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1 Missouri Western State University Law 280 Criminalistics – 5 Credit Hours Spring 2014 Department of Criminal Justice and Legal Studies Instructor: Kip Wilson Office: Wilson 203A Phone: (816) 271-5842 Office Hours: 9:00 to 11:00 MWF Introductory Statement: The purpose of the course is to introduce the student to the methods and science of criminalistics. It will review the need for the means of achieving high degrees of proficiency in the field of forensic inquiries. Required Text and Equipment: Saferstein, Richard, Criminalistics, 10th Ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc. Ragle, Crime Scene, 2011. Eye protection will also be required for laboratory exercises. Course Objectives: Upon satisfactory completion of this course, the student should understand the fundamentals of criminalistics. The following list of objectives, by chapter, is offered only as a guide. Some materials presented during lecture are in addition to the text, therefore, not all objectives may be satisfied by the reading of the text. Chapter One - Introduction 1. Define forensic science or criminalistics. 2. Recall the major contributors to the development of forensic science. 3. Give examples of typical crime laboratories as they exist on the national, state, and local levels of government in the United States. 4. Describe the services of a typical comprehensive crime laboratory in the criminal justice system. 5. Define the Frye principle and explain recent medications through court decisions. 6. Review the proper collections and packaging of common types of physical evidence. 7. Understand the operations and limitations of the polygraph. Chapter Two - The Crime Scene 1. Define physical evidence. 2. Discuss the responsibilities of the first police officer who arrives at a crime scene. 3. Describe the proper procedures for conducting a systematic search of crime scenes for physical evidence. 4. Explain the steps to be taken for thoroughly recording a crime scene. 5. Describe proper techniques for packaging common types of physical evidence. 6. Discuss the implications of the Mincey and Tyler cases Chapter Three – Physical Evidence 1. List the common types of physical evidence encountered at crime scenes. 2. Explain the difference between the identification and comparison of physical evidence. 2 3. 4. Define individual and class characteristics. Give examples of physical evidence possessing these characteristics. Discuss the value of class evidence to a criminal investigation. Chapter Four – Physical Properties: Glass and Soil 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Define physical and chemical properties. List and define the metric system's basic units and prefixes. Compare metric and English units: length, volume, and mass. Convert from one system of measurement to the other. Distinguish mass from weight. Define density. Determine the density of irregular-shaped objects. Define refractive index. Distinguish crystalline from amorphous solids. Define double refraction and birefringence. Define the dispersion of light through a prism. Describe the flotation and immersion methods for comparing glass specimens. State how to examine glass fractures to determine the direction of impact for a projectile. Describe the proper collection of glass evidence. List the important forensic properties of soil. Describe the density-gradient tube technique. Describe the proper collection of soil evidence. Chapter Five – Organic Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Define elements and compounds and give examples of each. State the differences between a solid, liquid, and gas. Define phase. Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds. Distinguish between a qualitative and quantitative analysis. Explain how a liquid reaches equilibrium with its gaseous phase as defined by Henry's Law. Describe the process of chromatography. Describe the parts of a gas chromatograph. Define retention time. Explain the difference between thin-layer and gas chromatography. Define Rf value. Describe electrophoresis. State the differences between the wave and particle theories of light. Describe the electromagnetic spectrum. Explain the relationship between color and the selective absorption of light by molecules. Name the parts of a simple absorption spectrophotometer. 3 17. 18. Describe the utility of an ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectrum for the identification of organic compounds. Describe the significance of a mass spectrum. Chapter Six – Inorganic Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Describe the usefulness of trace elements for the forensic comparison of various types of physical evidence. Distinguish between a continuous and line emission spectrum. Describe the parts of a simple emission spectrograph. List the parts of a simple atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Define protons, neutrons, and electrons, including their mass and charge relationships. Define atomic number and atomic mass number. Describe the orbital energy levels that are occupied by electrons. State what happens when an atom absorbs a definite amount of energy. Explain the phenomenon of an atom releasing energy in the form of light. Define an isotope. Define radioactivity. Define how elements can be made radioactive. Describe why an X-ray diffraction pattern is useful for chemical identification. Chapter Seven – The Microscope 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define magnification, field of view, working distance and depth of focus. Describe the comparison microscope. List the advantages of the stereoscopic microscope. Define plane-polarized light. Describe how a polarizing microscope is designed to detect polarized light. Explain the advantages of linking a microscope to a spectrophotometer from the forensic scientist's point of view. Give examples of how a microspectrophotometer can be utilized to examine trace evidence. Compare the mechanism for image formation of a light microscope to that of the scanning electron microscope. List the advantages and some forensic applications of the scanning electron microscope. Chapter Thirteen – Hairs, Fibers, and Paint 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe the cuticle, cortex, and medulla of hair. Explain the distinction between animal and human hairs. List hair features that are useful for the comparison of human hairs. Explain the proper collection of hair evidence. Classify fibers. Describe the structure of a polymer. 4 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. List the properties of fibers that are most useful for forensic applications. Describe the proper collection of fiber evidence. Describe the components of paint. Classify automobile paints. List those examinations most useful for performing a forensic comparison of paint. Describe the proper collection and preservation of paint evidence. Chapter Eight - Drugs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define psychological and physical dependence. Name and classify the commonly abused drugs. Describe the tendency to develop psychological and physical dependency for the more commonly abused drugs. Describe the schedules of the Controlled Substances Act. Describe the laboratory tests that forensic chemists normally rely upon to comprise a routine drug identification scheme. Explain the test procedures utilized for the forensic identification of marijuana. Discuss the proper collection and preservation of drug evidence. Chapter Nine – Forensic Toxicology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Explain how alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream, transported throughout the body, and finally eliminated by oxidation and excretion. Name the important parts of the human circulatory system. Describe the process by which alcohol is excreted in the breath via the alveoli sacs. Describe the design of the Breathalyzer. Explain the significance of a chemical equation. Explain the concept of an infrared breath-testing device. Demonstrate some common field sobriety tests. List common laboratory procedures for measuring alcohol's concentration in the blood. Describe the precautions to be taken to properly preserve blood for analysis for its alcohol content. Explain the significance of the implied consent law and the Schmerber v. California case to traffic enforcement. Define acid and base. Develop an appreciation for the role of the toxicologist in the criminal justice system. Describe some of the techniques that forensic toxicologists use for isolating and identifying drugs and poisons. Discuss the significance of finding a drug in human tissues and organs. Chapter Ten – Forensic Serology 1. List the A-B-O antigens and antibodies found in the blood for each of the four blood types: A, B, AB, and O. 5 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Explain why agglutination occurs. Explain how whole blood is typed. Describe tests used to characterize a stain as blood. Explain the significance of the precipitin test to forensic serology. Describe the absorption-elution technique. Define a secretor and explain the significance to forensic serology. Describe how the existence of polymorphic enzymes and proteins contributes to blood's individualization. List the necessary procedures to be taken for the proper preservation of bloodstained evidence for laboratory analysis. Define chromosome and gene. List the laboratory tests necessary to characterize seminal stains. Explain how suspect stains are to be properly preserved for laboratory examination. Describe the collection of physical evidence related to a rape investigation. Chapter Eleven – DNA: The Indispensable Forensic Science Tool 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 9. 10. Learn the parts of a nucleotide and know how they are linked together to make DNA. Understand how DNA strands coil into a double helix. Describe the concept of base pairing as it relates to the double helix structure of DNA. Explain how the sequence of bases along a DNA strand ultimately determines the structure of proteins that are synthesized within the body. Describe how a double-strand DNA replicates itself. What are the implications of this process for forensic science? Explain the difference between DNA strands, which code for the production of proteins and those strands, which contain repeating sequences of bases. Explain what is meant by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Describe the process of typing DNA and explain how DNA band patterns are interpreted. Discuss some of the potential problems associated with DNA's acceptance by the courts. Chapter Twelve – Crime Scene Reconstruction: bloodstain pattern analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define crime-scene reconstruction Discuss the information that can be gained from bloodstain pattern analysis about the events involved in a violent crime. Explain how surface texture, directionality, and angle of impact affect the shape of individual bloodstains Calculate the angle of impact of a bloodstain using its dimensions Describe the classifications of low-, medium-, and high-velocity impact spatter and appreciate how these classifications should be used 6 6. 7. 8. Discuss the methods to determine the area of convergence and area of origin for impact spatter patterns. Understand how various blood pattern types are created and which features of each pattern can be used to aid in reconstructing events at a crime scene Describe the methods of documenting bloodstain patterns at a crime scene Chapter Fourteen & Fifteen - Forensic Aspects of Fire Investigations and Forensic Explosions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Define oxidation. Define energy and give examples of its different forms. Describe the role of heat energy in chemical reactions. Define heat of combustion and ignition temperature. Describe the difference between an exothermic and endothermic chemical reaction. Explain why the oxidation reactions are not always accompanied by a flaming fire. List the requirements necessary to initiate and sustain combustion. Describe how physical evidence must be collected at the scene of a suspected arson or explosion. Describe laboratory procedures used for the detection and identification of hydrocarbon and explosive residues. Explain how explosives are classified. Explain the differences between an initiating and non-initiating explosive. List some common commercial, homemade, and military explosives. List some common laboratory tests employed for the detection of explosives. Chapter Sixteen - Fingerprints 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Name those individuals who have made significant contributions to the acceptance and development of fingerprint technology. Define ridge characteristics. Explain why a fingerprint is a permanent feature of the human anatomy. List the three major fingerprint patterns and their respective subclasses. Classify a set of fingerprints by the Henry system and NCIC system. Explain what is meant by visible, plastic, and latent fingerprints. List the techniques for developing latent fingerprints. Describe the correct order of applying visualizing chemicals for latent fingerprint development. Describe the proper procedures for preserving a developed latent fingerprint. Chapter Seventeen – Firearms, Tool Marks, and Other Impressions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Describe techniques for rifling a barrel. List the class and individual characteristics of bullets and cartridge cases. Explain the utilization of the comparison microscope for the comparison of bullets and cartridge cases. Distinguish caliber from gauge. Explain the procedure for determining the distance from a target a weapon was 7 6. 7. 8. 9. fired. Describe the laboratory tests utilized for determining whether an individual has fired a weapon. Emphasize the limitations of the present technique. Explain why it may be possible to restore an obliterated serial number. List procedures for the proper collection and preservation of firearm evidence. Explain how a suspect tool is compared to a tool mark. Chapter Eighteen – Document Examination 1. 2. 3. Define questioned document. List some common individual characteristics associated with handwriting. List some important guidelines to be followed for the collection of known writings for comparison to a questioned document. Testing and Grading: There will be four 100-point unit tests, a 100-point comprehensive final examination, as well as unannounced quizzes and class assignments which, in addition to the laboratory exercises, will total 100-points. Students are also required to complete a 100-point term paper and present their findings to the class. The use of PowerPoint is encouraged. The paper must be a minimum of 8 pages, must be typed and properly cited in APA style and on a preapproved topic. Examples for topics include, but are not limited to the following: Forensic DNA analysis Forensic Photography Forensic Odontology Forensic Entomology Forensic Pathology Forensic Toxicology Firearms and Tool Mark Identification Identification and Analysis of Explosives Investigations of Arson and Bombings Forensic Serology Drug Testing Medical Uses of Marijuana: Reality or Media Hype The Toxicology of Drugs Fingerprinting Forensic Uses of Trace Evidence Forensic Findings in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Forensic Anthropology Forensic Taphonomy Forensic Used of Microscopic Evidence Forensic Geology Students wishing to select a subject not listed above must complete a term paper approval form on or before Thursday 02-23-14 . The approval form will be returned to the student and must be submitted with the completed term paper. The paper will be due Thursday 0306-14. 8 Lab reports will be required for each lab and will be due 1-week following the student’s laboratory assignment. Grades will be based on the total number of points earned by the student including class assignments, quizzes, scheduled exams, the term paper and laboratory assignments. Students are expected to complete all assignments on time. Penalties will be assessed for assignments handed in late. Test dates will be announced in advance and all students are expected to take the test on the scheduled dates. In cases of emergencies, makeup tests may be given at the discretion of the instructor. In the event of an emergency, the student is expected to notify the instructor as soon as possible, preferably prior to the administration of the test. In order to protect the integrity of the testing process, the makeup test may differ from the original test. Students are expected to take makeup tests as soon as possible upon their return to campus and unless there are extenuating circumstances, students will not be allowed to take makeup tests over one week from the original test date. IN ALL CASES, IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STUDENT TO CONTACT THE INSTRUCTOR CONCERNING ALL MISSED ASSIGNMENTS. THE INSTRUCTOR WILL NOT NOTIFY THE STUDENT OF MISSED ASSIGNMENTS. Letter grades will be assigned as follows: A – 90 – 100% B – 80 – 89% C – 70 – 79% D – 60 – 69% F – below 59% Academic Honesty Policy and Due Process: Academic honesty is required in all academic endeavors. Violations of academic honesty include any instance of plagiarism, cheating, seeking credit for another’s work, falsifying documents or academic records, or any other fraudulent activity. Violations of academic honesty may result in a failing grade on the assignment, failure in the course, or expulsion from the University. When a student’s grade has been affected, violations of academic honesty will be reported to the Provost or designated representative on the Academic Honesty Violations Report forms. GRADE APPEAL PROCESS Students are responsible for meeting the standards for academic performance established for each course in which they are enrolled. The establishment of the criteria for grades and the evaluation of student academic performance are the responsibilities of the instructor delegated by this University. The grade appeal procedure is available for the review of allegedly capricious grading or clerical error by the instructor and not for the purpose of evaluating the student’s academic excellence in any particular course. The Student Due Process Procedure is described in the MWSU Student Handbook: www.missouriwestern.edu/handbook. Please see the Western Student Handbook and Calendar for specific activities identified as violations of this policy and the student due process procedure. 9 This handbook is also available online at http://www.missouriwestern.edu/handbook/index.pdf. Any student in this course who has a disability that prevents the fullest expression of abilities should contact me personally as soon as possible so that we can discuss class requirements. School Cancellation Policy Missouri Western State University will close only in extraordinary circumstances. If the University is to close due to weather/road conditions, the decision will be made as follows: Daytime Closing – normally the decision will be made by 6:00 a.m. Evening Closing – normally the decision will be made by 4:00 p.m. Any closing of the University will be broadcast on the following stations: KCMO Radio (81 AM, and 95 FM), KKJO Radio (105.5 FM), KFEQ Radio (68 AM), KSJQ Radio (92.7), WDAF Television (Channel 4), KQ2 Television (Channel 2). If closings are not reported on the aforementioned stations, it should be assumed the University is open. It should be noted the University Administration will take several factors into consideration when making the decision to close the University due to weather/road conditions. Therefore, it cannot be assumed the University will close when area schools are closed. Notification will also be posted on Missouri Western’s web page.