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Origins of Modern Europe Preface, Geography and History 1.) In reading the Preface, what do you learn about the objectives of A History of the Modern World? How does the study of the past, especially of the European past, help to understand the contemporary world? How is political history related to other kinds of history? To present “the broad historical patterns and contexts that give wider meaning to the cascading events that flash across our newspapers, televisions, and computer screens.” The contemporary world has been largely shaped by European history. Not so say other areas were not important (they certainly were). Consider that during the 19th century European nations dominated nearly all parts of the globe. Political history is shaped by other histories (religious, social, etc.) 2.) What relationships may be noted between the study of geography and the study of history? Geography studies the way we interact with the earth. Consider the way in which oceans, mountains, and rivers create barriers and boundaries yet can create paths for the movement of goods. Consider how climate changes the available food sources and growing times. All of these things have effected the evolution of the modern world. 1-1 1. ANCIENT TIMES: GREECE, ROME, AND CHRISTIANITY 1.) How did Europe contribute to the development of what is now called the “modern world”? Why should a “history of the modern world” emphasize the history of Europe? 2.) For what major contributions are the Greeks remembered? the Romans? What role did the Romans play in transmitting the contributions of older civilizations? 3.) Describe the origins of Christianity. What special contributions did it make to the development of Europe’s civilization? 1-2 2. THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES: THE FORMATION OF EUROPE 1.) What factors contributed to the decline and breakup of the Roman Empire? 2.) Why could western Europe be said to be in the “Dark Ages” for a period of time after about A.D. 500? Why is the term open to dispute? What role did the Christian Church play at this time? • MAP OF CHARLEMAGNE’S EMPIRE Can you do this? • Explain the political, economic, religious differences between the Early and High Middle Ages. • Tonight: fill in this chart as best you can (E.M.A. only!) Early Middle Ages Political Economic Religious High Middle Ages Some terms… • A. Alexander the Great• B. Aristotle• C. “classical virtues”• D. Pax Romana• A. Constantine• B. Trial by OrdealSchism• C. Trial by BattleSupremacy”• D. Battle of ToursConstantine”- E. CharlemagneF. East-West G. “Petrine H. “Donation of 1-3 3. THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES: SECULAR CIVILIZATION 1.) What sweeping changes in the eleventh century enabled Europe to pull itself out of the so-called Dark Ages? 2.) How are feudalism and the manorial system related? How are these terms different? 3.) What similarities exist between the lord-vassal relationship and the lord-serf relationship? Differences? 4.) Explain the role of commerce and of towns in the High Middle Ages. What effects did each have on the rural countryside? What economic roles were available to women? 5.) Describe the growth in the High Middle Ages of (a) royal power, (b) royal councils, and (c) parliaments. 1-4 4. THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES: THE CHURCH 1.) What fundamental institutional changes took place in the church in the eleventh century before Gregory VII? Under Gregory VII? In the thirteenth century under Innocent III? 2.) Discuss with reference to the intellectual life of the High Middle Ages (a) the origins and nature of universities, (b) the contributions of Arab learning, and (c) the role of scholastic philosophers. Can you do this? • Explain the political, economic, religious differences between the Early and High Middle Ages. • Tonight: fill in this chart as best you can (H.M.A. too!) Early Middle Ages Political Economic Religious High Middle Ages Essay • It is generally agreed that by 1300 the rise of a distinctly European civilization was an accomplished fact. What were the most important contributions made to that civilization by (a) Greece, (b) Rome, (c) the Early Middle Ages, and (d) the High Middle Ages?