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Carbon Management and Infrastructure Development: Lessons from Industrial Ecology Dr. Robin Curry Institute for a Sustainable World Queen’s University, Belfast [email protected] Overview Industrial Ecology (IE), resource management and Climate Change Examples of IE applications in the UK and Ireland Opportunities and synergies The future role of IE methods in policy development and decision making Industrial Ecology (IE), resource management and Climate Change Industrial Ecology and Industrial Metabolism Tools, techniques and approaches Industrial Ecology and Industrial Metabolism ‘The systematic examination of local, regional and global material and energy uses and flows in products, processes, industrial sectors and economies’ Industrial Ecology and Industrial Metabolism Industrial Ecology and Industrial Metabolism Our Infrastructure must develop/adapt and change; We need to make decisions about these changes and developments; We need tools and techniques to support these decisions; and IE is about Applied Research: What are the optimum decisions? Tools, techniques and approaches Material and Energy Flow Studies Dematerialisation and Decarbonisation Life-Cycle Analysis and Carbon and Ecological Footprinting Eco-Industrial Parks ('Industrial Symbiosis') Geographical Information Systems Examples of IE applications in the UK and Ireland • Northern Limits. A Resource Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of Northern Ireland (2004/2006) • Island Limits. A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of Ireland (2008) • SAMFA: A GIS application of material flow analysis in Ireland (2010) • UK Construction Sector Resource Efficiency Model (2007) • INTRAWaste. Integrated Resource and Waste Life Cycle Model for Ireland (2010) Northern Limits. A Resource Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of Northern Ireland Completed as part of the UK Mass Balance Programme, a £10m programme which and covered more than 60 project areas http://www.massbalance.org/resou rce/massbalance/ Northern Limits. Ecological Footprint of Sample Menus Island Limits. A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of Ireland Economy wide material flow accounts An economy wide MFA was calculated for the Irish economy for 2003. The flows of materials and products were quantified by industrial sector (NACE Rev.1.1), using the Eurostat guidance. Eurostat. Economy-wide material flow accounts and derived indicators. A methodological guide. 2002 Mass Balance/Material Flow Analysis Principles Environment materials energy Society/Economy materials energy For a given system such as production or consumption processes, companies, regions or national economies, the material balance principle leads to the following identity: total inputs = total outputs + net accumulation meaning that what goes into the system is either accumulated in the system or is leaving the system again as an output. Material flow model of Ireland Note: Net addition to stock is a balancing item as calculation of stock was outside the scope of the present study. DMI and DMC by sector in Ireland in 2003 1 Agriculture 1 Agriculture 2 Forestry 2 Forestry 5 Fishing 5 Fishing 10 Coal, lignite and peat extraction 11 Oil and gas extraction 10 Coal, lignite and peat extraction 11 Oil and gas extraction 13 Metal ores extraction 13 Metal ores extraction 14 Other mining and quarrying 14 Other mining and quarrying MFA Indicators Indicator type Input Consumption Output Balancing Resource productivity Resource intensity Indicator DMI DMI per capita DMC DMC per capita DPO DPO per capita DMO DMO per capita PTB PTB per capita GDP/DE GDP/DMI GDP/DMC DE/GDP DMI/GDP DMC/GDP Unit Tonnes Tonnes per capita Tonnes Tonnes per capita Tonnes Tonnes per capita Tonnes Tonnes per capita Tonnes Tonnes per capita Euros per tonne Euros per tonne Euros per tonne Tonnes per euro Tonnes per euro Tonnes per euro Value 119,647,733 30.5 115,129,904 29.4 117,997,978 30.1 127,137,366 32.5 17,240,695 4.4 998 817 849 0.001 0.00122 0.00118 Direct Material Input 2000000 Austria Belgium/Luxembourg 1800000 Denmark Finland 1600000 France DMI ('000 MT) 1400000 Germany Greece 1200000 Ireland 1000000 Italy Netherlands 800000 Portugal 600000 Spain Sweden 400000 United Kingdom 200000 0 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 DMI from 1980-2003 for the EU-15 Direct Material Input per capita DMI per capita from 1980-2003 for the EU-15 Input-Output Analysis Methodology Environmentally extended Ireland’s 2000 monetary I-O tables by extending a multiplier matrix derived from the MIOT by a resource intensity vector. IO Sectors IO Sectors … 40 41 Final Total Demand Output 1 2 1 Z1,1 Z1,2 Z1,j Z1,40 Z1,41 F1 X1 2 Z2,1 Z2,2 Z2,j Z2,40 Z2,41 F2 X2 … Zi,1 Zi,2 Zi,j Zi,40 Zi,41 Fi Xi 40 Z40,1 Z40,2 Z40,j Z40,40 Z40,41 F40 X40 41 Z41,1 Z41,2 Z41,j Z41,40 Z41,41 F41 X41 Primary Inputs P1 P2 Pj P40 P41 Total Inputs X1 X2 Xj X40 X41 Separate analyses were carried out for: DMI (Direct Material Input) Biomass Metals Fossil fuels Material Input R1 R2 Rj R40 R41 Minerals Imports Total material requirements of sectors to produce total final demand 1 - 5 Agriculture, forestry and fishing 10 - 14 M ining and quarrying products 15 Food and beverages 16 Tobacco products 17 Textiles 18 Wearing apparel 19 Leather and leather products 20 Wood and wood products (excl furniture) 21 Pulp, paper and paper products 22 Printed matter and recorded media 23 & 36 Petroleum and other manufacturing products 24 Chemical products and man-made fibres 25 Rubber and plastics 26 Other non-metallic mineral products 27 Basic metals 28 Fabricated metal products 29 M achinery and equipment n.e.c. 30 Office machinery and computers 31 Electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c. 32 Radio, television and communications apparatus 33 M edical, precision and optical instruments 34 M otor vehicles and trailers 35 Other transport equipment 37 Recycling 40 Electricity and gas 41 Water collection and distribution 45 Construction work 50 M otor fuel and vechicle trade and repair 51 Wholesale trade 52 Retail trade and repair of household goods 55 Hotel and restaurant services 60 Land transport services 61 Water transport services 62 Air transport services 63 Auxiliary transport services and travel agencies 64 Post and telecommunication services 65 Financial intermediation services 66 Insurance and pension services 67 Services auxiliary to financial intermediation 70 Real estate services 71 Renting services of machinery and equipment 72 Computer and related services 73 Research and development services 74 Other business services 75 Public administration and defence 80 Education 85 Health and social work services 90 Sewage and refuse disposal services 91 M embership organisation services n.e.c. 92 Recreation 93 Other services 95 Private households with employed persons Highest requirements: Construction – 36% of DMI Food & Beverages – 24% Non-metallic mineral – 9% Agri, forestry, fishing – 8% SAMFA: A GIS application of material flow analysis in Ireland Combines national MFA accounts with dynamic MFA (dMFA) work by Muller, to spatially allocate material flows using vectors such as material intensity & building lifetime simulations. (Roy, Ellis, Curry. In print) Muller, D. Stock dynamics for forecasting material flows—Case study for housing in The Netherlands. Ecological Economics. 59. 2006 SAMFA: A GIS application of material flow analysis in Ireland National/ regional govt. policy & standards Further analysis/application Local govt. authority development - Housing provision factors SAMFA - Energy standards M3: New house building Material-balance at various spatial levels - Resource management Existing housing - Waste and recovery - Year built - Energy efficiency Restoration/ retrofitting Land & planning factors - Land availability M1: M2: Material intensity & building lifetime simulation Spatial allocation of new housing units - Planning permission Demolition/ recycling/ waste Geographic factors - Density - Planning constraints Demographic factors - Population Analysts/ professional bodies/LA Industries & services Private Households - Lifestyle (e.g. floor area) SAMFA: A GIS application of material flow analysis in Ireland M6: Total energy use at various spatial levels M4: M5: EE at various spatial levels OE at various spatial levels Use of existing building National/ regional govt. policy & standards Local govt. authority development factors - Housing provision SAMFA - Energy standards M3: New house building Material-balance at various spatial levels - Resource management Existing housing - Year built - Waste and recovery - Energy efficiency Restoration/ retrofitting Land & planning factors - Land availability M1: M2: Material intensity & building lifetime simulation Spatial allocation of new housing units - Planning permission Demolition/ recycling/ waste Geographic factors - Density - Planning constraints Demographic factors Analysts/ professional bodies/LA Industries & services Private Households - Population - Lifestyle (e.g. floor area) UK Construction Sector Resource Efficiency Model Links material and product flows to building type vis Bills of Quantities and combines this with the Carbon Trust Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE) for Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE); Allows designers to assess the resource use and carbon footprint of different products and material choices at the design stage. UK Construction Sector Resource Efficiency Model INTRAWaste. Integrated Resource and Waste Life Cycle Model for Ireland INTRAWaste structure Opportunities and synergies Construction Sector dynamic Material Flow Analysis (dMFA) Model for resource and energy use, waste and emissions – comparative evaluation of economies? International Open-Source Life Cycle Analysis Model for Integrated Waste and Resource Management – align with current developments in International LCA standards – ILCD and ISO. Construction Sector dynamic Material Flow Analysis (dMFA) Model Offers the possibility of: Assessing the Whole Life Carbon Footprint of infrastructure development (direct and embodied energy); Identify when material inputs will become wastes and what the policy measures, capacity building and waste infrastructure needs will be; Can be combined with other tools such as GIS or Life Cycle Analysis/Carbon Footprinting. Construction Sector dynamic Material Flow Analysis (dMFA) Model Duffy and Woodward. Cement and concrete flow analysis in a rapidly expanding economy: Ireland as a case study. Resources, Conservation & Recycling. Under review Opportunities and synergies Conclusions Resource efficiency is as important as direct energy use in reducing our carbon emissions; A range of tools and techniques from Industrial Ecology can be combined to give us a complete picture of the metabolism of our infrastructure over time; and This ‘picture’ provides the evidence base to make informed decisions about creating lowcarbon infrastructure and economies.