Introduction to Philosophy Test #2 Study Sheet Test: June 23, 2010 Short Answer Section. The following list of terms and concepts is to help you in preparing for the short answer section of the test. There will be 10 short answer questions, of which you are to answer 8 (5 points each). Ideas and impressions Skepticism Empiricism Missing shade of blue Association of ideas Reasonings a priori Custom or habit Reasonable Analytic/synthetic Synthetic a priori Metaphysics personal identity (self) time, object, transcendental ego Modern vs. Postmodern Cultural relativism science and appearance/reality Five ways ontological argument Gaunilo’s lost island Watchmaker argument Hume’s critique (of watchmaker) religious experience Textual analysis. Three of the following five passages will be on the test. You are to explain what two of the passages mean. To do this you should point out the context of the passage and show how what is said relates to this context and why what is said is important. Your explanations should be at least 3 times longer than the passage itself. 1. ‘Suppose a person, though endowed with the strongest faculties of reason and reflection, to be brought on a sudden into this world; he would, indeed, immediately observe a continual succession of objects, and one event following another; but he would not be able to discover any thing farther.’ Hume, p. 114. 2. ‘Therefore, we must see whether we may have better success in our metaphysical task if we begin with the assumption that objects must conform to our knowledge. In this way we would have knowledge of objects a priori. We should then be proceeding in the same way as Copernicus in his revolutionary hypothesis.’ Kant, p. 121. 3. ‘The difference between how things seem and how things really are is just as fatal a gap for them as it can be for us, but they are largely oblivious to it. The recognition of the difference between appearance and reality is a human discovery.’ Dennett, p. 15. 4. ‘If a man should try to prove to me by such reasoning that this island truly exists, and that its existence should no longer be doubted, either I should believe that he was jesting, or I know not which I ought to regard as the greater fool: myself, supposing that I should allow this proof; or him, if he should suppose that he had established with any certainty the existence of this island.’ Anselm, p. 189. 5. ‘Now it is certain that the liker the effects are which are seen and the liker the causes which are inferred, the stronger is the argument. Every departure on either side diminishes the probability and renders the experiment less conclusive.’ Hume, pp. 184-5.