Multicellular life Evolution of multicellular life Animal tissue types Campbell Fig1.1 Campbell Fig 20.2 Animal tissue types • What is a tissue? • A cooperative unit of many very similar cells that perform a specific function. • Examples – – – – Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous Review • • • • • • • • • What are the major characteristics of the plant, animal and fungi kingdoms? Sketch basic plant cell and compare it to an animal cell What are the basis tissue and organ types in plants? What is the function of each? What special cell are found in each type? List the major groups of plants and describe each. How does each group reproduce? What is alternation of generation? Draw a diagram that briefly describes this process. Which type of generation is dominant in each major plant group? What are fungi? Describe the basic body plan of a fungus. What are the major groups of fungi? How do they reproduce? What are lichens and mychorrhizae? List some harmful fungi and the conditions that result from them List some beneficial fungi and their effects. Review • Terms: decomposer, mutualism, parasite, Spore, sporangium, mushroom, lichaen, hyphae, mycellium, athlete’s foot, ringworm, Candida albicans, dikaryotic, fruiting body, sporophyte, gametophyte, N, 2N, haploid, diploid, photoautotrophic, cellulose, epidermis, mesophyll, stomata, guard cell, meristem, leaf , root, xylem,phloem,ground tissue, vascular tissue, algae, moss, fern, gymnosperm, angiosperm, vascular plant, non-vascularplant. Review • • • • • • • List the major animal phylums and describe the distinguishing characteristics of the animals in each. Give several examples of animals in each phylum. Describe the four tissue types, nervous, muscle, epithelial, connective. How did tissues and multicellular animals evolve? How do animals develop? Terms: Zygote, blastula,gastrula, larva Define choanocyte, ameobocyte, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, cephalization, dorsal, ventral , anterior, posterior, cnidocyte, gastrodermis,epidermis, gastrovascular cavity, polyp, medusa, hydra acoelomate, psudocoelomate, coelom, true body cavity. Planarians, flukes, tapeworms, proglottid, scolex, trichinella,redula, mantle, muscular foot, segmentation, earthworms, polychaetes, leeches, Hirudo, medicinalis, exoskeleton, cuticle, molting, head, thorax, abdomen, incomplete and complete metamorhosis, water vascular system, tube feet What are the basic chordate characteristics? Notochord etc Tunicate, amphioxus, lamprey, swimbladder, operculum, coelocanth, Review • • • • How did the first amphibians arrive on land Salamander, metamorphosis, frog, aquatic adaptations, terrestrial adaptations What are the major adaptations of amphibians, birds, reptiles and mammals. What are the different types of animals in these groups? Anmiotic egg,plastron, carapace, snake, lizard, turtle, feathers How did jaws evolve? Ectothemic, endothermic, acheaoptrex, mammals, placental, oviparous, marsupial, heterodont teeth Epithelial tissue • Covers and lines the body and its parts • One surface free, the other bound to basement membrane • Tissues are named by – Shape of cells – Number of layers of cells Epithelial tissue Campbell Fig 20.4 • • • • • Simple= single layer Stratified = multiple layers Squamous = flat (tiles) Cuboudal = like dice Columnar = like bricks Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal In the kidney tubules Campbell Fig 20.4 Lines the lungs Stratified Squamous Epithelium Campbell Fig 20.4 Lines the esophagus Ciliated columnar epithelium Campbell Fig 20.4 Lines the air ways in the respiratory system Connective tissue • Binds other tissues an provides support matrices • Few cells in a nonliving matrix • Three fiber types – Collagen fibers – Elastic fibers – Reticular fibers • Fibroblasts - cells that produce connective tissue Loose connective tissue (Areolar) Campbell Fig 20.5A Holds other tissue in place A “binding” material Other Connective tissues Campbell Fig 20.5 Loose Fibrous connective Adipose Cartilage Blood Bone Tendons Dense connective tissue that Attaches muscle to bone Like Campbell Fig 30.7 Bone Tissue • Osteocytes • Haversian canal • Lamelle (matrix) Campbell Fig 20.5D Bone Development Muscle tissue • Functions in movement • Bundles of long cells ( muscle fiber= muscle cell) • Skeletal muscle – Attached to bones by tendons, produces voluntary movement – Striated unbranched • Smooth muscle – Found in walls of digestive tract, produces involuntary movements – Unstriated, spindle shaped • Cardiac Muscle – Striated , branched, produces heartbeat Muscle tissue Campbell 20.6 Cardiac muscle Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Nervous Tissue • Responsible for coordinating body activties • Neurons are nerve cells • Motor neurons are nerves that activate muscles • Compsed of cell body and dendrites • Supported by glial cells Campbell Fig 28.3A Modified Nervous Tissue Campbell Fig 28.2 Summary Pop quiz • What Eukaryotic kingdom has no mitochondria and flagellar motion? • List the 4 basic animal tissue types.