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Transcript
Design VI: Magnetic Air Vehicle
February 21, 2013
Prof. Hong Man, Section A
Group Members:
Rashed Hassan
Celiano Portero
Steven J. Berrio
Percentage of
effort towards
this assignment
Rashed Hassan
33 %
Celiano Portero
33 %
Steven Berrio
33 %
Celiano Portero:
Demand for global cooperation to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and suppress the
greenhouse effect has been growing. Longer service lifetimes for machinery and therefore
reduced maintenance and replacement costs, are also being required by users. As a result
manufacturing companies have been working hard to develop higher efficiency devices and
machines.
High efficiency Double-Fed Induction Generator applies new power electronic technology, and
utilizes vector control to fix the magnetic direction of the stator to the vertical axis. Adjusting the
input current of rotor via an inverter can separately control the cross axis and vertical axis current
of real power and reactive power of a generator. Traditionally, rotating speed affects frequency
and the output is unstable. Induction Generators and Traditional Generators from a mathematical
model derive and control the characteristics simulation and comparison that get an output of high
efficiency Industrial Generators. We can use the simulation software MATLAB/Simulink to
simulate the response characteristics of vector control of Induction Generators. The operating
and control functions are better than those of a traditional generator.
The rotor of the generator is made of permanently magnetic material and the rotor shaft is driven
by blades attached to the unit. When the rotating device drives the magnetic rotor, a rotating
magnetic field interacts with the multiple windings of the stator. These rotating lines of magnetic
force induce an alternating voltage in the windings. The alternating current induction voltage is
𝐸 = 𝐾𝜙𝜔 where,
K: electrical coefficient of the generator
ϕ: rotor magnetic flux (Wb)
ω: angle velocity of rotor speed (rad/sec)
Because the rotating magnetic field is fixed and the rotor rotating speed varies with the load
unbalance, the output voltage and frequency are variable and cannot provide a stable power
supply. The produced power must be run through a rectifier and an inverter to be compatible
with a 60 Hz power system. Due to the small capacity and higher cost per kilowatt of output, this
type is not suit-able for commercial applications. It is only suitable for very small systems.
The three-phase induction generator uses magnetic induction theory to transfer the electrical
energy in the form of magnetic flux from stator to rotor, without any wire connection. Power
from an external source energizes the stator, causing the rotor to turn, just like an induction
motor. The rotating speed of the rotor is slightly lower than the rotating magnetic flux in the
stator. This type generator is also called an asynchronous machine. When the rotor speed of an
induction generator exceeds the speed rotating magnetic field in the stator, and the rotor direction
is consistent with rotating magnetic field, the rotor will tend to pull the stator field faster. This
action causes a reverse torque in the rotating direction, thus causing the induction generator to
operate as a generator at the frequency and voltage of the initial power supply to the stator. In a
properly designed machine, the magnetic link between the rotor and stator is strong enough to
prevent the rotor going into over speed, regardless of the energy input from the magnetic field.
The induction generator rotor is without a magnetic field circuit, to change the magnetic field to
control the output voltage and is not self-exciting. The required re-active power for excitation
needs is supplied by a connection from an external capacitor or from grid system. The excitation
power controls the voltage at the genera-tor terminals, which supply the power to grid system.
The advantages of induction generator are structural simplification; exciting field system is not
required, un-necessary to synchronize operation, easy for operation and maintenance. When
induction generator derives power from wind, the self-exciting type is used. A capacitor is
installed across the terminals to provide the required re-active power for startup and improve the
power factor during operation.
References
A. Petersson, “Analysis, Modeling and Control of Dou-ble-Fed Induction Generator,” PhD
Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 2003.
J. G. Slootweg, H. Polinder and W. L. Kling, “Dynamic Modelling of a Wind Turbine with
Double Fed Induction Generator,” Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vancouver,
2011, pp. 644-649. doi:10.1109/PESS.2001.970114
P. Kundur, “Power System Stability and Control,” McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1994.
D. Sue, “High Efficiency Induction Generator Applied to Wind Power Generator Technical
Analyses,” Pacific Engineers & Constructors, Ltd., Taipei, China
_____________________________________________________________________________
Steven J. Berrio:
The Pentagon, headquarters of the Department of Defense, is slowly becoming inches closer to
deploying a Transformer (TX), which is essentially a Flying Humvee that will revolutionize the
way we transport ourselves from one location to another. Lockheed Martin and AAI
Corporation, two of the largest aerospace contractors for the Department of Defense have been
chosen to lead this project and design a road vehicle that can transform into an aircraft. The
original intent was to engineer a device for DARPA’s Transformer program to develop a battleready flying car in case of being at war in unknown terrain. This long thought process has
reached the prototype development stage and although many have heard about this machine in
science fictional stories, it will soon become a reality.
Since I spent my past summer interning at AAI Corporation and received clearance to be a part
of the project development process, I wish to apply the skills I have gained and design a
modified version of emphasizing a green energy alternative. As noted from my project member
above this magnetic generator will act as the foundation to powering this flying vehicle.
The idea is to create a four-seat vehicle that can drive in off-road conditions, stand up to smallarms fire, and quickly take off and land vertically. The magnetic generator will power the rotor
and gears which will control the propellers as well as the engine in this vehicle. Although all the
concepts and ideas are all being laid out, our team and I intend to simplify this introvert and
complex engineering project. Essentially, the humvee will be a light-weight small four-wheel
vehicle with a vertical propeller which will be aerodynamically design to balance the thrust,
drag, lift, and gravitational forces that embody this object. In this project, we wish to incorporate
element of aerospace with mechanical engine operations in order to integrate the fields of
Electrical as well as Aerospace Engineering.
Although similar ideas of this vehicle have already been designed by Terrafugia, first company
to develop the Transition roadable aircraft, our team plans on modifying and upgrading existing
inventions. In order to do so, we the team must conceptually understand how the device will fold
the propellers and become road friendly when driving to allow for commercial use and expand
our markets. Aside from worrying to ensure this transforming vehicle meets FAA regulations as
well and National Transportation Authority restrictions, we want to make sure the air vehicle
pushed limits by using the magnetic engine to generate high-power to allow the lightweight
material to perform effectively and efficiently.
As far as performance is concerned, we will need to design autonomous controls either built in or
wireless controller that will regulate speed and direction. Since this device will be sensitive to
weather, the vehicle must be able to resist extreme climate conditions. It would be ideal for
incorporate solar panels on the propellers but this remains a thought that has not yet been
approved by our group. It is not up until our project development stage where we will have to
take in consideration the multiple scenarios and possibilities. Nonetheless, this concept model
that we plan on designing can pave the way for futuristic models that will compete to pursue for
excellence and continue to strive innovation.
"Flying Car Cleared for the Road." NBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
"'Flying Humvee' Moves Ahead." NBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
"Mentoring Makes a Difference." Lockheed Martin · Transformer TX. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb.
2013
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rashed Hassan:
With times changing, technology must also evolve in order to keep up and complete tasks. The
ultimate goal of our group to build a remote control vehicle that can maneuver obstacles on the
ground as well fly. There has recently been a great advance in technology with the build of the
Terrafugia Transition, a flying car.
The Terrafugia Transition is a two seater motor vehicle with wings that are adjustable. It is not a
fixed wing aircraft, it actually has retractable wings that come down when it is time to fly and
stays fixed in an upright position when it is being driven as a vehicle on the ground. It has a
sticker price of $279,000 and it is a great motivation to our project. It seems, however, that this
product is being critiqued before it has even hit the streets. We are planning to take these
criticisms into account for our design.
The biggest things that pertain to our product is that not only does it have to be priced properly, a
common issue that many aircrafts have encountered, but it needs to be in accordance with all
rules, laws, and specifications. Especially if this is a product that will eventually be used by the
military. As far as pricing goes, after a prototype is delivered, a projected price tag will also be
presented soon thereafter if we are talking about a consumer product. This is based on many
assumptions included the amount of and price of labor, cost of materials, and product efficiency.
We must make sure that whatever we assume is based on solid evidence and have a way around
it just in case.
With the assumption that we will be using the magnetic generator, many important issues are
brought to our attention. Questions arise when we ask how will we work this into our design?
Well, the magnetic generator is going to be rotating when it will be used so it makes most sense
to team that up with a propeller. We can make a similar styled aircraft as the Terrafugia
Transition, or maybe we might even be able t make a helicopter design. These are all important
aspects of the design process since they will drastically change our end product.
If we do choose to work with the military regarding our product, we will probably have to add
some surveillance equipment. The military only uses top tier equipment when it comes down to
their tasks. There are also many regulations and specifications for that equipment as well. We
may not need to worry about the equipment itself, but we would need to worry about making it
compatible with our product.
Wise, Jeff. "7 Reasons the Terrafugia Transition Isn’t Coming to Your Garage." Popular
Mechanics., 6 Apr. 2012.
Harley, Michael. "Terrafugia Transition 'Flying Car' Offers Serious Hang Time, but Leaves Us
Clouded." Autoblog. 5 Apr. 2012.
Wright, Steve. "Report. Sub-lethal Vision: Varieties of Military Surveillance
Technology."Surveillance & Society. N.p., 2006.