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-1What the Buddha Taught A series of lecture-discussions sponsored by Oxford Soto Zen Suggested by Les Kaye Led by Jimmyle Listenbee Based on What the Buddha Taught by Walpola Rahula -2Lecture 7b Chapter 5-B (pp. 47 – 49) The Four Noble Truths The 4th Noble Truth: MAGGA: “The Path” -3The Four Noble Truths I. II. III. IV. Dukkha Samudaya, the arising or origin of dukkha Nirodha, the cessation of dukkha Magga, the way leading to the cessation of dukkha -4The 4th Noble Truth: The Way Leading to the Cessation of Dukkha AKA: “The Noble Eightfold Path” “The Middle Way” -5The Middle Path Avoids two extremes: • The search for happiness through the Pleasures of the Senses (“low, common, unprofitable, the way of ordinary [ignorant] people”) • The search for happiness through selfmortification (“painful, unworthy, unprofitable, the way of the ascetics”) -6The Noble Eightfold Path (a composite - not linear - list) 1. 2. 3. 4. Right Understanding Right Thought Right Speech Right Action 5. 6. 7. 8. Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration -7- Buddha’s Essential Practice Practical Guide for all Buddhist Practice The 8 divisions of the path are not “stepping stones”, but are to be practiced and developed simultaneously, as far as possible, according to the capacity of the individual. They are all linked together, and each helps the cultivation of the others. -8The Three Essentials of Buddhist Training & Discipline a) Ethical Conduct (Sila) b) Mental Discipline (Samadhi) c) Wisdom (Pañña) The Eightfold Path aims at perfecting and promoting these. The Eight Divisions of the Path can be grouped under these three headings. -9Three Headings Wisdom ① Right Understanding ② Right Thought Ethical Conduct ③ Right Speech ④ Right Action ⑤ Right Livelihood Mental Discipline ⑥ Right Effort ⑦ Right Mindfulness ⑧ Right Concentration --- Today we address Mental Discipline -10Buddhist “Perfection” There are two qualities to be developed: Wisdom and Compassion Mental Discipline is the foundation of Wisdom. -11Mental Discipline The mind is trained and disciplined and developed through Right: ⑥ Effort ⑦ Mindfulness ⑧ Concentration -12Mental Discipline ⑥ Right Effort = The energetic will to 1 Prevent evil and unwholesome states of mind from arising; 2 Get rid of such states that have already arisen within a person; 3 Produce, to cause to arise, good and wholesome states of mind not yet arisen; 4 Develop and bring to perfection the good and wholesome states of mind already present in a person. DISCUSSION -13The 2nd Factor of Mental Discipline (7) Right Mindfulness (Attentiveness) To be diligently aware, mindful and attentive, with regard to:     The activities of the body; Sensations or feelings; The activities of the mind; Ideas, thoughts, conceptions and things. -14Right Mindfulness of the Body Is developed in meditation practice through concentration on the breath, posture and/or simple action. Soto Zen practice primarily emphasizes Zazen (Sitting Meditation) And secondarily emphasizes Kinhin (Walking Meditation). -15In Zazen… 1 One continually returns his/her concentration to the breath; 2 The sitting posture uses efficient vertical spine alignment, taking advantage of its 4 harmonic curves and developing postural support for flexible action as well as quiet endurance. Weight is equally distributed on the sitz-bones and knees [or feet if bench-sitting.] 3 The eyes are open in a state of alert, wakeful attention, which is not directed toward anything. 4 The position of the hands (the dhyani mudra) is a form of delicate intentional non-action (as are the crossed legs of Lotus and Burmese postures). -16- More on Zazen… What did Buddha say upon the moment of his enlightenment? “I am __________!” Further reading: Shambala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, ZAZEN p. 260-1. We will have a handout of this reading to accompany the lecture/discussion of Chapter 7, Meditation on August 1. DISCUSSION -17Kinhin 1 One continually returns concentration to the breath in harmony with one’s own and others’ actions; 2 The walking action uses the most efficient transfer of weight through the feet in alignment with the hip joints. (See handouts.) 3 The eyes are open: alert, wakeful attention which is not directed toward anything. 4 The position of the hands (shashu mudra) is a form of serene intentional readiness. -18Right Mindfulness of Sensations, Emotions & Conceptions During Kinhin & Zazen, one practices intense awareness of the other 3 foci of mindfulness besides static & dynamic posture and breath: 2 Bodily Feelings & Sensations; 3 Emotional Feelings and States; 4 Ideas, Thoughts, Conceptions and Things. This skill of awareness is then/simultaneously practiced in all activities of daily life. -19Mindfulness of  Bodily Feelings & Sensations One should be clearly aware of all forms of feelings and sensations, pleasant, unpleasant & neutral, and How they arise and disappear. In Zazen & Kinhin we take note of the sensation, the “Look at it and let it go.” --- Dub Leigh (Buddhist Rolfer) DISCUSSION -20Mindfulness of  Activities of the Mind One should be clearly aware whether one’s mind is lustful or not, given to hatred or not, deluded or not, distracted or concentrated, etc. One should be aware of all passing and habitual states of mind and How they arise and disappear. In Zazen & Kinhin we take note of the emotion or habitual mood, then “Look at it and let it go.” DISCUSSION -21Mindfulness of  Ideas, Thoughts, Conceptions and Things One should know the nature of Ideas, Thoughts, Conceptions, Predjudices, Plans, Beliefs, Objectifications of People, Situations, etc. How they arise and disappear. DISCUSSION: Things! You name it! In Zazen & Kinhin we take note of the mental object or objectification or then “Look at it [perhaps also laugh at it!] and let it go.” -22The Setting-up of Mindfulness Homework: Read the Satipatthana Sutta, p. 109-119 -23(8) Right Concentration The 3rd and last factor of Mental Discipline leads to The 4 Stages of Dhyana (Trance or ‘Higher’ Meditation) 1st Stage: > Passionate Desires and Unwholesome Thoughts are discarded; (read examples p. 48: ‘sensuous lust…skeptical doubt’) > Feelings of Joy, Happiness and certain mental activities are maintained; 2nd Stage: > All Intellectual Activities are suppressed/[abandoned]; > ‘One-pointedness of mind’ is developed; > Feelings of Joy & Happiness are still retained; 3rd Stage: > Joy (an active sensation) disappears; > Happiness (a disposition) remains, along with Equanimity; 4th Stage: > All Feelings - Sensations and Emotions - disappear; > Only pure Equanimity and Awareness remain.