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Transcript
7th Curriculum Guide Outline 2016 - 2017
UNIT 1: FORCES AND INTERACTIONS (Quarter 1)
Driving Question:
How can one describe physical interactions between objects and within systems of objects?
BOOK: Motion, Forces and Energy
Chapter 1: Describing and Measuring Motion
1.1- Describing and Measuring Motion
1.3- Acceleration
Key terms:
● motion
● reference point
● speed (no calculations)
● velocity
● acceleration (no calculations)
● slope
Key concepts and standards:
● an object is in motion if it changes position relative to a reference point. (MS-PS2-2)
● when you know both the speed and the direction of an object’s motion, you know the velocity of
the object (MS-PS2-2; clarification statement help students understand Newton’s 2nd Law)
● acceleration is a change in velocity (increasing speed, decreasing speed, or a change in
direction) (MS-PS2-2; clarification statement help students understand Newton’s 2nd Law)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● student plans and designs investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's
motion depends on the sums of the forces on the object, and the mass of the object
○ changing one variable at a time (force or mass)
Enrichment Activity:
● graphing motion (distance versus time) to see speed
● bubble tubes
● friction investigation (can use friction boards)
● speed calculations
Chapter 2: Forces
2.1-The Nature of Force
2.2- Friction and Gravity
2.3- Newton's First and Second Laws
2.4- Newton's Third Law
Key terms:
● force
● net force
● balanced forces
● gravity
● friction (only as an opposing force, different types of friction forces not necessary)
● weight
● Newton
● unbalanced forces
● mass
● inertia
● Newton’s three laws
Key concepts and standards:
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A force is described by its strength and by the direction in which it acts. (MS-PS2-2)
Unbalanced forces acting on an object result in a net force and cause a change in the
object’s motion. (MS-PS2-2)
Balanced forces acting on an object do not change the object’s motion. (MS-PS2-2)
Two factors affect the gravitational attraction between objects: mass and distance. (MSPS2-4)
An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object moving at a constant velocity will
continue moving at a constant velocity, unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force.
(MS-PS2-2)
Acceleration depends on the object’s mass and on the net force acting on the object.
(MS-PS2-2)
If one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of
equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object. (MS-PS2-1)
Impact of collisions between two cars and between a car and stationary objects (MSPS2-1)
Gravitational interactions are always attractive (MS-PS2-4)
When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy
to be transferred to or from the object (MS-PS3-2)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● student designed collision project
● touch down challenge (lunar landing)*
● newspaper tables
● rockets*
Enrichment Activity:
● calculating Newton’s 2nd Law and momentum
BOOK: Electricity and Magnetism
Chapter 1: Magnetism
1.1 - What is magnetism?
Key terms
● magnet
● magnetic force
● magnetic field
Key Concepts and standards:
● Magnetic forces can be both attractive and negative (MS-PS2-3)
● Objects can exert forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact, through
fields (MS-PS2-5)
● Magnetic force depends on the magnitude of the charges, or magnetic strength (MS-PS2-3)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● magnetic art- build a structure using only magnets (intro activity, followed by class discussion on
how they built it and why it worked- investigate parts of a magnet, how strong is each part, etc)
● Magnetic scavenger hunt: what is magnetic in this room
● Motion and Magnet: challenge students to move an object across the room without touching it
using just magnets (make it more difficult by asking them to move a train of objects)
● Engineer the strongests magnetic “metal detector/collector” to collect the most paper clips in a
class treasure hunt *
*Possible chapter assessment
Chapter 2: Electricity
2.1 - Electric Charge and Static Electricity
2.2 - Electric Current
Key Terms
● Electric force
● Electric field
● Static electricity
● Electric current
Key Concepts and standards:
● Electric forces can
be both attractive and negative (MS-PS2-3)
● Objects can exert forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact, through
fields (MS-PS2-5)
● Strength of electric force depends on magnitude of the current (MS-PS2-3)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● What's in a light bulb observation/investigation
● light bulb investigation- Turn it on (battery, wires, light bulbs)
● engineer an automatic light switch (seat, or door)* or build a flashlight (text 58-59)*\
● static electricity investigation (move a can with a balloon- text 34)
● Create a spark challenge (text pg 38)
● Windmill activity
Chapter 3: Using Electricity and Magnetism
3.1 - What is electromagnetism
3.3 - Electricity from Magnetism
Key Terms
● electromagnet
● electromagnetism
Key Concepts and standards:
● An electric current produces a magnetic field (MS-PS2-1, MS-PS2-4)
● A magnetic field produced by a current has 3 distinctive characteristics: field can be turned on or
off, have its direction reversed or have its strength changed (MS-PS2-3)
Key Investigations/Engineering
● Are magnetic fields limited to magnets (text page 80)
● Have student experiment using electromagnets to demonstrate that objects do not need to be in
contact to exert a force. (MS-PS2-5)
● The electric and magnetic personalities of Mr. Maxwell (teachenergineering.org) or How does a
Magnet move a wire (Text pg 85) (MS-PS2-3)
- investigation/design of electromagnet cores (is iron needed as a focal question)
Enrichment:
● electrical energy audit
Possible Unit Assessment:
● Lunar landing
● Rockets
● Windmill
UNIT 2: ENERGY (Quarter 2)
Driving Question:
How can energy be transferred from one object or system to another?
BOOK: Motion, Forces and Energy
Chapter 5: Energy
Key terms:
● energy
● potential energy
● thermal energy
● kinetic energy
● gravitational potential energy
● law of conservation of energy
● energy transformation
Key concepts and standards:
● two basic kinds of energy are kinetic and potential (MS-PS3-1,2)
● describe relationship of KE to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object using graphs
(MS-PS3-1)
● explain that as the distance (position) changes the potential energy stored changes (MS-PS3-2)
● most forms of energy can be transformed into other forms (MS-PS3-5)
● when two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other than can cause energy to be
transferred to or from the object (MS-PS3-2)
Key Investigations/engineering:
● pendulum investigation (MS-PS3-5)
● bouncing ball investigation (MS-PS3-5)
● rollercoaster activity (MS-PS3-2)
● rube goldberg machines (MS-PS3-2)
● rubber band/mousetrap cars (MS-PS3-2)
● skate park simulation (MS-PS3-1)
Skate Park Simulation Website: http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/energy-skate-parkbasics/latest/energy-skate-park-basics_en.html
Enrichment:
● calculations of KE and PE
● types of energy, renewable and non-renewable resources
Chapter 6: Thermal Energy
Key terms:
● temperature
● states of matter
● gas
● liquid
● solid
● insulators
● conductors
● conduction
● convection
● radiation
● thermal expansion
Key concepts and standards:
● temperature is a measure of the average KE of particles of matter (MS-PS3-3)
● the relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the
types, states, and amounts of matter present (MS-PS3-3), (MS-PS3-4)
● the amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given
amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment (MSPS3-4)
● energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones (MSPS3-3)
Key Investigations/Engineering::
● Penguin igloo, insulated house or astronaut spacesuit (MS-PS3-3)
● ice melting blocks (MS-PS3-4)
● mitt investigation (will an oven mitt warm up a thermometer)
● Shake it up (taken a jar of sand and measure the initial temperature, pass the jar around the
room while students shake it, take a final temperature of the sand, discuss why temperature
goes up)
● heat transfer investigation (will hot water move to cold, or will cold water move to hot)
● heat movement in hot and cold water (put drop of dye in each)
● expansion demo (mylar balloon in cold/warm, plastic bottle with balloon on top in cold/warm
water)
Enrichment:
● temperature scales and conversions
UNIT 3-4: HISTORY OF EARTH AND EARTH SYSTEMS (The internal flow of energy and
forces that affect Earth)- Quarter 3
Driving Question:
● How do people figure out that the Earth and life on Earth have changed over time?
● How does the movement of tectonic plates impact the surface of Earth?
● How do the materials in and on Earth’s crust change over time?
● How does water influence weather, circulate in the oceans, and shape Earth’s surface?
BOOKS: Inside Earth/Earth’s Changing Surface (Chapter 3, Section 4)
Plate Tectonics (Inside Earth Chapter 1, Sections 1-5)
Key terms:
● sea-floor spreading
● mid-ocean ridge
● boundary
● Pangaea
● subduction
● plate tectonics
● continental drift
● deep-ocean trench
● convection current
Key concepts and standards:
● tectonic processes continually generate new ocean sea floor at ridges and destroy old sea floor
at trenches (MS-ESS2-3)
● maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make
clear how Earth’s plates have moved great distance, collided, and spread apart (MS-ESS2-3)
● plate motion; introduce plate boundaries as mountain-, volcano-, trench-, or rift-forming, assess
boundary names (divergent, convergent, transform) and stress names (shearing, tension and
compression) (MS-ESS2-2)
● understand layers of the Earth
● understand the forces that drive plate movement
● all Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the
planet’s system (MS-ESS2-1)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● model layers of the Earth
● Pangea puzzle activity
● model sea floor spreading
● clay modeling of boundaries to produce landforms (mountains, rifts)
● visit earthguide.ucsd.edu
Enrichment:
● magnetic field of Earth
Earthquakes/Volcanoes
Earthquakes (Inside Earth, Chapter 2, Sections 1-2)
Volcanoes (Inside Earth, Chapter 3, Sections 1, 3, 4)
Key terms:
● seismic waves
● earthquake
● volcano
● shield volcano
● composite volcano
● cinder cone volcano
● Ring of Fire
● lava/magma
● active, dormant, extinct
● hot spots
● quiet/ explosive
Key concepts and standards:
● earthquakes are created by a slow build-up of energy that has been released (MS-ESS-2-2)
● earthquakes change the Earth’s surface over time (MS-ESS2-2)
● energy moves through the Earth as waves
● volcanoes can form at hot spots or boundaries (MS-ESS2-2)
● volcanic belts form along the boundaries of Earth's plates (MS-ESS2)
● geologist classify volcanic eruptions as quiet or explosive
● geologists often use the terms active, dormant, or extinct to describe a volcano’s stage of
activity
● volcanic eruptions create landforms; shield volcanoes, cinder cone volcanoes, composite
volcanoes, and lava plateaus (MS-ESS2-2)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● earthquake-proof building
● map earthquake activity
● map volcano activity
● model volcano cones
● model lava flow (fast thin compared to slow, thick)
● use sponges, tables, or paper to model fault motions and landforms
● teachengineering.org - How mountains are formed?
● teachengineering.org - Earthquakes Living Lab: The Theory of Plate Tectonics
Enrichment:
● wave names and motion
● fault names and motion
● viscosity and magma
Rocks (Inside Earth - Chapter 5, Section 6; Earth’s Changing Surface - Chapter 2, Sections 1)
Key terms:
● rock cycle
● igneous
● metamorphic
● sedimentary
● weathering
● erosion
● compaction
● deposition
● cementation
● crystallization
● rock
● deformation
● mineral
● sediments
Key concepts and standards:
● rocks are continually cycling from one kind to another due to Earth's processes (MS-ESS2-1)
● metamorphic rocks form from the deformation of Earth’s heat and pressure (MS-ESS2-1)
● igneous rock forms from melting, cooling, and crystallization (MS-ESS2-1)
● sedimentary rock forms from weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation
(MS-ESS2-1)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● mock rocks (crayon rocks, dirt rocks)
● model the rock cycle
● Pet rocks (make a pet rock and tell the story how it moved through the rock cycle)
● teachengineering.org (rock solid, making and breaking the rock cycle)
Enrichment:
● rock classifications
● rock stresses
Fossils (Earth’s Changing Surface - Chapter 4, Section 1-2, 4)
Key terms:
● fossils
● sedimentary rock
● extinct
● law of superposition
● index fossils
● geologic time scale
Key concepts and standards:
● the fossil record provides evidence about the history of life and past environments on Earth
(MS-ESS1.C)
● the fossil record shows that organisms have changed over time (MS-ESS1.C)
● most fossils form when living things die and are buried by sediments, sediments slowly harden
into rock and preserve the shape of the organism (MS-ESS1-4)
● the geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth’s history
(MS-ESS1.C)
● analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale
(MS-ESS1-4)
● according to the the law of superposition, in horizontal sedimentary rock layers the oldest layer
is at the bottom each higher layer is younger than the layers below it (MS-ESS1-C)
● index fossils are useful because they tell the relative ages of the rock layers in which they occur
(MS-ESS1-C)
● geologist use the geologic time scale to show the time span of Earth’s history (MS-ESS1-4)
● scientist hypothesized that Earth formed at the same time as the other planets and the sun (MSESS1-C)
● during early times an atmosphere, oceans and continents formed (MS-ESS1-4)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● teachengineering.org: Hand-on activity: Fossil Fondue
● teachengineering.org: lesson: fantastic fossils
● sweet fossils (model fossils using sugar cubes, clay, and water) ECS text page 113
● fossil observations- what do you see inside
● cookie mining (chips are fossils to be removed)
Enrichment:
● fossils types (mold, casts, preserved remains, trace fossil, petrified fossil, carbon film
● radioactive dating, geologic time scale divisions
● teachengineering.org: Hands-on Activity: Soil Core Sampling
Unit 3-4: History of Earth and Earth Systems (External flow of energy and forces that
affect Earth)- Quarter 4
Part 1: Weathering/Erosion/Deposition/Soil Formation
Earth’s Changing Surface - Chapter 2, Section 1-3; Chapter 3, Sections 1-6S
Key terms:
● sediments
● erosion
● gravity
● deposition
● run-off
● abrasion
● glaciers
● Ice Age
● waves (see also Earth's Water Chapter 3 Section 1)
● longshore drift (see also Earth's Water Chapter 3 Section 1)
● wind
● sand dune
● deflation
● mass movement
● plucking
● soil
● uniformitarianism
● weathering
● soil conservation
● beach
● permeable
Key concepts and standards:
● soil is a natural uneven distribution of resources as a result of past processes (MS-ESS3-1)
● soil is one of Earth’s most valuable natural resources because everything that lives on land,
including humans, depends directly or indirectly on soil (MS-ESS3-1)
● water’s movements both on the land and underground cause weathering and erosion, which
change the land’s surface features and create underground formations (MS-ESS2-2)
● global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity (MSESS2-4)
● weathering, erosion and deposition act together in a cycle that wears down and builds up
Earth’s surface (MS-ESS2.A), (MS-ESS2-1)
● most sediment washed or falls into a river as a result of mass movement or run-off (MS-ESS24)
● when a glacier melts it deposits the sediment it erodes from the land creating various landforms
(MS-ESS2-2)
● waves shape the coast through erosion by breaking down rock and transporting sand and other
sediments (MS-ESS2-2)
● wind erosion and deposition may form sand dunes (MS-ESS2-2)
● water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation,
condensation and crystallization and precipitation as well as downhill flows on land (MS-ESS24)
●
global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity (MSESS2-4)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● teachengineering.org - Hands on activity:
● glaciers, water and wind, oh my!
● model soil layers & horizons
● soil dissection investigation
● investigate wind effects on sand (straw, sand)
● teachengineering.org - Hands on activity: Erosion and Rivers
● How can you keep soil from washing away? (ECS - text page 56)
● Design and Build a Dam (ECS - text page 65)
● How does gravity affect materials on a slope? (ECS- text page 66)
● How does moving water wear away rocks? (ECS- text page 72)
● Streams in action (ECS- text page 82-83)
● How do glaciers change the land? (ECS- text page 91)
Enrichment:
● human effects on shoreline erosion (groins, seawalls, barrier islands, sand dunes)
● Soil conservation (example- save the soil posters)
● Soil conservation speaker
Weathering/Erosion/Deposition/Soil Formation/Water Cycle
Part 2: Water on Earth (Earth’s Waters - Chapter 1, Section 2)
Key terms:
● gravity
● run-off
● groundwater
● tributary (see also Earth’s Changing Surface)
● water cycle
● evaporation
● condensation
● precipitation
● transpiration
● conservation
● permeable
Key concepts and standards:
● global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity (MSESS2-4)
● water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation,
condensation and crystallization and precipitation as well as downhill flows on land (MS-ESS24)
Key Investigations/Engineering:
● model water cycle (water cycle in a bowl- use salt water to address student misconception)
● The Incredible Journey (water cycle game)
● A drop in the bucket (Water’s distribution on Earth)
Enrichment:
● Properties of water
● Water conservation