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AP Psychology
Amador Valley High School/Emerson
Important Individuals to Study for the AP Psych Exam
Adler, Alfred
Kohlberg, Lawrence
Ainsworth, Mary
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth
Asch, Solomon
Lewin, Kurt
Baillargeon, Rene
Loftus, Elizabeth
Bandura, Albert
Maslow, Abraham
Baumrind, Diana
Masters, William & Johnson, Virginia
Beck, Aaron
McClelland, David
Binet, Alfred
Milgram, Stanley
Bowlby, John
Pavlov, Ivan
Broca, Paul
Piaget, Jean
Cattell, Raymond
Rescorla, Robert
Chomsky, Noam
Rogers, Carl
Ebbinghaus, Hermann
Rosenthal, Robert
Ekman, Paul
Rotter, Julian
Ellis, Albert
Schacter, Stanley
Erikson, Erik
Seligman, Martin
Eysenck, Hans
Selye, Hans
Festinger, Leon
Skinner, BF
Freud, Sigmund
Spearman, George
Gardner, Howard
Sperling, George
Garcia, John
Steele, Claude
Gazzaniga, Michael & Sperry, Roger
Sternberg, Robert
Gilligan, Carol
Tolman, Edward
Hall, G. Stanley
Vygotsky, Lev
Harlow, Harry
Watson, John
Heider, Fritz
Weber, Ernst
Hilgard, Ernest
Wechsler, David
Hobson & McCarley
Wertheimer, Max
Horney, Karen
Whorf, Benjamin
Hubel, David & Wiesel, Torsten
Wolpe, Joseph
James, William
Wundt, Wilhelm
Jung, Carl
Zimbardo, Phillip
Kagan, Jerome
Directions: Fill in the blanks using the names on the first page.
Neurobiological Psych: did early research on a patient named T.A .who had brain damage
in his left hemisphere; region of the temporal lobe that produces spoken language
was named after him
Developmental Psychology: placed human infants into a “strange situation” in order to
examine attachment to parents
Cognitive Psych: research on learned helplessness using dogs;
studied pessimistic vs optimistic personality traits; ‘Postive Psychology’ movement
Developmental Psych & Testing and Individual Differences: creator of first intelligence test.
Social Psych: developed the cognitive dissonance theory
Cognition: theorized the critical period hypothesis for language acquisition; inherent language
acquisition device
Personality & States of Consciousness: psychosexual stage theory of personality (oral, anal,
phallic, and adult genital); importance of unconscious & sexual drive; psychoanalytic therapy;
Social Psych: conformity experiment—people incorrectly reported lengths of lines; also did
Impression formation study—professor was warm or cold
Motivation & Emotion: two-factor theory for emotion; cognitive label is key
10. Developmental Psych: challenged the universality of Kohlberg’s moral development theory
11. Sensation & Perception: discovered feature detectors, groups of neurons in the visual
cortex that respond to different types of visual images
12. Developmental Psych: psychosocial stage theory of development (8 stages; conflict at each
stage); neo-Freudian
13. Learning & Personality: social-learning theory (modeling); reciprocal determinism; self-efficacy;
14. Cognition: demonstrated the problems with eyewitness testimony and constructive memory
15. Social Psychology: obedience studies; participants think they are shocking a learner.
16. Methods, Approaches, & History: published The Principles of Psychology,
psychology’s first textbook; functionalism
17. Developmental Psych: stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
18. Learning: classical conditioning studies with dogs and salivation
19. Developmental Psych:
experimented with infant monkeys and attachment
20. Learning: revised the Pavlovian model of classical conditioning
21. Social Psych: did research on how we explain others’ behavior; father of attributional theory
22. Learning: father of behaviorism; Little Albert experiment—classically conditioned fear
23. Treatment of Psych Disorders & Personality: humanistic psychologist; person-centered therapy;
unconditional positive regard; Self Theory of personality
24. Cognition: experimented with the nature of sensory memory
25. Motivation & Emotion;Treatments: humanistic psychologist; hierarchy of needs,
26. Cognition: The linguistic relativity hypothesis
27. Learning: Operant conditioning; radical behaviorism
28. Developmental Psych: Stage theory of cognitive development
(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operations)
29. Learning: Experimented with latent learning; found that sometimes learning occurs,
but is not immediately evidenced
30. Methods, Approaches, & History: set up first psych lab in an apartment near
University at Leipzig; theory of structuralism; “Father” of psychology
31. Neurobiology: split-brain research; hemispheric specialization
32. Treatment of Psych Disorders: developed Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to treat
33. Developmental Psych: studied genetic bases of temperament; well-known for studying the trait
of shyness
34. Social Psych: primary researcher in Stanford Prison Experiment; focus on the power of the
situation in influencing behavior and attitudes; our favorite pop-up narrator!
35. Personality/Cognitive Psych: locus of control; internals and externals
36. Developmental Psych: researched evolutionary perspectives on attachment; analyzed
attachment in terms of survival value for infants
37. Intelligence & Testing: social psychologist who studied stereotype threat (vulnerability)
38. Treatment of Psych Disorders: developed Rational Emotive Therapy (REBT or RET)
39. Developmental Psych: studied parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive
40. Learning: conditioned taste aversion; biological predisposition to make some associations more
easily than others, especially taste-nausea associations
41. Intelligence & Testing: theory of multiple intelligences, not just language and logic
42. Neurobiology/Stress: examined patterns of physiological arousal in fight-or-flight response;
formulated general adaptation syndrome (GAS) – stages of stress response: alarm, resistance,
43. Intelligence & Testing: ‘g’ factor; general intelligence factor that governs all cognitive abilities
44. Personality/Psychodynamic: Neofreudian; collective unconscious; archetypes;
45. Developmental Psych: developed stages of grief and grieving: denial, anger, bargaining,
depression, acceptance
46. Intelligence & Testing: developed first intelligence test for adults; included verbal and non-verbal
(performance) scales on subtests; discarded ratio IQ in favor of deviation IQ (based on
normal distributions)
47. Developmental Psych: critic of Piaget; believed infants and children achieved cognitive
milestones earlier that Piaget established
48. Motivation & Emotion: conducted groundbreaking research on the sexual response cycle
49. States of Consciousness: developed activation-synthesis model of dreaming; dreams are the
brain’s interpretation of random neural firings originating in the brain stem
50. Motivation & Emotion: studied achievement motivation; individuals with high achievement
motivation tend to select tasks of intermediate difficulty
51. Methods, Approaches, & History: established America’s first research lab in psychology at
Johns Hopkins University; founded American Psychological Association
52. Cognition: graphed retention and forgetting over time (“forgetting curve for nonsense syllables”);
most forgetting occurs very rapidly after learning
53. Motivation/Social Psych: described and studied patterns of conflict (approach-approach;
approach-avoidance; avoidance-avoidance); studied leadership styles (democratic-autocratic)
54. Developmental Psych: socio-cultural theories of cognitive development; zone of proximal
development (ZPD) – role of guidance in developing cognitive skills
55. Intelligence & Testing: triarchic theory of intelligence: creative, analytical, practical
56. Personality: Neofreudian; striving for superiority is universal drive; superiority/inferiority
complex; compensation and overcompensation to conceal feelings of inferiority
57. Social Psych: role of expectancies (experimenter expectancy/bias; self-fulfilling prophecy) in
influencing behavior; ‘Pygmalion in the Classroom’ study
58. Emotion: universality of facial expressions, display rules, and facial feedback hypothesis
59. Treatment of Psych Disorders: used the classical conditioning process of systematic
desensitization as an effective treatment for anxiety disorders, esp phobias; hierarchy of
fear(anxiety) and relaxation
60. Sensation and Perception: Gestalt Principles in visual perception; the whole is greater than the
sum of its parts; proximity, closure, similarity, continuity, phi phenomenon, etc.
61. Sensation and Perception: studied sensitivity to differences between stimuli; the size of a just
noticeable difference (JND) is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus
62. States of Consciousness: developed the dissociation (divided consciousness) theory of
hypnosis; “hidden observer”
63. Personality: trait theory of personality; “Big Three” dimensions of personality– psychoticism,
neuroticism, extraversion
64. Psychodynamic/Personality: neofreudian; disputed some of Freud’s theories, esp penis envy;
coined term ‘womb envy’
65. Personality: trait theorist; used factor analysis to come up with 16 traits