and the parts count is minimal
• Methodology A is better for the design of high-volume consumer products
• Methodology B on the other hand, is better for low-volume
industrial products, where high engineering costs are acceptable because reliability, maintainability, and performance are
very important
Methodology for Student Engineers/Student Design Projects
• The text has an additional design methodology it recommends for a ECE 4890/4899 type course sequence
• The goal is to produce a high quality design with limited
resources (sound familiar? I frequently hear this around the
campus)
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A Methodology for High Quality
• When high quality is the goal, one question might be, ... can
the problem be solved?
– The methodology must be able to ascertain this as quickly
as possible to prevent time waste; why?
– The text claims that 9 out of 10 design efforts are unsuccessful, meaning the one good design must cover the costs
of the failures
Customer Needing
Solution to a Problem
@)53*A'+;)#<*1)#3*
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Requirements
Analysis
Requirements Specification
System
Design
System Specification
Detail Block Level
Design and Test
Functioning Modules
System Integration
and Test
Properly Functioning
System
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• The drawback of the above is that it does not allow mistakes
to be corrected as they propagate from one stage to the next
• To fix this consider the more realistic approach shown below
Customer Needing
Solution to a Problem
Requirements
Analysis
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System
Design
Detail Block Level
Design and Test
System Integration
and Test
Properly Functioning
System
– When errors are uncovered you can jump back one stage to
rework and solve the issue(s)
– Jumping back two stages is also possible, but it will be
more costly
• The next two steps, requirements analysis and system design,
Chapters 3 and 4 respectively, are the most important
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• The design methodology of Chapter 2 lists requirements
analysis as the first step
• We will find in this chapter that producing a requirements
document, along with performing a requirements analysis,
forms a contract between you and the customer
Requirements
Analysis
System Design
Requirements
Specification
Detailed Design
Implementation
and
Verification
– “What exactly is the design to accomplish”
– How will everyone with a stake in the design know when
its done?”
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The Importance of Requirements
• Describes tests that will be performed to verify the design
• Serves as a check point for “go, no–go” decisions
• Acts as a filter to weed out designs that are
– Overly ambitious
– Have conflicting objectives
– Address intractable problems
• Not all projects are successful
– The text authors claim that only 1 in 10 commercial design
projects result in a viable product
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• Costs mount exponentially as a design proceeds, so go/no–go
on a project is an important decision
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• Good engineering judgment is required at this phase of a
design project, so experienced engineers are vital here
– time, money, & expertise
Developing the Requirements Specification
• Focus on the customer/marketing department who needs a
solution to a problem
Two Scenarios
• The informed customer
– Problem area is well understood
• The frontier customer
– Problem lies in unexplored territory
Informed Customer
Customer’s
knowledge of
the problem
High— Customer
knows and understand
what the design
should accomplish
Availability of Readily available
information
from:
• customer
• equip. vendors
• competitors
• similar designs
• books, journals
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Low—No appropriate experience or
examples to draw
upon
Limited availability—
No existing equipment on the market or
no similar designs
have been done to
offer experience
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Informed Customer
Frontier Customer
Ease of doing
requirements
specification
Relatively easy— The Relatively difficult—
task is to organize the Also can be expenavailable information sive. May require
basic research and
specialized skills
Probability of
proceeding to
next stage in
design process
Relatively high—
More up-front knowledge minimizes the
risk that the design is
overly ambitious
Relatively low—
Unforeseen issues are
likely to arise that
may reveal the problem is intractable or
too costly to solve
Example: Noise judgement curves used by AT&T
Percentage of Observers Assigning
Indicated Response
100
90
80
Good
or
better
Excellent
70
60
Fair
or
better
Poor
or
better
50
40
(29.5;
6.2)
30
(39.0;
6.0)
(48.0;
6.0)
(55.5;
4.2)
20
10
0
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
Noise Level at Line Terminals of Station Set in dBrnc
Notes:
1. Values in parentheses indicate average and standard deviation.
2. Received volume constant, -28 vu.
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A Two-Stage Approach to Developing the Requirements
Specification
• Developing the requirements specification requires different
thinking than used in engineering courses
• The following figure explains the approach:
Customer
Needing a Solution
to a Problem
Specify
Design
Requirements
Assess
Needs
Statement
of Problem
Requirements
Specification
• Assess needs and organize into a problem statement
– The language of the customer should be used, likely nontechnical and nonquantifiable
• Second, turn the problem statement into a technical specification
– At the same time establish criteria for judging the acceptability of the design
– Note that there is a need for iteration (the feedback path)
– The customers true needs may be called into question, and
subsequently changes may be made, etc.
– The engineer must be free to make decisions and form
agreements with the customer
• The final output is the requirements specification document
• This document is a concise statement of what the design will
accomplish, and the criteria used to judge the final outcome
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• The document also answers the two earlier questions:
– What exactly is the design team to do?
– How will everyone know when the design is done?
• The document ultimately must receive approval of both the
customer and the designer
Real-World Considerations
• A real-world design rarely starts with a clean slate
• There will be both constraining factors and enabling factors:
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Needs Assessment–Stating the Problem
Nontechnical: Use the language of the customer and avoid the
engineer’s jargon and other technical terminology
Nonquantifiable: Avoid the use of numerical terms at this point
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Complete: Cover all aspects of the design
Specifiable: It should be possible to convert a stated need into a
quantitative requirement
Question the Customer: Examples
Define the Design Problem —
• What is the problem to be solved?
• Why is there a problem?
• What is my role in solving the problem
• How will I know when I am done
Determine Budget and Schedule Constraints —
• When is the solution needed?
• What is the upper limit of cost to do the design?
• What are your expectations of production cost in high
volumes?
Reliability and Maintenance —
• What are the consequences of the system failing once
in operation?
• What resources (personnel, replacement parts, budget)
are available for maintenance?
Contract —
• How will it be determined when the design is complete
• How will it be determined that the design is acceptable
• How will I (firm) be paid
• Is the work that I am to do legal (ethics)
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Differentiate Needs and Wants
• Determining needs is not always easy
• Wants may be confused for real needs
True
Needs
A
B
C
Wants
– Wants generally exceeds the true needs
• If only wants were addressed, some of the true needs would
be missed (area A), and unneeded features would be implemented (area C)
• The customer’s wants must be translated into a problem statement reflecting the true needs
True
Needs
Wants
Needs as Reflected
in Problem Statement
– Note, the problem statement does not exactly match the
true needs, but is close
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Explore Project Boundaries
• Some solutions will be out of bounds
• There may be a need to fit within existing:
– operations
– standards
– methods
– procedures
– legal boundaries
Input/Output Analysis
• View the complete design as a system having a functional
block diagram with inputs and outputs
Example: An Agricultural Pressure Sprayer
Inputs
User
Inputs
Outputs
Metric/Imperial
Measure
Sprayer
Velocity
Boom Width
Application
Rate
Calibration
Constants
Flow Rate
Sprayer
Controller
Spayer
Velocity
Sensor
Inputs
Spray
Flow Rate
Alarm
Points
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User
Outputs
Cumulative
Totals
Alarms
System
Cutoff
Control
Points
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• The designer and customer need to jointly develop this diagram
– This will insure that unforeseen needs will surface
• The input/output diagram does not however indicate anything
about reliability, size, and weight
• The diagram may be overkill for simple functionality designs
Preview the User Interface
• The requirements specification should include a definition of
the user interface
– This applies to both hardware and software designs
– There may be more than one interface in some design, e.g.,
a remote interface via ethernet, etc.
Survey Design Attributes
• Functional
• Nonfunctional
Example: Cell Phone
• Functional
– Standard functions
– Advanced functions
• Nonfunctional
– User interface
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– Packaging
– Battery
– Production
– Reliability
– Service
Identify Conflicting Needs
• Conflicting design needs are not uncommon
– Design trade-offs will resolve these conflicts later
– For now we just want to anticipate them so the customer is
aware of them
• Classic conflicts: cost, performance, and time
– The customer wants high performance, but finds the associated cost and time to deliver unacceptable
– Alert the customer if these three are out of line ASAP
• A correlation matrix can be constructed as a means to rate
how overlapping design needs correlate in a positive or negative sense
• Conflicts should be discussed as the problem statement is
developed, but resolution should not be attempted at this time
• The customer needs to know these are issues and hopefully
recognize that some ‘needs’ may not be necessary
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Example: Cell Phone Revisited (conflicting design needs)
Small
Size
Power
Requirements
High
Quality
Look
High-Tech
Display and
Advanced User
Features
,%"J;)(#)"5*4.-)5"
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• Construct a correlation matrix to rate the overlapping design
needs
Battery
Capacity
Size
Size
++
Battery
Capacity
Display/
Range/
Appearance Performance
++
-
+
++
Display/
Appearance
--
Range/
Performance
++
+
--
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Highly correlated positive
Moderatley correlated positive
Moderately correlated negative
Highly correlated negative
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Prepare a Draft Operations Manual
• When a product or system is delivered, a users manual is also
delivered to provide usage instruction
• At this early stage, the draft manual will help focus both the
engineer and customer on true design needs
• The draft manual can be as simple as an outline of the sections and subsections that the manual will contain
Prepare the Requirements Specification
• Now that the problem statement is complete, the requirements specification document should follow naturally
– Recall that the problem statement is in nonquantifiable and
nontechnical terms
• The requirements specification is very technical
– It might be that some experimentation, subjective tests,
and research is required
Translating Needs to Specifications
• Each design need is translated into a specification
– All design needs are covered
– They are independent of each other
– Their are no contradictions
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• A poor problem statement will become obvious, and may
need to be reworked with the customer to remove inconsistencies
• The translation from problem statement to specifications
requires the experience of the design engineer
• Outside help will likely be needed to assist with the translation:
(1) Search out expert sources — ?
(2) Analyze similar design — ?
(3) Conduct tests or experiments — ?
Specification of Interface Points
• The user interface must be completely specified
– Conceptual drawing of the front panel; switches, key pads,
displays, etc.
– Computer screens; GUI conceptual layout
– Electrical and mechanical interfaces such as connectors,
communications standards, etc.
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Excessive Requirements
• You want to meet the customer expectations, but you have to
walk a fine line between being too ambitious or too lax
– An inexperienced engineer is prone to having excessive
specifications that provide needless features/functionality
or make the specifications too difficult
• Added functionality to say software, may be viewed free,
when in actuality time and money are needed to implement
these features
Design Costs
– There is also a trickle-down effect, in that documentation
increases along with test time
Features & Functions
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• Stringent or conservative specifications can drive cost up
quickly when the cost reliability threshold is reached
Cost
Reliability
– The customer needs to be made aware of this type of tradeoff
Verification
• The system or acceptance test verifies whether the design fulfills the customer needs
• At the final stage of the design process, the system is subject
to a final acceptance test (FAT)
• A preliminary test plan should be delivered along with the
requirements specification
• Verification Rule #1 — “If a design requirement cannot be
verified, it should not be specified”
– If need be restate the specification into a form that can be
verified
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Documenting the Requirements Specification
• Document the above in to a deliverable form
Example: Typical Outline for a Requirements Specification
1. Overview
2. Statement of the problem
3. Operational description (derived from the draft user’s manual)
4. Requirements specification (see the case study in text Appendix A)
5. Design deliverables (all that is to be delivered to the customer)
6. Preliminary system (acceptance) test plan
7. Implementation considerations
– Customer training, service, and maintenance
– Manufacture
8. Attachments
– Studies (e.g., lab reports or marketing studies)
– Relevant codes and standards
• In the overview state why the design is being done, and what
are the expectations
– The executive summary
• The operational description will preview the user interface
(front panel, computer GUI, etc.)
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Closing Remarks
• The requirements specification will be useful to the end of
the project
– It is the agreement between the engineer and the customer
as to what is to be done
– It is a guide to remind the engineer as to what is to be
accomplished as they work on the project
– It is used to judge the final outcome
– It is an historical record; what was the thought process as
this particular design unfolded
– A document to help the manufacturers, operators, maintainers, and future designers (re-designers) in their work
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• “How will the problem be solved?”
<
Requirements
Analysis
System Design
Requirements
Specification
Detailed Design
Implementation
and
Verification
• Also known as systems engineering, this stage involves:
– conceptualizing, analyzing, refining, and
– selecting the ideas giving the best solution
• The output is a document that:
– Describes the design at a functional level
– Describes component parts that form the design
– Shows through analysis how the design meets the intended
objective
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The Importance of System Design
• Innovation and novelty occurs here (patentable?)
• Create the potential for outstanding performance
• Proficiency at systems-level design is the mark of a senior
engineer
• Junior level engineers typically step in after the system engineering is complete
– Junior engineers need to look for opportunities to gain
experience with this aspect
– Start now in senior design!
• Reasons for having a solid system-level design
– Decide if the problem is tractable
– What are the performance limits of a design and are these
limits acceptable
– Get good estimates on cost before spending too much time
on the actual design (i) cost of finishing the design, (ii)
cost of manufacturing the design
– Reduce the risk of the design not functioning properly
– Increase the product reliability
– Reduce the overall cost of product development
– Provide a framework to organize and coordinate the engineers to work on the design
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System Block Diagrams
• Dissect a complex problem into manageable smaller problems
– Subdivide until the problem size is small enough to conceive a hardware/software solution
• In a design context, system means a group of interconnected
elements that work together to form a function
• Each element may also be viewed as a subsystem
– At some point the subdividing stops and we are left with a
collection interconnected parts, e.g., resistors, capacitors,
and diodes
• A system block diagram displays how the group of subsystems is interconnected to form a system
– Each block performs a well defined function
– The functions are usually drawn as rectangular blocks
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Example: A 12v Battery Charger
hot
neutral
ground
+16v
18v peak
Full-wave
Rectifier
Transformer
+14a
Current
Limiter
+14
Ammeter
(red)
ground
Power-On
Light
ground
(black)
• Block names should be meaningful
• The functional elements here may be helpful in costing the
design
• The design is composed of five blocks that can be viewed as
five smaller problems
– A sketch of the front panel may also be created at this
point to better visualize how the ammeter and power-on
light will be oriented to the user
• The above block diagram is likely not the first version
– The first white-board sketch may be rather crude
– As the design concept is refined, the block diagram is
fleshed out with more detail and possibly block subdividing
• The design process and refinements to the block diagram go
hand-in-hand
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The System Design Process
• Synthesis, analysis, and iteration
Reject Unworkable Designs
Requirements
Specification
Development
of Concepts
Analysis
Iteration
Synthesis
Select and Document
System
Specification
Detailed
Design
• The system specification will contain a description of each
block in the block diagram
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• It will also describe how the blocks work together, and satisfy
the requirements specification
• Big questions are is the design required?
– A commercial-of-the-shelf solution (COTS) may already
exist
– Is the COTS product good enough to meet all requirements, even in the future when the product may need to
satisfy additional requirements?
– Perform a Web search and/or talk with those knowledgeable of the product area
• Leading up to the system specification requires the engineer
to first conceptualize a solution, synthesis it, analyze it to see
if requirements can be met, and as needed iterate the synthesis/analysis phase multiple times
Conceptualization: A Hazy Perception of the Solution
• A primitive solution lacking a detailed definite form
• Requires thinking and reasoning together with past experience and scientific knowledge
• Creative thinking skills needed, which comes from experience and practice
– Nonlinear thinking skills generally not encountered in past
engineering course work
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Synthesis: Create a Well Defined Structure or Concept
• Enough detail is needed so that analysis can be performed
relative to performance, risk, and cost
• A block diagram is required here to break the problem down
(divide and conquer)
• Conflicting forces:
– Complete the design quickly
– Desire for a novel solution that offers a cost or performance advantage over the competition
• Try to adapt an existing design (reference design)
• Linear thinking offers the most predictable results, but a difficult problem may not yield to this process
• When a reference design does not exist, an original concept is
required
– Brainstorm with other team members to find a concept that
can get you off the ground
– If you are uncertain even after a small start, perform some
preliminary analysis to gain confidence you are moving in
the right direction
Analysis: Model/Analyze/Simulate/Breadboard/
• The objective is to determine if the synthesized system meets
performance and cost objectives
• Risk must also be assessed
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• Failure to identify via analysis and simulation that a design is
lacking, must be avoided
• Preliminary design reviews (PDRs) and technical interchange
meetings (TIMs) will give others the opportunity to see problems you may not see, and force a synthesis/analysis iteration
Refinement: Modify the Concept Based on Analysis Results
• Refinement is inevitable
• Minor modifications may be all that is needed
• A totally new structure may be needed if the original design
is found to be at its performance limits
• Economics will also factor into the refinement
– The easiest refinement approach may be too expensive or
too risky
Documentation: Describes Block Function and Interconnection
• Provide details on how each function is to be implemented
• Describe interfaces to other blocks
The Synthesis/Analysis Cycle
• Not all concepts can be synthesized
• It might be that after trying a few cycles of synthesis/analysis
a concept is discarded
• The engineer must start over, and again work to overcome
deficiencies of earlier concepts
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• For critical designs, more than one engineer may be assigned
to conceptualize, synthesize, and analyze
performance
concept 1
second set
of revisions
+
+
concept 2
first set
of revisions
revisions
x
**
*
+
reference 1
performance
threshold
x
x
structures
reference 2
Block-Diagram Basics
• The fruit of the systems-engineering design phase
• Specify blocks so that the detailed design of the block can be
accomplished by a single engineer
• Suggestions for senior design
– Each block should be implemented in a single technology,
e.g., analog RF, analog baseband, digital
– Common functions grouped into a single block
– Create blocks to simplify the interfaces between them
– Avoid feedback loops; try to keep feedback inside a given
block
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– Specify interfaces using standards when possible (RF, analog, logic levels, etc.)
– Timing diagrams for complex interfaces
Documentation
• The documentation will be used by everyone who has a stake
in the project
– Used to complete the detailed design and implementation
of the blocks in the block diagram
– Contains the details used in the system-level design so that
future modifications resulting from bugs/errors can be
dealt with efficiently
– Used as a reference design for future/next generation products
– Used by test engineers to design test fixtures and test procedures
– Used by marketing to develop data sheets, manuals, and
other literature for advertising and technical support
System Specification Organization
• The concept
• The block diagram
• Functional description of the blocks
• Description of the system
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• System analysis
Example: 12v Battery Charger Revisited
Sec.
Table of Contents Entry
1.
The concept
2.
Inputs/outputs and system block diagram
3.
Specification of the blocks
3.1 Transformer
3.2 Full wave rectifier
3.3 Current limiter
3.4 Power-on light
3.5 Ammeter
4.
System description
5.
System analysis
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Detailed Example: Power Line Flicker Meter
Concept
personal
computer
sampler
A/D
v(t)
converter
Preliminary Block Diagram
between pm
hot
v(t)
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• Relevant high level management questions include:
– “How much is the design going to cost?”
– “When can you deliver?”
• Secondary concerns include:
– “How many people do you need?”
– “What skills must they possess?”
– “What load will you place on the lab and the machine
shop?”
– “Will you be using any special (scarce) test equipment?”
• The goal of project management is to complete on time and
on budget
Text Project Definition: A quantifiable piece of work with
defined start, end, and with specific deliverables.
Other project attributes:
• The output is low volume, a unique product/service
• There are measurable objectives
• It uses a limited set of resources (people, materials, equipment)
• The work is often complex, uncertain, and/or urgent
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The Project Management Approach
Project Organization
• Projects are always configured with some form of top-down
management
Senior
Management
Purchasing
Marketing
Manufacturing
Project
Manager
(R. Borden)
Electrical
Main Board
Design
(F. Bond)
Power Supply
Design
(M. King)
Mechanical
Packaging
Design
(J. Duzek)
Finance
& Admin.
Support
Drawing
Office
(CAD)
Prototype
Shop
Technician
Support
(D. Houseman)
• Individuals are typically assigned to more than one project
)45
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Elements of Project Management
• Meeting budget and meeting schedule
• Three main elements are
– Planning: A project plan defines the work to be done
along with a schedule, and a budget
– Monitoring: Compare actual progress with the plan and
make adjustments as needed
– Control: Make choices about how to optimize project performance; reallocate resources to make sure tasks complete on time and integrate smoothly
• There are many management theories
• Management theory is beyond the scope of this course, but it
is safe to say that over an engineer’s career, they will experience a variety approaches, some of which they may find more
difficult to cope with than others
The Project Plan
• A concise statement as to how a project is to be conducted
• The project plan can take many forms, largely dependent
upon the complexity and size/scope of the work
• All plans contain
– Definition of the Work: A breakdown of the various tasks
needed to complete the project
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– Schedule: Dates/times for completing tasks and subtasks,
demarcated by milestones
– Resource Requirements: Estimate each engineer’s time,
materials, equipment, and other support services
– Cost Estimate (project budget): An estimate of all costs
associated with the project
• The planning process parallels the system design stage
Design
Process
System
Design
Planning
Process
Preliminary
Plan
Define
Work
Develop
Schedule
Estimate
Resources
Project
Plan
Estimate
Costs
Detailed
Design
)45
Design
Management
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Defining the Work
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• The text considers the project planning associated with a
RPM measurement device (RMD)
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• What makes up a task?
• Several rules apply:
– (1) Consider a top-down approach starting with just a few
tasks, then break them down adding detail and complexity;
bottom-up lists all small tasks to define the project, then
combine to simplify the work definition
– (2) Each block in the block diagram should initially be a
single task; if several blocks form a single module (e.g. circuit board), combine the tasks into one
– (3) Tasks should be assignable to individual team members
– (4) Work that leads up to a milestone should be a task, with
a new task starting after the milestone (not always)
– (5) Tasks will rely on inputs from other tasks, while a task
is in process it should be independent of additional inputs
– (6) Too many tasks increases administrative load; engineers like to design, not shuffle paper. Too few tasks oversimplifies, and increases the chance for errors in budget,
schedule, and resources (newbie advice—a few too many
is better than too few)
Scheduling
• The logical sequencing of tasks
• Project schedules can be kept in tools such as Microsoft Project, or for this course a simple bar (Gantt) chart
)45
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• Two categories are network diagrams and simple bar charts
• For the capstone design the bar chart is adequate
Network Diagrams
• For future reference you may encounter network diagrams
knows as precedence diagrams
– Critical path method (CPM)
– Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
• Graphically illustrate interdependence and precedence
among tasks
• Consider the activity on arrow (AOA) method
Start
0
Main Board (4)
System
Design (3)
3
Power Supply (1)
Int. &
7
Test (1)
8
Finalize
(1.5)
9.5
Prototype
(1.5)
End
11
Packaging (3)
Project Management (11)
– The completion time is in the lower half of each node
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• A more detailed variation is the activity-on-node (AON)
method
START
END
2.0
4.0
MAIN BOARD
3
1.0
3.0
SYS DESIGN
0
0
3
0
3.0
7
1.0
PWR SUPPLY
3
3.0
4.0
Critical Path
5.0
1.0
6.0
INT & TEST
4
7
0
FINALIZE
8
8
0
7.0
1.5
PROTOTYPE
9.5
9.5
0
11
3.0
Task No.
PACKAGING
3
1.5
1.0
6
Elapse Time
8.0
11.0
PROJ MGMT
0
Start
Week
0
Slack
Time
11
End Week
• Key aspects of all network diagrams is the ability to illustrate
– Precedence
– Critical paths
– Slack time
Reviewing the Work Description
• Once a schedule is developed a means to improve the schedule might be revealed
– Add another engineer
– Requirements changes
)45
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Bar (Gantt) Charts
• The schedule tool of choice in the 4890/4899 sequence is the
Gantt chart or time-line diagram
TASKS
01
08
APRIL
15
22
29
06
MAY
13
20
27
03
JUNE
10
17
1.0 SYSTEM DESIGN
2.0 MAIN BOARD
DESIGN
3.0 POWER SUPPLY
DESIGN
4.0 PACKAGING DESIGN
5.0 INTEGRATE & TEST
6.0 FINALIZE DESIGN
7.0 CONSTRUCT
PROTOTYPES
8.0 PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
MAR 25
APRIL 15
MAY 20
JUNE 1
JUNE 10
MILESTONES
START
FINALIZE
SYST DESIGN
COMPLETE
DESIGN
ACCEPTANCE SIGNOFF
TEST
END
• Color or line type coding and a legend can be used to indicate
individual team member responsibility
• The text contends that Gantt charts are usually developed
from network diagrams
• Gantt charts are particularly useful when making customer
presentations
– Consider the network chart as the manager’s personal tool,
used to develop the Gantt chart
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– The Gantt chart is used by the manager when making presentations
Comments
• Work hard on making the schedule
– It maybe used to sell customers and company management
alike on the viability of the project
• Project team members use it to see how their work relates to
others, and better understand why they need to meet a deadline (no vacation or leisure time until . . .)
• Common schedule problems
– Too many tasks make for a confusing schedule
– Too few tasks make the project flow difficult to understand
(can you really do this!?)
– Inconsistent with some areas having a lot of detail and others too little
– Individual team member roles are not clearly identified;
don’t let this happen!
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Planning Resources and Estimating Costs
• Resources and estimating costs are closely linked, so they
often occur together
Costing Practices
• Personnel
• Lab, shop, and other internal facilities
• Outside services and facilities
• Supplies and materials
Estimating Personnel Requirements
• The largest category
• Availability of personnel with the right skills will have a big
impact on the schedule
Budget Preparation
• Organize into a table broken down into categories that
include personnel, services, and expenses
Putting the Plan Together
• The project plan document
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Managing the Project
• The three functions of project management include
– Monitoring
– Reporting
– Problem resolution
Performance Monitoring
• Is the design going to meet the performance as stated in the
system specification?
Task Progress
• The project manager discusses progress with each team
member, e.g., weekly status report delivered to manager and
a visit to the manager’s office
• Percent of task complete; an estimate
Schedule Status
• Pull task progress info together and provide an update of the
overall schedule status
Budget Status
• Three key questions:
– Are expenditures occurring as planned
– Are expenditures occurring when planned
– Is the project cost tracking the estimate
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Reporting
• Project manager submits a (monthly) status report
– Summary of work completed
– Problem areas
– Plans for the next period
– Schedule and budget (updates)
Problem Resolution
• Projects can/will encounter:
– Taking longer than expected to meet objectives
– Taking more resources (costing more) than expected
– It is technically infeasible to meet some objectives
• Solution approaches
– Accept a delay but stay within budget
– Add resources and increase the project cost
– Change the deliverables. Perhaps adjust specifications or
eliminate deliverables; (descoping) to maintain schedule
– Reorganize the project to utilize resources more effectively
• The last two approaches require an amendment to the statement of work and will require the customer to sign-off
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Block Design
Design Management
Communication
Documentation Control
Design Reviews
Principles of Testing
Stages of Testing
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Test Practices
The System Test
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