Download Chapter 22 Summary The Civil War took up where Napoleon and

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Issues of the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

United States presidential election, 1860 wikipedia, lookup

Military history of African Americans in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Mississippi in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

United Kingdom and the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Union (American Civil War) wikipedia, lookup

Hampton Roads Conference wikipedia, lookup

Border states (American Civil War) wikipedia, lookup

South Carolina in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps wikipedia, lookup

Opposition to the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Alabama in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Virginia in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Lost Cause of the Confederacy wikipedia, lookup

Tennessee in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Georgia in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Conclusion of the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Economy of the Confederate States of America wikipedia, lookup

Confederate privateer wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Namozine Church wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Gaines's Mill wikipedia, lookup

Maryland Campaign wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Fort Pillow wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Seven Pines wikipedia, lookup

Battle of New Bern wikipedia, lookup

First Battle of Bull Run wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Cedar Creek wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Lewis's Farm wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Antietam wikipedia, lookup

Capture of New Orleans wikipedia, lookup

Anaconda Plan wikipedia, lookup

Blockade runners of the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Wilson's Creek wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Malvern Hill wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Harpers Ferry wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Appomattox Station wikipedia, lookup

East Tennessee bridge burnings wikipedia, lookup

Red River Campaign wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Fredericksburg wikipedia, lookup

Texas in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Shiloh wikipedia, lookup

Union blockade wikipedia, lookup

Union Army wikipedia, lookup

Cavalry in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Eastern Theater of the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Sailor's Creek wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Cumberland Church wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Island Number Ten wikipedia, lookup

Battle of Perryville wikipedia, lookup

Arkansas in the American Civil War wikipedia, lookup

Northern Virginia Campaign wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 22 Summary
The Civil War took up where Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington had left off in 1815.
Commanders were willing to sustain high casualties if the objective of a battle was important enough. As
in the eighteenth century, however, the general who realized that he had been outfoxed was duty
bound to disengage so that his army could fight another day. Civil War armies were comprised of
cavalry, artillery, and infantry with support units. The cavalry’s principal job was reconnaissance. Before
an attacking army moved, its artillery slugged away at enemy positions with exploding shells. The
infantry was the backbone of the army. Except for special units of sharpshooters, there was not much
aiming. As always, the men who fought the Civil War were young, most between the ages of 17 and 25.
The burden fell more heavily on the poor because of legal ways to dodge the draft. Both Union and
Confederate armies were plagued by a high desertion rate. Most women who wanted to serve became
nurses.
Abraham Lincoln shared the illusion that the war would be short and almost painless. These
pleasant visions were blown away at the Battle of Bull Run, where Confederate Thomas Jackson earned
his reputation. Davis cautioned Richmond society that there was hard fighting to come, a lot of it.
Lincoln gave George McClellan command of what was named the Army of the Potomac. McClellan had
been a superb organizer and administrator, just what the Union needed. A three-part strategy Winfield
Scott had recommended became, with modifications, Union policy. First, Washington had to be
defended by the Army of the Potomac. Second, the Union would win complete control of the
Mississippi. Third, the Union would blockade the South. Southern chances of victory were, on the face
of it, pretty thin. Nevertheless, the southern cause was far from hopeless. Confederate leaders looked
for a foreign ally to help them. Both the British and French governments looked favorably on the
Confederate cause in 1861. For the British, the hang-up was slavery.
One of the president’s most controversial acts was his suspension of the ancient legal right of
habeas corpus. Defeatism was worrisome in the North. In 1861 and most of 1862, the Confederates
won all the battles in Virginia. Lincoln was no soldier, but he understood better than Lee the importance
of the war in the West. Indeed, Shiloh showed how bloody the war would be. The Confederacy came
close to breaking the blockade of the Chesapeake Bay in March 1862 with the ironclad, the Merrimack.
However, the Union responded with an ironclad of their own, the Monitor. McClellan's lack of
aggressiveness was partly a personality issue, but it was also a political one. His Peninsula Campaign
plan was ingenious, but his hesitation cost him his advantage. Antietam was the worst single day of the
war and a costly defeat for Lee. Lincoln, though, used the victory to issue his ultimatum on slavery. The
Emancipation Proclamation was a political master stroke.