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Page 1
The Cardiovascular System: Part 2
Type the question and your answer, in complete sentences, on a separate sheet of paper.
Turn in your answers to the Lab Instructor.
8) Blood is composed of fluid components and formed elements (cells). Describe the properties
of fluid and cellular components of blood.
9) The ability to prevent blood loss from vessels that have been damaged is an important
hemostatic function. Describe in detail the three steps in the process of hemostasis including the
compounds involved in those processes.
10) The formation of platelet plugs and blood clots is an important hemostatic (defined by the
elimination of bleeding) function of the blood. However, there are mechanisms within vessel a
wall that inhibit clot formation and dissolve those clots that have formed. Describe the
mechanisms that inhibit clot formation and dissolve clots, including the relevant compounds.
11) While the basic constituents of blood vessels are similar across all vessel types, the
proportion of each constituent is quite different. Describe the structure of each class of blood
vessel, including the functional significance of that structure.
12) The smaller blood vessels, which include arterioles, capillaries, and venules, have unique
functions. Identify the functions of each of the smaller blood vessels.
13) Blood flowing through a vessel is subject to the same physical limitations as fluid flowing
through a tube. Describe the physical properties of blood flow and blood pressure.
14) Central venous pressure is an important determinant of venous return and thereby mean
arterial pressure. Describe the four factors that can alter central venous pressure.
15) The processes of filtration and absorption across the endothelial cells of capillaries is driven
by Starling's forces. List the components of Starling's forces and describe how those forces
determine the absorption of water across capillaries, including a discussion of how those forces
are altered by standing and tissue injury.
16) Mean arterial pressure is regulated by a negative feedback system that involves the central
nervous system. Discuss the afferent limb, the efferent limb, and the integrator of the
baroreceptor reflex.
17) The baroreceptors are responsible for detecting changes in mean arterial pressure and
initiating responses. Follow the short-term and long-term responses of the baroreceptor reflex to
an acute and chronic increase in mean arterial pressure.
18) The regulation of mean arterial pressure involves the interaction between extrinsic and
intrinsic mechanisms. While the intrinsic mechanisms can affect mean arterial pressure, they also
play an important role in the distribution of cardiac output to individual organs. Discuss the role of
the intrinsic mechanisms in the control of organ resistance.
Page 2
19) The chemoreceptors are not involved in the detection of mean arterial pressure. However,
changes in blood gases and other compounds can stimulate these receptors and thereby alter
mean arterial pressure. Outline the function of the arterial chemoreceptors.
20) In order to provide adequate oxygen delivery to active skeletal muscle, a number of changes
must occur within the cardiovascular system. Describe the cardiovascular changes that are
initiated by exercise and how they facilitate our ability to be active.