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Thesis of Doctoral (Ph.D.) Thesis
Klára Ágnes Törökné Kiss
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. János Nagy
Kálmán Kerpely Doctoral School
Debrecen, 2016
I started to deal with the wine sector in 2008 when as a wine lover; I decided to write a thesis
survey of wine consumption habits. The past 7 years I met many winemakers, visited several
vineries and I participated in many wine demonstrations. Meanwhile, a picture developed in me
that wine producers do come across many difficulties and obstacles. This led me to investigate
the Hungarian vineries from marketing point of view, with the relevant theoretical background
studies. Including direct sales and motivation of wineries of Tokaj and Villany wine regions.
My other attachment to the topic is that I often visited vineries of Hungary, with my family and
friends. We often visited the vineries of Tokaj and Eger as two, the most near vineries to
Debrecen. During my PhD as a wine lover, the last few years I toured around the wine regions
of Hungary and during this time, had many publications regarding this topic.
My dissertation focuses on the wine region of Tokaj and Villany. I exam the market of the
wines produced here, from marketing point of view.
Topicality and importance of the topic
Wine has always been part of the culture and history in Hungary and played an important part
of the economy. Over the past decade, reputation market position of the Hungarian wine,
decreased has (Gaal- Pardanyi, 2006).
Scientifically, wine or spirits, grape mash obtained by the alcoholic fermentation.
Wine is a Turkish word origin is grayish –white. Researches showed evidences that around
5000 BC people living near the Caucasus had grown in small-grained wild grape. It was bred
out of the garden vines later; therefore it is considered the homeland of viticulture. However,
wine making technology is associated by the ancient Egyptians. The European grape and wine
production was helped by the ancient Greek and Roman merchants. Noe is considered the first
wine maker in the European culture (Paska, 1999). Wine is as old as mankind 's history and
across cultures and even these days, plays a very important role. The world's grape and wine
production, wine trade and wine consumption has changed radically in recent decades, so this
change has also affected Hungary. And from 2001 had to accommodate changes due to the EU
Hungary was already popular in Europe for its wine -growing regions before the
Conquest. Our country for centuries was known as the home of wine in Europe (Laposa
Dekany, 2001). Not a coincidence, as since 1875 until the phylloxera virus, Hungary was
Europe's great wine-producing power, together with France, Portugal, Italy and Spain (AmbrusCsoma-Somlosi, 2003). Hungary boasts a unique selection of wines in comparison to the size
and location of our country. In our wine regions fresh fruity, full-bodied, unique and world famous sweet wines all can be found. In recent centuries, the wine in our country has become
part of history and culture. Beside all these provides a livelihood to the producers of wine
regions. Because of its physiological effects - which are proven by science – it has become part
of everyday life for a balanced, healthy lifestyle. The situation of Hungarian wine in recent
years has become a controversial issue, which had many causes. Due to the regime, the
production and sale of wines both in Hungary and in international markets were in crisis
(Molnar, 2007). After regime change, immediately appeared small, family wineries in addition
to the large wineries, which sought quality wine production, tradition and new technologies,
focused on the use of varieties. The first results of that initiative appeared in the mid- 90s but
in the meantime sales of the products has become increasingly difficult due to the concentration
of food trade. As a consequence, more and more wineries started to revive the tradition of direct
sales and its new forms (Gyore 2014).
Landscapes of Hungary have unique ecological quality that favours more of the
produce of white wines. Therefore the reputation of Tokaj wine region is based on its white
wines and the reputation of Villany wine region is primarily based on its red wines. On these
lands the self-produced wine is a centuries-old tradition, a symbol of hospitality and courtesy.
Tokaj and Villány wine producers have realized the importance of quality wine production over
the volume of wine production, and also, they put more and more emphasis on their marketing
activities as well.
1.2 Purpose of the research
The dissertation is intended to provide a general picture about the situation of
Hungarian wine market and its wine consumption habits. The immediate goal of the
presentation is to demonstrate the market of Tokaj’s and Villany’s wines, as well as strengthen
or refute the concept of hypotheses. The indirect aim of this dissertation is again, to prove the
efficiency of the scientific method in theory and practical approach. To my knowledge, there
hasn’t been a research of this scientific kind that would analyse these two vineries linked
together, from marketing point of view.
Objective of this dissertation:
My primary goal of my dissertation I would like to find out the characters of wine buyers and
consumers. Also, would like to categorize them by their characters so that I can sketch a base
of wine marketing strategy in the future, regarding these wine regions.
Secondly to reveal the special marketing features of Tokaj and Villany wine regions and to
introduce wine consumption habits of residents of these two vineries.
In my research both consumer and producer side was surveyed in Hungary. During
the exploration of literature, situation of the world- and Hungary’s wine market will be
presented as well. The research can be divided into two main parts. In one part, I examined the
consumer side with questionnaires, on the other hand, the producer side in the form of in-depth
interviews. So in my thesis I wish to present marketing characteristics of the above mentioned
two wines.
1.3. Hypothesises of the research
Prior to the research, based on literature and my personal knowledge, I set up the following
hypotheses on direct sale.
Altogether, I made 9 hypothesises, where assumptions can be found, that are methodological,
areal integration associated, consumer and customer assumption related and also, particularly
wine trade related.
H1 Tokaj’s and Villány’s wine purchase and consumption are related to age, sex, income,
H2 At purchase of Tokaj’s and Villány’s wines; buyer is mainly influenced by the price. A
higher proportion of higher -income consumers to buy wine directly from the producer, then as
lower -income consumers
H3 I found consumption patterns correlations between the examined two wine region (TokajHegyalja, Villány -Siklós) , with respect to the purchase and consumption of wine.
H4 Tokaj and Villány wineries employ a different marketing strategy. Tokaj prove more
effective than the Villány one.
H5 Different wine trade policy, structure and distribution channel structure are developed, in
Tokaj- and Villány hill, for the market for the analyzed wine. Tokaj concentrates on wine export
more than Villány.
H6 From marketing point of view, compering the results of the household interviews in
comparison with the producer of Tokaj wine region and Villány, both differences, and
similarities can be detected.
H7 In the household survey interviewed female wine consumers prefer the taste of sweeter
H8 A higher percentage of respondents in the household survey mentioned Aszú wines of
among Tokaj wines
H9 The role of direct selling for small wineries is more important than the larger wineries.
This dissertation is intended to provide a general picture about the situation of Hungarian wine
market and wine consumption habits. My immediate goal is to present the market of Tokaj’s
and Villány’s wines, as well as strengthen and refute hypotheses. This doctrine is to aim
indirectly, to be proven the efficiency of the scientific methods of theoretical and practical
application. As far as I know, there has not been done this kind of scientific research to these
two wine regions before, which examined marketing approaches together, of these two wine
In my research it was surveyed in both consumer and producer side in Hungary. During the
exploration of literature, situation of the world- and Hungary’s wine market will be presented
as well. The research can be divided into two main parts. In one part, I was examining the
consumer side with questionnaires, on the other hand, the producer side in the form of in-depth
interviews. So in my thesis I wish to present marketing characteristics of the above-mentioned
two wines.
Targets to be achieved by processing, exploration literature:
1. Objective: A brief overview of the world and Hungary’s wine sector
2. Objective: Literature review of Wine Marketing
Objectives to be achieved based on the primary research:
1. Objective: Determination of the main characteristics of Hungarian wine consumers
in general
2. Objective: Determination of trait of Villány and Tokaj wine producers and wine
I started to deal with wines in 2008 when, as a wine lover, I decided to write my diploma as an
agricultural engineer, about habits of wine consumption. During the last 7 years, I met many
wine makers, visited many vineries and attended many exhibitions. An image was formed in
my mind that those who deal with vineries, come up against many difficulties and obstacles
regarding marketing their wines. This inclined me to investigate Hungarian vineries from
marketing point of view, backed up with the right theory studies. Within these, I decided to take
on direct selling and its motivation the vineries of Tokaj and Villány wine regions.
Table No. 1.: Analysis of surveys
Source: Own research, 2014
Analysis of surveys
Public research
Method of data collection
100% personal interviews
Application of interviewers
20% by interviewers, 80% by myself
Reasearch areas
Research aims
Research dates
Locations of the research
Group of respondents
Selection method
Number of questions
Number of evaluated
Number of evaluabla
Evaluation tool
The average duration
Budapest, Northern Great Plains region’s
county capitals, Baranya County (Villány)
Evaluation of wine consumption of the
Tokaj’s and Villány’s wines
Summer of 2011-2013
Debrecen’s, Szolnok’s, Nyíregyháza’s,
Nudapest’s hypermarkets, public areas,
over 18 years
MS Excel és SPSS
15 minutes
During the household survey, I applied random sampling techniques; anyone could be included
in the sample. In the questionnaire I used open and a yes-no deciding questionnaire. Also,
combination plates, and multiple choice questions were used too. In several occasions, I asked
for ratings too. On a scale of 1 to 5, I asked people to rank certain statements. During my
research, although random sampling procedure was used, I mainly asked in areas where the
frequency of purchases of wine was larger - according to the literature. This was necessary
because this way irrelevant questionnaire were so much less, regarding the objectives of my
research. This way I was able to carry out the surveys in much shorter time and more costeffectively. People, the age of between 18-25 and 26-35 years were over-represented and
between 36-60 year olds representation was quite good. People over 60 were under represented.
The evaluation was also done in terms of education and income and the chances of getting in
the sample- due to a large number of elements- could say was high. Firstly, I studied
combinability of national sample of the areas. One of my hypotheses was that answers assessed
in Budapest will differ greatly, from the data collected in the countryside. As for proof, I used
a method of pairwise T – test.
The sampling techniques can be divided into two basic groups. One of them is ‘the not
accidental’, and the other one is ‘the random sampling techniques’ group. Former include
arbitrary, evaluations, the quota and snowball sampling. The latter include a simple accident,
systematic, stratified, and collective and other sampling techniques (Malhotra, 2001; CsapóKárpáti, 2003).
Methods used at examining the consumer side, in my research:
- Distribution ratio
- Averaging, mean values , standard deviations
- Reliability Analysis
- Pairwise T-test analysis
- Pearson's Chi-square test
- Mann -Whitney test
I did the statistical analysis with a help of three key programs and software, during my research.
These used programs were: MS Excel, SPSS. In Hungary, the most widely used operating
system is Microsoft Soft Windows. The system includes various software packages. In the
Office package, the MS Excel spreadsheet software can be found. The program is also good for
statistical analysis and the user interface is relatively easy to use. The most outstanding feature
of the program is, perhaps that as results, an excellent presentation can be performed, and the
work can be made attractive. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) is a developing
program, for more than a decade. SPSS data is stored in a table. Another important part of SPSS
is the Output window, in addition to the data tables. The outcome of statistical tests and
procedures are displayed in this output and all text messages (Ketskeméty-Izsó, 2005).
The secondary data were processed by the software program using Microsoft Excel 2010.
Documenting and processing data of checked questionnaires in quantitative research, within
primary research, was made by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) and MS Excel.
When processing statistical data from both sources, among calculation of simple statistics, I
needed to use two- and multivariate methods. The application of distribution ratio allows the
characterization of analyzing composition of different data. When preparing the cross tables, I
did independency examinations (Khi2 test, significance exams) with a 5% margin of error
(p=5%), average calculations, scattering study, to open up the relationship between the different
variables toward each other. When the relationship has been proven statistically significant
(p≤5%), then the strength of connection usually becomes interesting.
Data collection was carried out to develop a detailed understanding of the research topic, using
two internationally recognized method of marketing research data collection (secondary and
3.1 Secondary research
Secondary researches are to process and cognizance national and foreign literature and data of
home vinery, giving emphasized attention to wine production, wine shopping, tendency of wine
consumption and examining the developments of wine market. Data sources for the preparation
of analyzes, were given printed and electronically. The sources of secondary data important
printed information were various books, journals, statistical publications, studies, conferences,
publications, legislation, sector-specific regulations, other informational publications, weekly
and daily newspapers. The electronic or computerized data sources came from one of the
Internet -based databases.
3.2 Primary research
Primary data was used to obtain qualitative methods (quality) and quantitative (quantitative)
research, as using them together, would result in a success and an examination. Primary data
was used to obtain qualitative methods (quality) and quantitative (quantitative) research. The
qualitative research is an unstructured, exploratory method which is based on a small sample
and serves the nature of understanding the problem (Malhotra, 2002). By this research, I mainly
got to know the answers to ‘Why’ and ‘How’ and to understand the activity of market
participants and the motives of their actions. The quantitative research is usually based on large
numbers of questioning It quantifies the various answers to the questions (What? How many/
how much? How many times, Where? When?) that have been analyzed mathematical and
statistical methods.
Methodology of in-depth interview survey
Methodology of used in in-depth interview examinations- Wine producers, wineries.
In-depth interview survey was part of my own research, of which sketch. During the intensive
interview the interviewer asks the responder with a pre prepared sketch. A personal interview
provides an opportunity to obtain in-depth information or that the interviewer understands the
systems and relationships (Wyss, 1991).
I visited Hungarian wineries for the first time in person in the summer of 2012, when I checked
with the wine maker via email first, then on the phone, for me to be able to go and see them. In
several cases I faced rejection; still, I managed to visit companies who were happy to comply
with my request.
The method used was the in-depth interview. The results obtained were better grouped and
become suitable for the preparation for models. The models show a possible direction and
relationships. The intensive interview is a method of qualitative data collection. The method is
a structured, direct and personal Interview in which is a highly skilled interviewer talking to
one responder with the aim to detect his motives, views, attitudes and feelings, relation to a
particular matter. An intensive interview could be anything between half an hour and an hour.
During my own research, I got to the interviewed wine makers via professional contact lists,
after making the sketch of the intensive interview. I got in touch with all the wineries possible,
firstly by email and phone. I visited those wineries where I got positive feedback, both in Tokaj
and Villany areas. I asked the same questions from everyone on the phone as well as part of a
personal interview, regarding their given region. I put the result to an MS Excel table, and then
analyzed it.
Collection of data
Data collection happened verbally, anonymously and voluntary in person and with a help of a
pre drawn sketch of intensive interview made for directly for people in matter. Appointments
were made by phone and were consulted before.
The sketches used in in-depths interviews
The face to face interviews were helped by a half structured interview draft of which “guiding
principle " contained pre-defined primary and secondary open-ended questions (Lehota, 2001).
The interviews half constructed nature ensured that I was able to detail the topic better, more
freely and deeply. The producer interview sketches were expanded to a brief description of the
businesses, they dealt with in detail of the wineries and marketing activities of host trades. Also,
it investigates the knowledge of respondents, regarding consumer-, and customer needs in wine
tourism in the future. During my research, I exam wine consumption habits of Tokaj and
Villány wines, marketing strategy of wine producers and trait of wine trade. Scientific nature
of the used methods enables the publication of relevant conclusions and new results. During the
3 years of research of mine, such an information and data been gathered, on which basis a
theoretical model could be established. I got to the necessary information by market research,
using surveys, questioners and interviews and via seconder literacy. The model shows the
possible connections of the specific wine market performers in Tokaj and Villány, and how the
product gets to the last consumer. I have already dealt with this subject, prior to my doctoral
studies (secondary and primary research).
3.2.1 Methodology of surveys questionnaire
Gathering data
The collection of data was collected with a help of questionnaires and was anonymous and
voluntarily. During the course of the so-called household survey, method of "face to face
interviews" (Scipione, 1994) were applied. In doing so, the interviewer was personally present
the survey. However, the respondent in the questionnaire itself could also write his individual
responses. I made the collection of questionnaires by mail or in person.
Important features of the questionnaires used in the research
The household survey builds on wine consumption and purchasing habits, knowledge of wines
and wine regions and its themes are built on topics. Before finalizing the questionnaires, 30
questionnaires were involved in test interviews which after no substantial changes happened in
the questionnaires. During the research, questionnaires were providing processing,
quantification and conclusions. Priority scales were also applied in addition to 2 or 3 or question
response options (Kotler, 1998). In the household questionnaire there were few open questions
regarding few wines and unfolds relevance associations related to wine region. Examining the
evaluability of the questionnaires, it can be said that in the event of the public questionnaire
survey, evaluability of 500 questionnaires was 100%
Features of the samples
In 2012/2014, in a regional consumer oral survey, 500 people were selected. In this model,
people aged 18 and over, Hungarian nationality from Northern Great Plain (its towns and
villages), Baranya County (city of Pécs and Villány) and Budapest could be added. The
interviews happened in 5 cities: Debrecen, Nyíregyháza, Szolnok, Villány and Budapest. By
using simple random sampling, in the areas selected, I used ‘Random Walking Method’ which
meant, we asked every 5th person to fill in the questionnaire. During the survey, the outcome
did reflect on the population regarding sex and county. However, the 18-25, 26-35 and 36-45
age group were added to the model in a larger proportion, then people from age group of 60
Table No. 2.: Distribution by age and sex
Source: Own research, KSH 2014
Type of
piece piece piece piece piece
Male Municipality 19
Female Municipality 22
Total Municipality 41
3.2.1. Method of qualitative research
Qualitative research methods are applied to individual in-depth interviews depth interviews
with producers. Personal conversations continued in the Tokaj wine region of Villany winery
and dealing with producers, managed to get to know your marketing activities, the wine
tourism, opinions on wine consumption and purchasing habits.
3.2.2. Method of quantative research
The most important part of my research was consumer survey. One of the two wine regions
studied, a regional retail interview has been conducted among the Northern Plains region and
Baranya County and residents of Budapest. I was studying wine consumption and habits among
the residents of Northern Plains region, Baranya County and Budapest. Also I studied factors
like influencing choosing of wine, knowledge and judgment of residents regarding importance
of wines and wine regions and common characteristics of different consumer groups.
Within the regional consumer oral questionnaire 500 – aged 18 years of age and above- were
selected from the examined area. The oral surveys were done by ‘Birthday Key’ and ‘Random
Walking’ method. The processing of data was by SPSS for Windows 7.0 and Excel. During
processing of data, two and more-, multivariate method had to be applied, in addition to the
calculation of simple statistics. In doing so, the Fishbein model was used by the various ratios,
took averages, dispersion and run significance tests.
4.1. Main feaatures of intensive interviews
Our wineries are characterized by duality that is equally shown in Tokaj and Villany wine
regions. On one hand there are financially strong wineries. In Tokaj wine region they are István
Szepsy Winery, Sauska Winery Tokaj, Beres Wine yards, Tokaj Trading House. In Villány they
are Csányi Winery, Sauska Winery Villány, Zsolt and Ede Tiffán’s Winery and Vylyan. They
move towards quality production, and can also put sufficient money and emphasis on marketing
too. Beside them are on a long tradition, larger private farmers with larger properties. These are
the "Peak Winemakers" who intend to cover their living expenses from the winery. Such
traditional family winery is i.e. István Kiss Family Winery (Fitomark), Árvay Family Winery,
Erzsébet Winery. Few of the most known of Villány ones are Bock-, Gere-, Polgár-, Wunderlich
In both wine regions in addition to the medium and large wineries, there are numerous
producers who look at wine making as a secondary income. These farmers also produce to sell,
not only for their own consumptions. The quality of their wines is rather diverse and a large
proportion of them do not bottle their wines. Many people are engaged in producing wine only
as a hobby just to cover their own family wine consumption. These people are not part of my
studies, therefore will not be mentioned in my dissertation. In the wine regions of Tokaj and
Villány, recognized, mainly, medium and large wineries help to evolve the image of these
The most important marketing element is to specify the name of the wine, at those medium and
large wineries mentioned above. Producers/ wineries for specifying origins of wines, often use
the name of the actual wine region, town or area (i.e. in Villány there is one called Black Hill,
Devil Ditch, Extint, etc.)
Often found in both analyzed wine regions, but more in Villány that they use their family name
as a Hallmark of their wines, giving a personal guarantee for their produce, to the customer (i.e.
Vida Cuvee, Bock Cuvee). These days, wines with a fancy name is becoming increasingly
common in the market, this is not something typical to Tokaj producers. For product
development in response to the respondents of the consequences to be drawn is that, Villány
producers’ mood for experimentation is much larger than the Tokaj producers’. In Tokaj wine
region there are less experimenter wine producer, therefore product development is also less.
Regarding ageing in Villány wine region, oak barrels are recommended widely and in Tokaj
wine region, they recommend Gönci barrels. Producers of both wine regions experience ever
accelerating technological development. In summary of in-depth interviews it can be said that
both wine regions very much appreciate the importance of tourism. In both cases, it is one of
the main sources of earning for living, and creates many jobs. Tourism is flourishing in both
wine regions, thanks to the reputation of wine-growing regions, which is due to the quality of
their wines and surrounding natural environment. In Villány as well as in Tokany, cellard/
vineries can be walk around on foot.
Though I discovered and important difference. In many places in Villány civilized
accommodations can be found, unable to state the same about Tokaj.
Wineries in both of these wine regions offer not just individual and group wine tasting sessions
but also excursions, accommodation and food. According to the producers, guests expect highquality wines tasting sessions and pleasant programs. Not one respondent mentioned that apart
from the wines had been offered, would wish to have services on a higher level. In connection
with the development of tourism, both wine producers highlighted the importance of varied
wine tasting route programs, the improvement of marketing activities, and the establishment of
more accommodations. Only the third of the wineries being involved in this study can guarantee
for the customer to be able to purchase their wine via their website. Both sides could enumerate
much strength, lack of capital was common in both sides, as weaknesses. Wine producers pass
on their wines to the shops mainly through wine merchants. Both major wine producers’ wines
can be found in most of the country's wine specialist shop. In these stores the products can be
obtained at a high price. In Villány it is more typical to have a winery that has its own specialist
wine shop. One of the most important distribution channels for both wine regions is the
HORECA system, which helps to boost their prestige as well.
It is typical to their wine export that in most cases they only put on the market medium- priced
products, not the high quality ones. That is more of a trait for larger producers. In contrast with
this, family wineries export their high quality wines on to the market and sell them for a high
price, in direct proportion to quality. The most important export markets for the studied wine
regions are EU Member States: Slovakia, Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland. Also shipped
to the United States, United Kingdom, Japan and China (these latter ones a more typical to
Tokaj). Wine tourism is significant in both wine regions. The one that has image forming effect
helps the region's wines promotion and marketing. At the moment, in Hungary, there is no
standardization for marketing conception for trading of wines. Every producer and retailer
follows different strategy. The wine growers and wine producers however, are not able to invest
their products with far-reaching marketing tools. In Hungary, the parish council Mountain
provides technical assistance to its members; it is not covered for marketing work. There is no
specific marketing officer for the current 22 Hungarian wine regions who would be capable of
consistent professional framework and give and unified image in there and support sales of their
own wine region. For foreigners, among first things that come to their mind about Hungary is
Tokaji Aszú. It is highly recommended that the government also manages well this product as
it could also be one of the defining images of the country (Piskóti, 2002).
4.2 Results of essential household survey
Table No. 3.: Main characteristics of the population
Source: Own research, own calculation from Census data (Spatial statistics for age group 18
+), KSH 2014
by age
by sex
by place
by highest
level of
Sample data from
KSH data int
the study areas
he study areas
18-25 age
46 %
15 %
26-35 age
27 %
20 %
close to top
36-45 age
13 %
12 %
46-60 age
10 %
37 %
60 plus
16 %
57 %
55 %
almost good
43 %
45 %
almost good
13 %
54 %
North-Great Pl. 50 %
36 %
almost good
Baranya County37%
10 %
Higher educ.
38 %
Min.of maturity 55%
32 %
Primary educ. 18%
30 %
After processing the 500 residential questionnaires, comparing with census in 2014, can be said
that the distribution was similar. I will illustrate the most important background characteristics
from which can be seen that 43% of the respondents were men and 57% were women.
The model represents well the adult population of the studied region, regarding distribution of
The sample data reveals that nearly half of those surveyed (46%) were aged between 18 and
25, 27% were aged 26 and 30, 13% were aged between 31 and 45, 10% were aged between 40
and 60 and 4% were aged above 60. It’s been experienced from distribution of school
qualifications that 27 % of that in higher education, 55 % of that in secondary and 18% primary
education was accounted for. In terms of the breakdown by place, 13% of respondents live in
Budapest, 37% are from Baranya County and 50% live in the Northern Great Plain region.
55% noted Tokaji Aszú as their favourite wine, 15% said Egri Bikavér (Eger Bullblood) was
their favourite and 30% claimed other wines as their preferred ones (i.e. Villány, Balaton,
Merlot, etc.) The latter was given a very heterogeneous composition therefore it could not be
categorized. Only 4 % of those who were unable to name or had not had a wine of their
favourite. Only those, who do purchase wines, got into my study.
Tokaj wine is being purchase once or twice a year, nearly 50% of the sample and 24% buy their
favourite wine in every 3 months. The respondents for the purpose of own consumption buy an
average of 4-5 bottles of Tokaj wine in a year, and from Villány wines, less often. In case if
the wine is intended to be a gift, we can almost get the same results, but the averages are slightly
smaller compared to their consumption. That is, in case of Tokaj wines 4-5 bottles/ year, in case
of Villany wines 2-4 bottles/ year, in case of Tokaji Aszú 3 bottles/year and in case of
specialized wines, it is 2 bottles /year. Those who don’t buy wine specialties, the reason is
mainly financial. The reason for some of the non-buyers is that they either haven’t tried or they
don’t like that wine.
Table No.1: Occasions respondents purchase wines for usually
Source: Own research 2014
For New
For wedding
Year's Eve 6%
For Any gift
For Name
For Birthday
For Christmas
35% of the respondents buy wines for birthdays, 28% for namedays, 21% for Christmas. 45%
of respondents drink Tokaj wine specialties at home usually. 37% mainly at parties consume
wines and 18% mainly in catering.
Table No.2.: Most often places wines being bought from
Source: Own research 2014
Wine sotre
Internet 3%
Discount store
Petrol station
From the
producer 9%
ABC 11%
Nearly 49 % of the wines are sold in supermarkets and hypermarkets. 12% of the respondents
buy their wines in small shops (i.e. Profi, Penny Market), 11% from other shops (i.e. Coop,
CBA), 15% from specialized wine shops and only 9% from producers.
It turned out from the questionnaire that influence is important when it comes to choosing
wine.This greatly influence the decision almost in every respondent. Also important factor can
be the other half of the respondent, friends and family.
Table No.3.Pie chart to show much respondents spend on wine per year
Source: Own research 2014
Over 50000Ft
Under 2000Ft
28% of the respondents spend between 10 000 and 20 000 Ft on wine per year, 30% spend
between 5 000 and 10 000Ft, and 23% spend between 20 000 and 50 000Ft. Only 4% spend
more than 50 000 Ft and only 5% spend less than 5 000 Ft on wine per year. On average
spending on wine was near 17 000 Ft.
40% of respondents don’t go to any wine region with an intention of wine tasting. 31% go in a
year, 25 % few times and only 4% go regularly, once a month. 64% responded that they would
gladly buy wine from a wine specialized shop near where they live. 73% of the respondents
hadn’t been on any event regarding wines, grapes or any kind of wine culture. 27% of
respondents had heard this kind of information. 34% didn’t know the noble making process.
29% were fully aware of it and 37% responded that though they knew about it, they didn’t know
the entire procedure. I asked about favorite wineries too. 32% of respondents did have a favorite
winery and 38% had just a favorite kind of wine of theirs. A total of only 10 % could name a
favorite winemaker of theirs. In the questionnaire the consumers were asked about the criteria
regarding their wine purchase.
In this subject, it can be said that the order of their considerations at purchasing their wines are:
previous experience (32%), price (36%), and quality (14%). In case of purchasing the wine as
a gift, considerations are: price (42%), appearance (14%), quality (22%), previous experience
(14%) and other (8%).
However, in theory the amount of money spent on the wines is much higher than the actual
spending. The value of the most occurring element (mode) and the middle mode (median) with
both Tokaj and Villány wines are 2 500 Ft. Respondents get their information about wines,
primarily from friends. After that, family, relatives and the Internet. Only 10 % of them make
inquiries in wine specialist retailer.
65% of respondents only buy Hungarian wine, 35% occasionally buy foreign wine.
When processing statistical data from both sources, among calculation of simple statistics, I
needed to use two- and multivariate methods. The application of distribution ratio allows the
characterization of analyzing composition of different data. When preparing the cross tables, I
did independency examinations (Khi2 test, significance exams) with a 5% margin of error
(p=5%), average calculations, scattering study, to open up the relationship between the different
variables toward each other. When the relationship has been proven statistically significant
(p≤5%), then the strength of connection usually becomes interesting.
For example one of the studies table:
Table No.4.: The basis of by gender analyzes cross Pearson's chi-square test about the
Tokaj- and Villány wine region (there is no difference)
Source: Own reserch, 2014
“p” for the Pearson chi-square
value (greater than 0.05, i.e. no
significant difference)
Know the Aszú wine
Buy wine for wedding
Dirnk wine at parties
Buy wine in hypermarkets
Read wine magazines
Buy wine in ABC
Buy wine in wine store
Buy wine from the producer
Buy wine from the internet
Friend influencing
Visiting the wine regions about wine shopping
Favorite winery
Drink wine at catering
During the preparation of my dissertation situation of wine market and the characteristics of
Tokaj and Villány wines were examined by several scientific methods. The aim of the research
is fulfilled, as it gave a general picture of the wine market situation on the Tokaj and Villány
wine regions.
Evaluation of hypotheses of dissertation
Examination of hypotheses ended with the following results:
I wasn’t able to confirm two but was able to confirm seven hypotheses based on literature,
regarding Tokaj and Villány wine regions.
Table No.5.: Results of hypotheses
Source: Own research 2014
Contents of the hypotesis tartalma
Tokaj’s and Villány’s wine purchase and
consumption are related to age, sex, income,
At purchase of Tokaj’s and Villány’s wines;
buyer is mainly influenced by the price. A
higher proportion of higher -income consumers
to buy wine directly from the producer, then as
lower -income consumers.
I found consumption patterns correlations
between the examined two wine region (TokajHegyalja, Villány -Siklós) , with respect to the
purchase and consumption of wine.
Tokaj and Villány wineries employ a different
marketing strategy. Tokaj prove more effective
than the Villány one.
Different wine trade policy, structure and
distribution channel structure are developed, in
Tokaj- and Villány hill, for the market for the
analyzed wine. Tokaj concentrates on wine
export more than Villány.
From marketing point of view, compering the
results of the household interviews in
comparison with the producer of Tokaj wine
region and Villány, both differences, and
similarities can be detected.
In the household survey interviewed female
wine consumers prefer the taste of sweeter
A higher percentage of respondents in the
household survey mentioned Aszú wines of
among Tokaj wines
The role of direct selling for small wineries is
more important than the larger wineries
1. 1.The dissertation outlines a clearly arranged Hungarian, mainly Tokaj- and Villany
wine market situation.
2. During examining wine consumption and wine purchasing characteristics of tourists
visiting Tokaj and Villány wine regions, two segments have been identified:
Wine loving friends,
Wine lover businessmen
3. Comparison of Tokaj and Villány wine region had been done regarding marketing point
of view. In doing so, differences, similarities and the potential of these opportunities in
these wine regions were analyzed. For the comparison I mainly used the results of indepth interviews and the result of the questionnaire of the population survey.
Survey of wine consumption and wine buying habits for residents of the Northern Plains
region, Budapest and Baranya County had been made and analyzed. I divided the
population into 7 segments: “Sweet wine lovers”, “Younger people who stick to their
habits”, “Traveling wine lovers”, “Wine lover businessmen”, “Modern customers”,
“Wine loving friends”, “Producer preferers”.
5. I tried to outline a possible marketing strategy regarding the wine region Tokaj and
Villány that could help the wine sector. The most important of the above mentioned
strategy are quality, protection of origin and communication.
The test wine regions and customer’s of Tokaji- and Villany’s wine consumption habits
it can be managed also can be.
Research has demonstrated that wine consumers surveyed find it difficult to navigate
through these days offer a wine and that wine-buying sites mainly in hypermarkets.
8. The purchase and consumption of Tokaji- and Villany’s wines among the respondents
is related to age, gender, income, education.
9. There is not much difference between the wine trade structure and the distribution
channel and the Tokaj wine region of Villany-Siklos market.
10. The composition of the Tokaji- and Villany’s export markets are heterogeneous, and
each winery connection system is aligned, but the presence in the export market is not
coupled with marketing support. Multiple export market may lead to a company's
resources consumed, which was at the expense of efficiency.
1. The residential questionnaire survey shows that consumers have difficulties finding
their way through the wine range.
2. The price appears in the form of price interval that is correlated with the family’s total
monthly net income. Consumers prefer sweet wines, but do not like too sweet ones.
Their need can be satisfied by wines available between 1 000-1 500 Ft
3. More and more people like red wines and there is a growing number of Villány wine
lovers too. Among Tokaj wines, the most well-known is the Tokaji Aszú. However,
consumption of it is rare due to its price.
4. The wine tasted has a positive influence on the feeling of satisfaction and can be decisive
when purchasing wine.
The population can be divided into sets of distinct consumer target groups. Development
of segment -specific marketing mixes can be done, which greatly improves efficiency.
Tourism development would greatly help the wine consumption at the producer’s and
would greatly improve that. Presence and facilitates of tourism strategy help local
The composition of export markets in Tokaj and Villány wine regions are heterogeneous
and aligned to the wineries connection system. Rethinking of the sales channel policy
would greatly help to achieve higher profitability wineries. Regulation of valueorientated marketing channels of wines of studied wine regions is necessary.
8. Building of marketing information system on a wine region level, would help research
programs to develop and operate marketing research.
9. Introducing more wine culture subjects in higher education
All in all, we can say that it is very much to do towards the development of a conscious
marketing strategy. It will greatly determine the future course of the specific market. Unity is
absolutely necessary in both Tokaj-Hegyalja and Villány-Siklós wine regions.
Wine is a noble beverage, which is proudly produced and consumed by some nations.
Viticulture and wine production tradition do have traditions. Hungarian vinery is not is not in a
bad situation, it has excellent specialists and the natural conditions are appropriate. The most
important wine region of Hungary is the Tokaj one. Tokaj wines do have several foreign
competitors. We are unable to produce a large amount but after satisfying the domestic market,
we also produce to export. A few decades before the change of regime ' Tokaj ' brand lost its
credibility. But over the past 20 years thanks to the marketing of few of wineries, Tokaj wines
stepped onto their development path again. During my doctoral research I surveyed habits of
wine consumptions and I studied marketing strategy from the side of producers. The researches
took place in Hungary. I carried out factor analyses in connection to customer research. In my
research work, I applied questionnaires and market research. I also obtained information by indepth interviews.
The aim of my research was revealing the specific features of Villány and Tokaj wine regions.
I explored marketing activities of those who deal with vineries and their opinion regarding wine
tourism, wine consumption and purchasing habits. I got to know the professionals’ opinion in
the wine marketing, current domestic situation of Tokaj and Villány wine regions and their
future possibilities. Also, I aimed to recognize wine consumption habits and purchasing habits
of our capital Budapest, Northern Plains region and Baranya County. To achieve my targets, I
completed secondary data collection with producer based intensive interviews and a (500
people) public questioning. The data were evaluated using statistical analysis. During my
research I found that more and more producers, in the examined wine regions rely on the
knowledge of modern marketing. The results of the survey proved that there is demand for highquality wines in Hungary. From the questionnaires it turned out that people like quality red and
white wines like the same. It turned out that respondents consume wines once or twice.
In terms of the sales of wine, selling at hyper-, and supermarkets and direct sales from the
producers are more dominant. Also, original and vintage do have a great influence when
purchasing wine. In Tokaj and Villány wine regions, you find marketing activity being varied
on differently wine marketing levels. Wine region marketing works well in both wine regions
but the flow of information and the lack of capital represent matters. In both wine regions
wealthier farmers try to get their own marketing rise ahead of the market.
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