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Chase High School
 Economic benefit from thousands of jobs and about
$32 billion dollars input into the national economy.
 Small animals serve as companions and pets to almost
60% of all American families.
 Children learn responsibility and social skills
 Elderly people benefit from quality of life.
 Valuable means of testing and developing new
products such as drugs and vaccines
 Small animals are used in pet therapy to help patients
overcome illness
 Dogs are useful as watch dogs, police dogs, and seeing
eye dogs.
 Rabbits are useful as an excellent source of meat that is
low in cholesterol, sodium, and fat while being a
highly palatable food source.
 Some are used to provide products such as fur/wool for
coats, hats, gloves and other things as well
 Animals provide entertainment in zoos, circus acts,
etc. and increases an appreciation for animals.
 10,500-11,000 retail pet stores produce $21 billion in
sales.
 Biomedical research supported by $15 billion in taxes
and charity used 65-100 million small animals.
 6 million small animals were used in educational
facilities.
 Americans spend $20.3 billion per year on pets.
 Pet food manufacturers produce $9 billion in sales
 Veterinary expenses exceed $11 billion annually.
 Dogs require 2x as much vet care as cats
 There are 7 million more cats than dogs
(each cat owner averages owning 2 cats)
 Dogs are found in more households than cats
 Fish, birds, and rabbits rank 3rd, 4th,and 5th as far as pet
ownership.
 The pet industry is just one small area of small animals
care and management, other jobs include small animal
care in the lab, zoo, training, and biological sciences.
 Jobs to supply food, equipment, and healthcare to
small animals.
 Research in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology
industries.
 Exhibitors
 Pet Care Workers- many types provide many services
to small animal workers. Kennels, animal hospitals
and shelters, pet stores…
 Kennel attendants- feed and care for animals and keep
kennels clean.
 Animal groomers- bathe pets and keep
them looking pretty.
 Small Animal Breeders- raise and market fur-bearing
animals, animals for sale. Usually specialize in one
breed.
 Pet Shop Owners- care for small animals they offer for
sale
 Pet Shop Manager- run the daily pet store operations
 Veterinarians- Doctors of veterinary medicine, treat
and control animal injuries and diseases. They also
vaccinate animals against disease, and inspect animals
and meat products used for food.
 They also perform surgery, set broken bones, establish
diet and exercise routines and prescribe medicines.
 1/3 of vets in US treat only small animals.
 Dealers- people who sell lab animals for research and
teaching.
 Vet Technicians- assist vet and other members of the
vet staff
 Prefix-word part at the beginning of the word
indicating number, location, time or status.
 Examples:
 A-an: without, lack of something(anemia-without
blood)
 Anti: against, opposing(antiseptic-against infection)
 Pre: before(preoperative-before operation)
 Word part that gives the fundamental meaning of the
word.
 Examples:
 Cardi: Heart (cardiology-study of the heart)
 Gastr: Stomach (gastronomy- surgical opening of the
stomach)
 Phleb, ven: vein (phlebotomist- person who obtains
blood from veins)
 Word part at the end of the word indicating
procedure, condition, disease, or disorder.
 Examples:
 algia: pain (arthralgia-painful joints)
 centesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid
(cystocentesis-removing fluid from the bladder)
 itis: inflammation (bronchitis- inflammation of the
bronchial tubes)
 rrhea: flow or discharge (diarrhea- watery flow or
discharge)
Ventral: underside of the body
 Cranial: Head
 Anterior: front of the body
 Dorsal: back
 Caudal: tail
Caudal
 Dorsal (frontal) plane: plane that divides the body
into dorsal (back and ventral (belly) parts.
 Transverse (horizontal or cross-sectional) Plane:
plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal
parts.
 Antisepsis: the process of applying a preparation to
the surface of living tissue to prevent infections and
inhibit growth of microorganisms.
 Biopsy: removal of a tissue sample for microscopic
diagnosis and examination.
 Catheterization: the insertion of a sterile plastic tube
into the urethra to remove urine.
 Contact transmission: method of disease transmission
that includes direct contact, indirect contact and
droplet contact.
 Endogenous: the source of microorganisms necessary
to cause infection originate from within the body of an
animal.
 Exogenous: the source of microorganism necessary to
cause infection is environmental
 Incubation: period of time between the animal
contact with an infection and the appearance of
disease symptoms.
 While the incubation period for rabies may vary from a
few days to several years, it usually lasts one to three
months
 Infectious Disease: diseases capable of being spread
from one animal to another.
 Pocket Pets: a term used to describe small pets once
only thought of as lab animals, such as gerbils,
hamsters, guinea pigs, mice and rats.
 Preventative health care programs: programs
designed by vets to help prevent disease and health
problems in individual animals or herds of animals.
Preventative Health Care Programs
 Quarantine: the isolation of an animal or animals
suspected to have been exposed to an infectious
disease for the infection duration incubation period.
 Spaying: the removal of female reproductive organs.
 Zoonoses: diseases that can be transmitted from
animals to humans.
 Not the same as Animal Welfare
 Should not be used as if it means the same as animal
welfare
 Media may wrongly use the two terms interchangeably
 Modern Animal Rights Movement:
 Over 400 animal rights groups exist today
 Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s
 Initially mainly made up of urban people, many of
whom were vegetarians
 Beliefs of most Animal Rights Movement groups:
 Humanizing animals to have the same rights as humans
(humans are also animals).
 To use animals for human purposes is morally and
ethically wrong and reflects a bias that humans are
superior to animals.
 Beliefs Continued:
 Animals should never be used for food, clothing,
medical research, and/or product testing.
 Animals should not be used for entertainment
 Believe in using ecoterrorism to prevent people from
using animals if necessary
 Major Animal Rights Group is PETA
 People for Ethical Treatment of Animals
 Largest animal rights group in the world with over
800,000 members.
 Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing and
protecting rights of animals. They are against:
 Eating
 Wearing
 Experimenting
 Using for entertainment
 Rooted in any of several schools of thought
 History of animal domestication dating back to the
Chinese and Egyptians
 Early United States used animals for food, clothing,
shelter, transportation, and horsepower to perform tasks
 Creation view that God gave man dominion over
animals which includes use and care
 Various religions that use animal sacrifice and include
great detail as to how to humanely slaughter the animal
 Animal Welfare Laws: laws protecting animals were
present before the animal rights movement
Animal Welfare Act
 Animal Welfare beliefs include:
 Animals should be treated humanely regardless of how
they are used.
 Animals should receive proper housing and nutrition
 Animals should receive proper care for disease
prevention and treatment for injuries.
 Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a humane
way.
 Disease that may be transmitted from animals
 A viral disease that affects to nervous system and is
contracted from bites and scratches of infected
animals such as dogs and cats.
 Immunization is recommended if there is doubt about
whether the animal is infected with rabies.
 93% of the reported rabies cases were in wild animals
 Children 5-9 years old make up less that 9% of the
population but receive almost 30% of animal bites.
 Most domestic animals are not likely to be infected
with rabies as long as they are vaccinated on a regular
basis.
 What happens if your dog is suspected to have rabies?
 Testing is done to see if your pet has rabies
 Isolation (quarantine) for 10 days after the animal has
bitten someone.
Rabies in N.C
 Disease produced by infection of Toxoplasma gondii
parasite and spread through contaminated litter or cat
feces.
 Does not show up as long as the human immune
system is working properly
 Particularly of concern for pregnant women, as it may
result in miscarriage, babies born prematurely or blind
 Prevent by wearing rubber, disposable gloves to daily
clean litter boxes and thoroughly was hands after
cleaning litter box.
 Fungal Disease
 Shows up as round, scaly,
encrusted lesions on the
skin
 There is a loss of hair
where the lesion is
located.
 Take your pet to the vet
 Give it the diagnosed medicine
 Clean the sore
 A disease contracted by caged birds such as parrots,
budgerigars, and related birds.
 Humans infection through birds contaminated feces or
fecal dust
 Prevention
 Wear a dust mask and face shield
 Eliminate lice and mites by spraying disinfectants on the
feathers of birds.
 A non-serious disease associated with cat bites and
scratches that results in swelling and soreness around
the bite or scratch.
 Treatments:
 Antibiotics
 A disease that results from an infection of Salmonella
bacteria and may be transmitted to humans and
animals.
 Children and elderly are most at risk
 Pet turtles and reptiles are a common source of
infection in humans.
 Causes coagulation of blood.
 Symptoms:
 Fever
 Headache
 Nausea
 Vomiting
 Skin rash
 Death if not treated with proper antibodies.
 Caused by bite of American dog tick and six other tick
species
 Caused by bite of American dog tick and six other tick
species
 Tick-transmitted bacterial disease that results in:
 Rash
 Distinctive skin lesion
 Hives
 Flu-like symptoms
 Disease that humans contract by food, water, or soil
that has been contaminated by urine from small
animals.
 Organisms that live on or within a host organism.
 Parasites gain their sustenance (nourishment) from
the host organism.
 Children are most at risk because they play with dogs
and cats and in the area where animals have been.
 7 species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and 5
species most often carry Zysore disease.
 Daily Personal Hygiene is especially important for
those working with pets to remove small larvae that
may go undetected by visual inspection.
Ascarids and Hookworms
 Roundworms that affect dogs and cats
 May be passed on to humans causing fever, headache,
cough and poor appetite
Ascarids and Hookworms cont.
 Children who play with dogs and cats are more at risk
 Deworming of cats and dogs is the most effective
prevention measure
 Keeping areas clean from feces as well
Tapeworm (Echinococus species)
 Occasionally carried by dogs and cats and may cause
AHD (Alveolar Hydatid Disease)
 Can be fatal or produce parasitic tumors or cysts in the
liver of humans that may go unnoticed for years.
How to Avoid Contamination
 Avoid contamination by frequent washing of hands
and wearing protective clothing
 Separate sick animals and treat in separate areas.
How to Avoid Contamination
 Do not eat or drink or store food and drink in
treatment areas or where contamination can occur
 Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with
regular clothes
Protective Clothing
 Wear protective clothing and equipment when the job
performed with a small animal requires it.
 Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots and face shield or
goggles with anti fog lenses should be worn when
handling chemicals or applying pesticides.
Protective Clothing
 Leather gloves help protect from bites and scratches
 Coveralls and lab coats offer some additional
protection from minor bites and scratches.
 Respirators should be worn when there is a danger of
inhaling toxic dust and other substances.
Chemical Safety
 Use chemicals according to label instructions
 Store chemicals in the original container whenever
possible.
Chemical Safety
 Avoid over mixing and storing chemicals, but if
chemicals must be stored, make certain they are:
 In a locked location
 Clearly labeled
Chemical Safety
 Dispose of all chemicals and their containers
according to label instructions
 Frequently wash hands and exposed area after using
chemicals.
Proper Handling Techniques for Small
Animals
 Learn proper and safe handling techniques that
prevent injury to the animal and handler.
 Keep a first aid kit available for workers who do suffer
bites or scratches
Proper Handling Techniques for Small
Animals
 Briefly restrain animals when needed for examination
or treatment
Cats
 To work around the head of a cat, the animal can be
wrapped in a blanket and placed in a zippered canvas
bag so that the handler can grasp the back of the head
and hold the head between the thumb and fingers.
Dogs
 Dogs are briefly restrained by placing one arm under
the dog’s neck with the forearm holding the head
while the other arm is placed around the animal’s body
to pull it close to the handler.
Dogs
 Muzzles for dogs prevent biting and can be a simple
narrow strip of gauze or cloth made by making a loop
in the material.
 The loop is slipped over the dog’s nose and mouth at
the ends are crossed under the jaw to bring them up
behind the ears for tying in a bow.
Rabbits
 Rabbits seldom bite but may cause injury with their
hind legs or may be injured if placed on a smooth
surface.
 A rabbit’s foot pads are covered with fur which causes a
lack of traction if they are placed on a smooth or slick
surface and may result in dislocation of their hip or
spine when they try to move or hop.
 Rats and mice that are used to being handled can be
picked up by grasping the tail close to the body with
one hand and using the other hand to grasp loose skin
in the neck and shoulder area.