Survey

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
```SOLUTION QUIZ 3
1. Confidence Bank has made a loan to Risky Corporation. The loan terms include a default
free borrowing rate of 8 percent, a risk premium of 3 percent, an origination fee of
0.1875 percent, and a 9 percent compensating balance requirement. Required reserves
at the Fed are 6 percent. What is the expected or promised gross return on the loan?
a.
11.19 percent
b.
11.90 percent
c.
12.29 percent
d.
12.02 percent
e.
12.22 percent
risk-
2. Use the following information on spot and forward term structures for questions 98-102.
(1 year maturity)
Spot 1 Year
Spot 2 Year
Forward 1 Year
Treasury
3.0 percent
4.75 percent
x
BBB Corporate Debt
7.5 percent
9.15 percent
y
11-98 Calculate the value of x (the implied forward rate on one-year maturity Treasuries to be
delivered in one year).
a.
6.53 percent.
b.
10.83 percent
c.
5.75 percent
d.
6.925 percent
e.
1.017 percent
11-99 Calculate the value of y (the implied forward rate on one-year maturity BBB corporate
debt to be delivered in one year).
a.
6.53 percent.
b.
10.83 percent
c.
5.75 percent
d.
6.925 percent
e.
1.017 percent
11-100 Using the term structure of default probabilities, the implied default probability for BBB
corporate debt during the current year is
a.
98.0 percent
b.
2.35 percent
c.
4.19 percent
d.
3.90 percent
e.
2.71 percent
11-101 Using the term structure of default probabilities, the implied default probability for BBB
corporate debt during the following year is
a.
4.20 percent
b.
98.0 percent
c.
2.35 percent
d.
2.71 percent
e.
3.88 percent
11-102 The cumulative probability of repayment of BBB corporate debt over the next two years is
a.
99.84 percent
b.
90.00 percent
c.
4.45 percent
d.
95.70 percent
e.
100.0 percent
3. Use the following information and option valuation model for problems 110-111. Onyx Corporation
has a \$200,000 loan that will mature in one year. The risk free interest rate is 6 percent. The standard
deviation in the rate of change in the underlying asset’s value is 12 percent, and the leverage ratio for
Onyx is 0.8 (80 percent). The value for N(h1) is 0.02743, and the value for N(h2) is 0.96406.
11-110 What is the current market value of the loan?
a.
\$160,000
b.
\$188,041
c.
\$200,000
d.
\$188,352
e.
\$178,571
11-111 What is the required yield on this risky loan?
a.
6.165 percent
b.
6.00 percent
c.
0.165 percent
d.
5.835 percent
e.
None of the above.
4. Identify and define the borrower-specific and market-specific factors that enter into the credit decision.
What is the impact of each type of factor on the risk premium?
The borrower-specific factors are:
Reputation:
Based on the lending history of the borrower; better reputation implies
a lower
Leverage:
A measure of the existing debt of the borrower; the larger the debt, the higher the risk
Volatility of earnings:
The more stable the earnings, the lower the risk premium.
Collateral: If collateral is offered, the risk premium is lower.
Market-specific factors include:
Lenders are less likely to lend if a recession is forecasted.
Level of interest rates:
A higher level of interest rates may lead to higher default rates, so
lenders are more reluctant to lend under such conditions.
5. What is RAROC? How does this model use the concept of duration to measure the risk exposure of a
loan? How is the expected change in the credit premium measured? What precisely is LN in the
RAROC equation?
RAROC is a measure of expected loan income in the form of interest and fees relative to some measure of
asset risk. One version of the RAROC model uses the duration model to measure the change in the value
of the loan for given changes or shocks in credit quality. The change in credit quality (R) is measured by
finding the change in the spread in yields between Treasury bonds and bonds of the same risk class on the
loan. The actual value chosen is the highest change in yield spread for the same maturity or duration value
assets. In this case, LN represents the change in loan value or the change in capital for the largest
reasonable adverse changes in yield spreads. The actual equation for LN looks very similar to the
duration equation.
RAROC 
Net Income
R
where LN   DLN x LN x
where R is the change in yield spread .
Loanrisk (or LN )
1 R
6. What are compensating balances? What is the relationship between the amount of compensating
balance requirement and the return on the loan to the FI?
A compensating balance is the portion of a loan that a borrower must keep on deposit with the creditgranting depository FI. Thus, the funds are not available for use by the borrower. As the amount of
compensating balance for a given loan size increases, the effective return on the loan increases for the
lending institution.
7. Why are most retail borrowers charged the same rate of interest, implying the same risk premium or
class? What is credit rationing? How is it used to control credit risks with respect to retail and
wholesale loans?
Most retail loans are small in size relative to the overall investment portfolio of an FI, and the cost of
collecting information on household borrowers is high. As a result, most retail borrowers are charged the
same rate of interest that implies the same level of risk.
Credit rationing involves restricting the amount of loans that are available to individual borrowers. On the
retail side, the amount of loans provided to borrowers may be determined solely by the proportion of
loans desired in this category rather than price or interest rate differences, thus the actual credit quality of
the individual borrowers. On the wholesale side, the FI may use both credit quantity and interest rates to
control credit risk. Typically, more risky borrowers are charged a higher risk premium to control credit
risk. However, the expected returns from increasingly higher interest rates that reflect higher credit risk at
some point will be offset by higher default rates. Thus, rationing credit through quantity limits will occur
at some interest rate level even though positive loan demand exists at even higher risk premiums.
```
Related documents