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Transcript
BTEC First Diploma in Information and
Creative Technology
Learning aims

A. Understand how the components of technology
systems work together.
B. Understand how data flows between internal
components of a computer and is processed to
provide information.
C. Understand different types of software.
Internal components
of a computer

 A computer is made up of different components.
 These components can be internal, e.g. CPU, RAM or
hard drive, or external, e.g. keyboard, mouse,
webcam.
 At the heart of a technology system is at least one
computer.
Activity

 Feedback ideas to the board regarding the following:
 Create two lists with the following titles:
1.
2.
External Components
Internal Components
 Under each heading write down as many components
as you can think of.
 Which of the internal components on your list have
the greatest effect on the computer’s performance?
 Why do you think this is?
Activity

 Main components of a computer, research activity.
 Type up the following table and explain what each
component is.
 Where possible provide a diagram/ image to show what
the component looks like.
Activity – complete table

Component:
Motherboard
Central processing unit (CPU)
Arithmetic and logic unit
Control unit
Registers
Memory
Graphics card (or video card)
Sound
Heat dispersal
Storage devices
Optical drive
Description:
Image:
How a computer works

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_QElVrqBwnk
Processing digital data

 The hard drive is
the computer’s
storage device.
 It is used to load
programs (apps)
into RAM so the
CPU can run.
 The storage device
is also used for
documents, these
are copied into
RAM when opened
or to storage when
saved
 https://www.yout
ube.com/watch?v=
Wksj3-Igzmw
The CPU

 ALU (arithmetic logic unit) - does the math and key
processing (For example, can tell if 4 > 3?)
 CU (Control Unit) - tells what instruction is executed
next
 CPU (Central Processing Unit) - contains the ALU &
CU - the heart of a computer!
 We measure the speed of a CPU by clock speed
(GHz) which can be thought of as billions of
instruction steps per second.
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJjLFj6f8z8
The CPU

A system accepts Input (data), Processes that data in the CPU
(Computer Processing Unit) and Outputs Information.
Below is a representation of this processing:
https://www.
youtube.com/
watch?v=jeS4
0KiM5yk
GPU
(graphical processing unit)

 The CPU and the GPU (which processes visual images) have a
massive effect on a computer’s performance.
 These run all the instructions and complete the calculations.
 The speed at which instructions and calculations within the CPU
and GPU occur, and the synchronisation of all the components
within the processor are regulated by a clock.
 A micro processor requires a fixed number of clock cycles to
execute each instruction.
 The clock speed is typically measured in MHz (megahertz) or GHz
(gigahertz). In general, the faster the clock speed, the more
instructions the processor can execute per second and the higher
the performance of the computer.
 Processors often have multiple processing cores. Each core is able
to run code independently, so more cores means more code is
being processed at the same time. Therefore programs run faster
and the user experience is improved.
Cache Memory

 Cache memory is used between faster and slower devices
to let them work more quickly together.
 The fast device writes or reads to/from the cache memory
and the slower devices updates as quickly as it can. For
example:
 The processor has cache memory to speed up access to the
slower RAM, which means that the processor isn’t idle
while it waits for RAM to respond to an instruction.
 Slower hard drives have a cache memory to speed up disk
access between the RAM and the hard drive.
 The power supply unit (PSU) must produce enough
power (watts) for all the components in the computer.
Data buses

 A data bus is simply a circuit that connects one part
of the motherboard to another.
 The more data a bus can handle at one time
(capacity), the faster it allows information to travel
between components and the better the performance
of the computer.
 There are many types of bus that are used for
transferring data within a computer (internal bus)
and for transferring data between computers
(external).
Key terms

 Machine code- a computer programming language consisting of binary or
hexadecimal instructions that a computer can respond to directly.
 RAM – stands for Random Access Memory
 CPU – the central processing unit, the part of the computer that controls
the entire system and processes data.
 GPU – Graphical processing unit, a key component that supports the
delivery and quality of graphics.
 Clock speed – how quickly a component works, the faster the better!
 Multiple processing core – where multiple cores (central processing
units)read and execute instructions simultaneously.
 Cache memory – a fast memory that is used as a data buffer between the
CPU and RAM.
 PSU – the power supply unit that plugs into the mains electricity socket. It
converts mains electricity into low voltage electricity for the computer
components. Every PSU produces the same voltage, but may produce a
different amount of power (wattage). E.g. a 600W PSU is more powerful
than a 400W PSU.
Activity

 Enter these key terms into your table.
 Find an image where appropriate.
Speed and Costs

 The components inside a computer have a huge
impact on the performance and the cost.
 Processors are continually being developed, with
new models regularly entering the market place that
offer improved performance, often with very high
price tags.
 AMD and Intel have been in competition for decades
to produce the best processor products, typically
found in PCs and laptops.
Activity

 Visit and independent website that tests and reports
on computer hardware, such as Tom’s Hardware.
 Use the link at the bottom of the home page to jump
to the processor charts pages.
 Find one processor each from AMD and Intel with
similar performance.
 Find out:
1. What is the price of each one?
2. Which is the more expensive and why do you think
that might be?
Activity
Label the diagram

Activity

Check!

1. List the main components of a computer
2. What is machine code?
3. How is data processed?