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The U.S.
National Electrical Code
Article 694
2014 Edition
Dr. Robert Wills, P.E.
Robert Preus, P.E.
Representing AWEA & YOU
The U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC), or NFPA 70,
is a regionally adoptable standard for the safe installation
of electrical wiring and equipment in the United States. The
NEC, while having no legally binding regulation as written, can
be and often is adopted by states, municipalities and cities in
an effort to standardize their enforcement of safe electrical
practices within their respective jurisdiction. In some cases, the
NEC is amended, altered and may even be rejected in lieu of
regional regulations as voted on by the governing bodies of any
given locale.
From Wikipedia
The U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC)
The NEC is developed by the National Fire
Protection Association’s (NFPA) Committee on
the National Electrical Code, which consists of
19 code-making panels and a technical
correlating committee. The NEC is an American
National Standard (ANSI/NFPA 70).
From Wikipedia
$90 Paper
or PDF
$150 Paper
or PDF
Article 694
Other Standards
IEC 61400-2
Safety for Wind Turbine Generating Systems – Small, UL 6142
Safety for Wind Turbine Converters and Interconnection Systems Equipment, UL 6171
What We Do…
Engineering Olympics..
(600 Proposals, 5 days Robert’s Rules)
Holding back the floodwaters
(avoid the complexity of 690)
Thank you NREL for Support!
694.1 Scope – Small AND Large
• The provisions of this article
apply to small wind (turbine)
electric systems that consist
of one or more wind electric
generators with individual
generators having a rated
power up to and including 100
kW. These systems can
include generators,
alternators, inverters, and
694.1 Scope – Implications
• Large wind is subject to local electrical inspection
• We will see involvement from large manufacturers
Equipment Listing
694.7(B) Equipment
Wind electric systems equipment,
subassemblies and components shall be
identified and listed for the application.
[Not only inverters – turbines & controllers
MUST be listed starting in 2014!]
Turbine Shutdown
694.23 Turbine Shutdown.
(A) Manual Shutdown. Wind turbines shall be required to have a
manual shutdown button or switch. Operation of the button or switch
shall result in a parked turbine state which shall either stop the turbine
rotor, or allow limited rotor speed combined with a means to de-energize
the turbine output circuit.
Exception: Turbines with a swept area of less than 50 m2 shall not be
required to have a manual shutdown button or switch.
(B) Shutdown Procedure. The shutdown procedure for a wind turbine
shall be defined and permanently posted at the location of a shutdown
means, and at the location of the turbine controller or disconnect, if
Tower as Raceway
694.7(F) Metal or Nonmetallic
Poles or Towers Supporting
Wind Turbines Used as a
Raceway. A metallic or nonmetallic pole or tower shall be
permitted to be used as a raceway
if evaluated as part of the listing
for the wind turbine, or otherwise
listed or evaluated for the
1000V Allowed for NonResidential Installations
694.10(A) Wind Turbine Output
Circuits. For wind turbines connected
to one- and two-family dwellings,
turbine output circuits shall be
permitted to have a maximum
voltage up to 600 volts. Other
installations with a maximum voltage
over 1000 volts shall comply with
Part IX of Article 694.
694.40 Proposal clarifies that wind turbine generators should
use supply-side bonding jumper requirements rather than
equipment grounding conductors between the turbine
generator and first disconnect, or turbine power conversion
equipment, identifies the requirements for dc systems, and
also clarifies that the turbine output circuit may be grounded
but is not required to be grounded.. The reference to 250.35
covers both separately derived and non-separately derived
What’s Next..
The 2017 NEC
Proposals Due Nov 7, 2014
Rob Wills
(603) 801-4749
rwills @
Thank you NREL for Support!
The Terawatt Challenge
Richard Smalley’s Top
Ten Global Problems
1. Energy
2. Water
3. Food
4. Environment
5. Poverty
6. Terrorism and war
7. Disease
8. Education
9. Democracy
10. Population
In 2004, we consumed on average the equivalent of 220 million barrels of oil per
day to run the world. Or, if we convert that into watts, what ran the world was
about 14.5 terawatts. The vast majority of this energy was from oil, gas, and coal.