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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
1) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection oriented protocol, which means the
devices should open a connectionbefore transmitting data and should close the connection
gracefully after transmitting the data.
2) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) assure reliable delivery of data to the destination.
3) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) protocol provides extensive error
checking mechanisms such as flow control and acknowledgment of data.
4) Sequencing of data is a feature of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
5) Delivery of data is guaranteed if you are using Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
6) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is comparatively slow because of these extensive error
checking mechanisms
7) Multiplexing and Demultiplexing is possible in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) using
TCP port numbers.
8) Retransmission of lost packets is possible in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
1) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is Datagram oriented protocol with no overhead for opening,
maintaining, and closing a connection.
2) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is efficient for broadcast/multicast transmission.
3) User Datagram protocol (UDP) has only the basic error checking mechanism using
4) There is no sequencing of data in User Datagram protocol (UDP) .
5) The delivery of data cannot be guaranteed in User Datagram protocol (UDP) .
6) User Datagram protocol (UDP) is faster, simpler and more efficient than TCP. However, User
Datagram protocol (UDP) it is less robust then TCP
7) Multiplexing and Demultiplexing is possible in User Datagram Protcol (UDP) using
UDP port numbers.
8) There is no retransmission of lost packets in User Datagram Protcol (UDP).
IP address
An IP address is the address of a computer on a network.
An IP address is an identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network.
An IP address is either a 32-bit or 128-bit unsigned number used by the internet protocol.
IP addresses is made up of four whole numbers (4 bytes) between 0 and 255 and written
in the format For example:
Port Number:
Port numbers are associated with network addresses. For example, in TCP/IP networking, both
TCP and UDP utilize their own set of ports that work together with IP addresses.
A port is a number between 1 and 65535.
Port numbers in TCP/IP systems are 16-bit numbers.
Port numbers below 1024 are reserved for predefined services.
Client port numbers are allocated by the host OS to something not in use, while server
port numbers are specified by the programmer, and are used to identify a particular
Client and server must agree in advance on which port to use. If the port numbers used by
the two parts of the system do not agree, communication does not occur.
A socket API is an application programming interface (API), usually provided by the
operating system, that allows application programs to control and use network sockets.
Internet socket APIs are usually based on the Berkeley sockets standard. Socket is a
combination of an IP address and a port number. A socket is also defined as the end point
in a connection.
URL (uniform resources locator) and URL Connection:
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. A URL is a formatted text string used by Web
browsers, email clients and other software to identify a network resource on the Internet.
Network resources are files that can be plain Web pages, other text documents, graphics, or
URL strings consist of three parts (substrings):
1. Network protocol
2. Host name or address
3. File or resource location