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脊
柱
Vertebral column
基础医学院人体解剖教研室
The vertebral column脊柱 consists of
24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the
coccyx.
一、Vertebrae 椎骨






There are 33 vertebrae in children, arranged as
follows:
Cervical vertebrae 颈椎 C.7
Thoracic vertebrae 胸椎 T.12
Lumbar vertebrae 腰椎
L.5
Sacral vertebrae 骶椎
S.5
sacrum 骶骨
Coccygeal vertebrae 尾椎 Co.3~4
coccyx尾
骨
General features of vertebrae


Vertebral body 椎体
Vertebral arch 椎弓
 pedicle of vertebral arch 椎弓根:
sup. and inf. Vertebral notch
椎上、下切迹
 lamina of vertebral arch 椎弓板

process (7):
 spinous process 棘突
 transverse process 横突
 sup. and inf. articular processes
上、下关节突



Vertebral foramen 椎孔
Vertebral canal 椎管
Intervertebral foramen 椎间孔
Regional variations of vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae
 Vertebrae Body: small
 Vertebral foramen: larger
and triangular
 Spinous processes:
short and bifid in C3 to C5,
long in C6,and longer in C7
 Transverse processes:
short and bifid, transverse
foramen横突孔
 Articular processes:
horizontal
Atypical vertebeae

Atlas寰椎 (C1)
 Body and spinous
process absent,
consists of anterior
and posterior arches,
and two lateral
masses
 Groove for vertebral
artery 椎动脉沟

Axis枢椎 (C2):
distinguished by dens齿突
which articulates with
dental fovea of anterior
arch of atlas
Carotid tubercle: 颈动脉结节:
anterior tubercle of
transverse process of C6
 Vertebra prominens 隆椎
(C7):contains long and nonbifid spinous process, it is
visible with neck flexed, used
as clinical landmark in
counting cervical and
thoracic spinous processes

Thoracic vertebrae

Vertebrae Body :
heart-shape, superior and inferior
costal fovea 上、下肋凹

Vertebral foramen:
smaller, rounder

Spinous processes:
long, point obliquely downward

Transverse processes:
transverse costal fovea 横突肋凹

Articular processes: coronal
Lumbar vertebrae





Vertebrae Body:
larger, kidney-shape
Vertebral foramen:
larger and triangular
Spinous processes:
projects horizontally
Transverse processes:
long
Articular processes:
sagittal
Sacrum

Anterior surface:
promontory岬, anterior sacral
foramina 骶前孔(four pairs)

Posterior surface:
median sacral crest 骶正中嵴,
posterior sacral foramina (four
pairs), sacral hiatus骶管裂孔,
sacral cornu 骶角

Lateral part:
auricular surface耳状面, sacral
tuberosity骶粗隆
二、Articulations of Vertebrae
椎骨的连结
Joints of the vertebral bodies
Joints of the vertebral arches
1.Joints of the vertebral bodies 椎体间的连
结
Intervertebral discs
椎间盘


between bodies of adjacent
vertebrae, composed of:
Nucleus pulpous髓核, an
inner soft, pulpy, highly
elastic structure (gelatinous
core )
Annulus fibrosus纤维环
an outer fibrous ring
consisting of fibrocartilage
Anterior longitudinal ligament
前纵韧带


Strong band covering the anterior part of
the vertebral bodies and intervertebral
discs running from the anterior margin of
foramen magnum to the S1~S2
Maintains stability of the intervertebral
disc and prevents hyperextension of the
vertebral column
Posterior longitudinal
ligament后纵韧带


Attached to the posterior aspect of the
intervertebral discs and posterior edges
of the vertebral bodies from C2 vertebra
to sacrum
Prevents hyperflexion of the vertebral
column and posterior protrusion of the
discs
Hernia of nucleus pulpous
髓核脱出
2.Joints of the vertebral arches 椎弓间的连结





Ligamenta flava 黄韧带―
elastic ligament, unite laminae
of adjacent vertebrae, and
complete the posterior wall of
vertebral canal; tend to prevent
hyperflexion of the vertebral
column
Interspinal ligament 棘间韧带
Supraspinal ligament 棘上韧带
Ligamentum nuchae项韧带
Intertansverse ligament横突间
韧带

Zygapophysial joint 关节突关节
三、Atlantooccipital joint 寰枕关节
Between superior
articulating surfaces
of atlas and occipital
condyles
 Supported by
membrances and
ligaments that join
occipital bone and
atlas
 Action ― nodding of
head, lateral tilting of
head

四、Atlantoaxial joint 寰枢关节

Three synovial
joints between atlas
and axis
 Laterally, paired
joints between
articulating faces
 Median joint
between dens of
axis and anterior
arch of atlas
•Supported by ligaments
apical ligament of
dens 齿突尖韧带
alar ligament 翼状韧带
transverse ligament of
atlas寰椎横韧带
tectorial membrane 覆
膜
•Action ― allow atlas
(and head) to pivot on the
axis and vertebral
column
五、Normal Curves of vertebral column




Cervical curvature颈曲
convex forward
Thoracic curvature胸曲
convex backward
Lumbar curvature腰曲
convex forward
Sacral curvature骶曲
convex backward
六、Movement of the vertebral column
•
•
•
•
•
flexion
extension
lateral flexion
rotation
circumduction
脊
柱 裂
Spina bifida cystica
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