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Transcript
Ecological Succession:
http://www.mass.gov/envir/forest/images/multiLayerForest.jpg
Studying how ecological
communities respond to change …
• Ecological communities = the plants and
animals found in an area.
• Succession = Sequence of communities
a region goes through over time.
• Change can occur for many reasons: new
resources, disturbances, and biotic
changes.
Sequence of communities = the
order that communities change
Climax Community:
• A diverse,
stable
community.
• Usually the final
community in
succession.
http://www.uga.edu/aquarium/assets/NATURE%20IMAGES/mossoak.jpg
• A sequence of
communities forming
in an originally lifeless
habitat (no soil).
•Very slow
process due to
lack of soil.
www.offwell.free-online.co.uk
Primary Succession:
What are some common disturbances
leading to primary succession of an
area?
http://nsidc.org/glaciers/gallery/images/glacial_retreat_nv.jpg
• Volcanic eruption
• Glaciers
• Rock Slides
(maybe—depends if
it’s just rock or rock
and soil)
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/hazards/primer/images/volc-images/puuoo.jpg
http://www.eos.ubc.ca/research/landslides/landslides_files/image019.jpg
Primary Succession
• Pioneer Species = the first
species to inhabit an otherwise
lifeless area
Inhabit = to live in
• For example: lichen
– Lichen is fungi and algae living
together in a mutually beneficial
(symbiotic) relationship:
– Algae = makes its own food and
provides food for the fungi
– Fungi = breaks down organic
material and makes soil
www.ccs.k12.in.us
Secondary Succession
• A sequence of
communities forming in
an area with soil.
• Usually when a region
has been cleared by a
disturbance that does
not destroy the soil.
Flood
Fire
Hurricanes
Tornadoes
Human activity
Rock Slides
http://www.atmo.ttu.edu/Hill%20City%20Tornado%20Enhanced.jp
g
http://serc.carleton.edu/images/research_education/nativelan
ds/nezperce/logging.jpg
http://www.eo.ucar.edu/kids/dangerwx/images/storm_surge.jpeg
•
•
•
•
•
•
http://www.wildlandfire.com/pics/wall/wildfire_elkbath.jpg
What are some common disturbances
that can lead to changes?
http://www.eos.ubc.ca/research/landslides/landslides_files/image019.jpg
http://www.weathersafety.ohio.gov/images/aerial-flood06_350.jpg
Secondary Succession …
For example,
after this
rockslide:
• Plants that were
not able to
compete with
pine now can
grow.
Succession Review
• Pioneer species
comes in
• First species of plant
to arrive after a
disturbance.
• Generally are plants
that grow quickly and
produce many seeds.
(weeds)
Fireweed
Succession Review …
• As time
progresses, taller
grass grows and
shades out pioneer
species.
• Better roots take
nutrients from soil
faster
• Pioneer species
cannot compete
and die out.