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The Creation of the United Nations “The World’s peace organization” About the UN ● ● The UN, an International Peace Organization, was created to replace the League of Nations. The United Nations comprises of six major groups. These include the General Assembly, Security Council, Economical and Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. About the UN (cont.) Two Major Parts - General Assembly: This is the committee that focuses on a very broad range of topics and has representations from every country in it. - The Security Council: This council is focuses primarily on holding peace and security between nations, has power to enforce measures, and is comprised of 15 member. Five members in the Council that are permanent are the United States, the Russian Federation, the PRC(China), France and the U.K (NPT States). The remaining ten (non-permanent) are chosen from other countries ● Each year, United Nations Day is celebrated on October 24. The U.N. The U.N. Why it was Created Main Points ● ● ● ● ● Prevent future war Maintain international peace and security Foster friendly relations between nations Create a climate of cooperation to help resolve pressing international problems Human rights, justice social progress, and better living standards are also important issues discussed by the UN. Eleanor Roosevelt Speech ● E. Roosevelt talk about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights History of the United Nations ● ● ● The earliest concrete plan for the formation of a new world organization begun under the U.S State Department late in 1939. The name “United Nations” was coined by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941 to describe the nations fighting the axis powers. The idea for the formation of the United Nations was agreed at the Yalta Conference, where FDR, Churchill, and Stalin had met to discuss reconstruction following the war. History of the United Nations (cont.) ● ● The United Nations Charter was first signed on June 26, 1945. The charter was officially ratified on October 24, 1945, when the required number of nations (twenty-nine) had signed the charter. - It was ratified and finalized at the San Francisco Conference (April 25 - June 26 1945). After the conference, the charter was endorsed by 51 countries. (The original UN Nations) Historical Pictures History (Continued) ● ● ● ● The UN General Assembly first met on January 10, 1946, after the charter was ratified in October of 1945. The decision was made in December of 1946 to locate the headquarters of the UN in New York. The General Assembly had accepted a grant from John D. Rockefeller of $8.5 million to help construct the headquarters. The building was completed in 1952. The Cold War - During the Cold War, due to heavy conflict with the Soviets, agreement in the Security Council (and its sub-committees), was very difficult and this made the UN pass very few resolutions directly related to the Big Five. The USSR had a total of 75 votes during the war. ● The Korean War - During the Korean War, the USSR had been vetoing the Security Council as the UN refused to recognize the PRC (Communist China) as an official member. Thus, this gave the Sec. Council the ability to establish armed force to repel N. Korea from S. Korea. First UN army and most “collective security” action in history up to that time. Perspective of/on the United Nations ● OF - The original UN consist of mostly peace-loving nations that wanted, simply, to hold peaceful relations between countries. - The UN was created to show that countries can agree with each other and exclude the negative aspect of discrimination, such as sexism, racism, and classism. ● ON - From 1947-1945, the UN only gained a total 5 admissions by nations. This was due to the somewhat reluctant view on the United Nations. - This was not caused by the organization itself, but rather the conflicting views of Eastern (Namingly the USSR) and Western countries within the UN. Countries already in the UN did not want any country to gain admission unless they shared the same views. - This resulted in a stall in the admission of countries into the UN ● There has never been a “negative” perspective of the United Nations as peace is wanted throughout most of the world. UN Agencies ● United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): - A branch of the United Nations that is devoted to monitoring the environment on a global scale. - Promotes the use of environment friendly resources. - Believes that the environment is an intricate system of complex relationships that extend among natural and human activities. ● United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF): - Devoted to improving the welfare of the World’s children. - Goals: Ensure proper nutrition, help students reach potential in education, and establish basic children’s rights. - Also a disaster-response group that comes to places in time of of crisis such as war, famine, and natural disasters. Modern Day UN ● ● The UN now has a total of 192 admissioned countries being represented in the General Assembly. Since the 1970s, the UN has expanded its activity into less developed nations. - This began much of the charity activity aimed to improve the living conditions and welfare of Africa. ● The current Secretary-general is Ban Ki-Moon of South Korea. He succeeded Kofi A. Annan of Ghana in 2007. Personal Input ● We believe that the UN is a very successful successor to the LON and has definitely improved the overall quality of the World. It is a very charitable and successful organization that effectively benefits and keeps peace between nations around the world. Citation 1. United Nations Charter "United Nations Charter." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb. com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE52&iPin=E08190&SingleRecord=True (accessed March 12, 2014). 2. United Nations "United Nations." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2013): 1-6. Literary Reference Center. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. 3. United Nations Environment Programme "United Nations Environment Programme." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. 4. United Nations Children’s Fund "United Nations Children's Fund." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.