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Ecological Succession: http://www.mass.gov/envir/forest/images/multiLayerForest.jpg Studying how ecological communities respond to change … • Ecological communities = the plants and animals found in an area. • Succession = Sequence of communities a region goes through over time. • Change can occur for many reasons: new resources, disturbances, and biotic changes. Sequence of communities = the order that communities change Climax Community: • A diverse, stable community. • Usually the final community in succession. http://www.uga.edu/aquarium/assets/NATURE%20IMAGES/mossoak.jpg • A sequence of communities forming in an originally lifeless habitat (no soil). •Very slow process due to lack of soil. www.offwell.free-online.co.uk Primary Succession: What are some common disturbances leading to primary succession of an area? http://nsidc.org/glaciers/gallery/images/glacial_retreat_nv.jpg • Volcanic eruption • Glaciers • Rock Slides (maybe—depends if it’s just rock or rock and soil) http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/hazards/primer/images/volc-images/puuoo.jpg http://www.eos.ubc.ca/research/landslides/landslides_files/image019.jpg Primary Succession • Pioneer Species = the first species to inhabit an otherwise lifeless area Inhabit = to live in • For example: lichen – Lichen is fungi and algae living together in a mutually beneficial (symbiotic) relationship: – Algae = makes its own food and provides food for the fungi – Fungi = breaks down organic material and makes soil www.ccs.k12.in.us Secondary Succession • A sequence of communities forming in an area with soil. • Usually when a region has been cleared by a disturbance that does not destroy the soil. Flood Fire Hurricanes Tornadoes Human activity Rock Slides http://www.atmo.ttu.edu/Hill%20City%20Tornado%20Enhanced.jp g http://serc.carleton.edu/images/research_education/nativelan ds/nezperce/logging.jpg http://www.eo.ucar.edu/kids/dangerwx/images/storm_surge.jpeg • • • • • • http://www.wildlandfire.com/pics/wall/wildfire_elkbath.jpg What are some common disturbances that can lead to changes? http://www.eos.ubc.ca/research/landslides/landslides_files/image019.jpg http://www.weathersafety.ohio.gov/images/aerial-flood06_350.jpg Secondary Succession … For example, after this rockslide: • Plants that were not able to compete with pine now can grow. Succession Review • Pioneer species comes in • First species of plant to arrive after a disturbance. • Generally are plants that grow quickly and produce many seeds. (weeds) Fireweed Succession Review … • As time progresses, taller grass grows and shades out pioneer species. • Better roots take nutrients from soil faster • Pioneer species cannot compete and die out.