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Introduction to Manufacturing
Principles Of Engineering
© 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Products and Manufacturing
Product Creation Cycle
Design → Material Selection → Process
Selection → Manufacture → Inspection →
Typical product
cost breakdown
Manufacturing Process
A sequence of operations and processes
designed to create a specific product
The process of turning materials into a
Engineers in Manufacturing
Manufacturing Engineer
Select and coordinate specific processes
and equipment
Industrial Engineer
Responsible for the manufacturing system
Materials Engineer
Develop and select materials based on
desired material properties and
manufacturing processes
Manufacturing System Designs
Job Shop
Small quantities of products
Large variety of products
Products move through the shop to
various machines
General-purpose machines
Manufacturing System Designs
Flow Shop
Larger quantities of products
Production line
Special purpose machines
Manufacturing System Designs
Linked-Cell Shop
Manufacturing and subassembly cells
connected to final assembly
Lean production system
One piece flow system
Manufacturing System Designs
Project Shop
Product being manufactured cannot be
easily moved during production
Production processes are brought to the
Examples: Bridges, ships, large airplanes,
locomotives, large machinery
Manufacturing System Designs
Continuous Process
Large plants
Utilized in the manufacture of liquids, oils,
gases, and powders
Manufacturing System Designs
Lean Manufacturing
100% “good” units flow from process
to process
Integrated quality control (IQC)
All employees are inspectors
Basic Manufacturing Processes
Casting and Foundry
Forming or Metalworking
Joining and Assembly
Rapid Prototyping
Casting and Foundry Processes
In one step raw materials are transformed
into a desirable shape
Parts require finishing processes
Excess material is recyclable
Basic Casting Process
A mold is created – A cavity that holds the molten
material in a desired shape until it is solidified
Multiple-use mold
Single-use molds
Material is heated to a specified temperature
Molten material is poured into a mold cavity
Molten material solidifies into the shape of the cavity
Casting or mold is removed
Casting is cleaned, finished, and inspected
Forming and Metalworking Processes
Utilizes material that has been cast
Modify the shape, size, and physical
properties of the material
Hot and cold forming
Forming and Metalworking Processes
Rolling – Material passes through a series of
rollers, reducing its thickness with each pass
Forging – Material is shaped by the controlled
application of force (blacksmith)
Forming and Metalworking Processes
Extrusion – Material is compressed and forced
through a die to produce a uniformed cross section
Wire, rod, and tube drawing – Material is pulled
through a die to produce a uniformed cross section
Forming and Metalworking Processes
Cold forming and forging – Slugs of material
are squeezed into dies
Machining Processes
Controlled removal of material from a part to
create a specific shape or surface finish
Cutting element is used
Movement must exist between the part and
cutting element
Machining Processes
Turning Processes
Operations that create cylindrical parts
Work piece rotates as cutting tool is fed into
the work
Machining Processes
Turning Processes
Lathes and turning centers
Processes include: Straight, taper, contour
turning, facing, forming, necking, parting,
boring, threading, and knurling
Machining Processes
Milling Processes
Operations that create flat or curved
surfaces by progressively removing
Cutting tools rotate as the work piece is
secured and fed into the tool
Machining Processes
Milling Processes
Mills – Vertical and horizontal
Processes include: Surfacing, shaping,
forming, slotting, T-slotting, angle, straddle,
dovetailing, and slab milling
Machining Processes
Drilling Processes
Operations that create holes
Cutting tools rotate and are fed into
nonmoving secured work pieces
Machining Processes
Drilling Processes
Drilling and boring machines
Processes include: Drilling, counter drilling,
step drilling, boring, counter boring,
countersinking, reaming, spot facing, and
Machining Processes
Shearing Processes
Operations that break unwanted material away
from the part
A material is placed between a stationary and
movable surface. The movable surface (blade,
die, or punch) applies a force to the part that
shears away the unwanted material.
Machining Processes
Shearing Processes
Automated hole punch, squaring shear, and
rotary cutter
Processes include: Shearing, blanking, cutoff,
and parting; punching, perforating, and slotting;
notching, lacing, and trimming
Machining Processes
Abrasive Machining Processes
Operations in which small particles of materials
(abrasives) remove small chips of material upon
Drum, disc, and belt sanders; surface, vertical
and horizontal spindle; disc grinders; media
blaster; tumblers
Machining Processes
Thermal and Chemical Processes
Operations that cut and shape materials
through chemical means
No mechanical force is used
Electrical discharge, electrochemical,
chemical, laser, electron beam, flame
cutting, and plasma-arc cutting
Processes include: Grinding, sawing,
cutting, machining, milling, blanking, and
Heat Treating Processes
Controlled heating and cooling of a material to
alter its properties while maintaining its shape
Properties include: Strength, toughness,
machinability, wear resistance, and corrosion
90% of heat treating is preformed on steel and
other ferrous metals
Heat Treating Processes
To aid in the manufacturing process, materials
can be treated to be weak and ductile and
then can be re-treated to provide high
Can also occur incidentally during the
manufacturing process
Joining and Assembly Processes
Can you think of a product with only one
Most products consist of multiple parts that
are assembled to form a finished product.
Typical assembly processes include:
Mechanical fastening; soldering and
brazing, welding; adhesive bonding
Joining and Assembly Processes
Mechanical Fastening
Use physical force to hold parts together
Mechanical fasteners or part design
Screws, bolts, nails, rivets, cotter pins,
retaining clips, and edge design
Joining and Assembly Processes
Operations that use heat, pressure, or both
to permanently join parts
Gas, arc, stud, spot, forge, roll laminating,
resistance, and induction welding
Joining and Assembly Processes
Adhesive bonding
Bonding of adjoining surfaces by filling the
gap between each surface with a bonding
Glue, cement, thermoplastic, thermosetting,
and elastomers
Joining and Assembly Processes
Soldering and Brazing
Operation in which metal surfaces are
bonded together by an alloy
Heated molten alloy flows between the
adjoining surfaces
When the heat is removed, the molten
metal solidifies and the metal surfaces are
Rapid Prototyping
Additive process
Parts are produced directly from software
Common rapid prototyping systems include:
stereolithography (SLA), selective laser
sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling
(FDM), laminated object manufacturing
(LOM), digital light processing (DLP)
Rapid Prototyping
Finished parts can be field tested depending
upon building material
Created parts can be used to create a mold
Modifications to design can be implemented
Other Manufacturing Processes
Material handling
Manufacturing Processes
Plastic Processes
Ceramic Processes
Plastics Manufacturing Processes
A rotating screw forces plastic through a
heating chamber and then through a
heated die
Produces long plastic parts with uniform
cross sections
Plastics Manufacturing Processes
Injection Molding
Heated plastic is forced by a movable plunger
through a nozzle and then into a mold. The material
fills the mold and then is cooled.
Most widely used high-volume production process
Plastics Manufacturing Processes
Plastic is melted and poured into a mold –
No pressure or fillers are required.
Rotational Molding
A closed mold is filled with a
predetermined amount of plastic. The
mold is heated, rotated, and then cooled
to create a hollow plastic object with
uniform wall thickness.
Plastics Manufacturing Processes
Blow Molding
A solid bottom hollow tube is placed
between two mold halves and heated.
The heated tube is then expanded into
the sides of the mold with compressed
Plastics Manufacturing Processes
Plastic sheets are heated over an open
mold to a working temperature. Once
workable, a vacuum is applied to the mold,
forcing the plastic sheet to take the shape
of the mold.
Reaction Molding
Liquid reactants are mixed and then
pressurized into a mold.
No heat is needed. Curing time is typically
less than 1 minute.
Ceramic Manufacturing Processes
Two distinct classes of materials and
processes exist.
Glass is heated to a molten state, shaped
by viscous flow, and then cooled to
produce a solid.
Crystalline Ceramics
Material is shaped and then heated
to produce a permanent solid.
Manufacturing Importance
Typical product
cost breakdown