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AP® EDITION
Environment
The Science Behind the Stories
5TH EDITION
Jay Withgott
Matthew Laposata
Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
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Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
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Credits and acknowledgments for materials borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with
permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within the text or on page CR-1.
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the
United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be
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claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was
aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.
MasteringEnvironmentalScience® is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or other countries, of Pearson
Education, Inc. or its affiliates.
AP® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Withgott, Jay.
Environment : the science behind the stories / Jay Withgott, Matt Laposata. -- Fifth edition.
pages cm
Previous editions cataloged
under Brennan, Scott
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-321-89742-8
1. Environmental sciences. I. Title.
GE105.B74 2013 363.7-- dc23
2013004851
ISBN 10: 0-13-354014-6 (High School Binding)
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-354014-7 (High School Binding)
PearsonSchool.com/Advanced
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About the Authors
Jay Withgott has authored Environment: The Science behind the
Stories as well as its brief version, Essential Environment, since their
inception. In dedicating himself to these books, he works to keep abreast
of a diverse and rapidly changing field and continually seeks to develop
new and better ways to help today’s students learn environmental science.
As a researcher, Jay has published scientific papers in ecology,
evolution, animal behavior, and conservation biology in journals
ranging from Evolution to Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences. As an instructor, he has taught university lab courses in
ecology and other disciplines. As a science writer, he has authored
articles for numerous journals and magazines including Science, New
Scientist, BioScience, Smithsonian, and Natural History. By combining his scientific training
with prior experience as a newspaper reporter and editor, he strives to make science accessible
and engaging for general audiences. Jay holds degrees from Yale University, the University of
Arkansas, and the University of Arizona.
Jay lives with his wife, biologist Susan Masta, in Portland, Oregon.
Matthew Laposata is a professor of environmental science at
Kennesaw State University (KSU). He holds a bachelor’s degree
in biology education from Indiana University of Pennsylvania, a
master’s degree in biology from Bowling Green State University,
and a doctorate in ecology from The Pennsylvania State University.
Matt is the coordinator of KSU’s two-semester general education science sequence titled Science, Society, and the Environment,
which enrolls roughly 6000 students per year. He focuses exclusively on introductory environmental science courses and has enjoyed
teaching and interacting with thousands of nonscience majors during his career. He is an active scholar in environmental science education and has received grants from state, federal, and private sources to develop and evaluate
innovative curricular materials. His scholarly work has received numerous awards, including the
Georgia Board of Regents’ highest award for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.
Matt resides in suburban Atlanta with his wife, Lisa, and children, Lauren, Cameron, and Saffron.
ABOUT OUR SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES
This book is carefully crafted to minimize environmental impact. The materials used to manufacture this book originated from
sources committed to responsible forestry practices. The paper is Forest Stewardship Council™ (FSC®) certified. The printing,
binding, cover, and paper come from facilities that minimize waste, energy consumption, and the use of harmful chemicals.
Pearson closes the loop by recycling every out-of-date text returned to our warehouse. We pulp the books, and the pulp is used to
produce items such as paper coffee cups and shopping bags. In addition, Pearson has become the first climate-neutral educational
publishing company.
The future holds great promise for reducing our impact on Earth’s environment, and Pearson is proud to be leading
the way. We strive to publish the best books with the most up-to-date and accurate content, and to do so in ways
that minimize our environmental impact.
iii
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Brief Contents
Part ONE Foundations of Environmental Science 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S cience and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental Science 2
Earth’s Physical Systems: Matter, Energy, and Geology 21
Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology 47
Species Interactions and Community Ecology 74
Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology 104
Ethics, Economics, and Sustainable Development 132
Environmental Policy: Making Decisions and Solving Problems 161
PART TWO Environmental Issues and the Search for Solutions 187
8 9 10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
iv
Human Population 188
Soil and Agriculture 214
Agriculture, Biotechnology, and the Future of Food 243
Biodiversity and Conservation Biology 274
Forests, Forest Management, and Protected Areas 306
The Urban Environment: Creating Sustainable Cities 335
Environmental Health and Toxicology 358
Freshwater Systems and Resources 388
Marine and Coastal Systems and Resources 419
Atmospheric Science, Air Quality, and Pollution Control 448
Global Climate Change 482
Fossil Fuels, Their Impacts, and Energy Conservation 518
Conventional Energy Alternatives 552
New Renewable Energy Alternatives 580
Managing Our Waste 608
Minerals and Mining 633
Sustainable Solutions 653
Appendix A: Answers to Data Analysis Questions A-1
Appendix B: How to Interpret Graphs B-1
Appendix C: Metric System C-1
Appendix D: Periodic Table of the Elements D-1
Appendix E: Geologic Time Scale E-1
Glossary G-1
Credits CR-1
Selected Sources and References for Further Reading R-1
Index I-1
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Contents
Geology: The Physical Basis for
Environmental Science33
P art O ne
The Science Behind the Story:
Have We Brought On a New Geologic Epoch? 38
Geologic and Natural Hazards39
3
Evolution, Biodiversity,
and Population Ecology47
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Saving Hawaii’s Native
Forest Birds Foundations of
Environmental Science
48
Evolution: The Source of Earth’s Biodiversity49
1
Science and Sustainability:
An Introduction to
Environmental Science2
Our Island, Earth3
The Nature of Environmental Science 5
The Science Behind the Story:
What Are the Lessons of Easter Island?
The Nature of Science Sustainability and Our Future 2
6
9
14
Earth’s Physical Systems:
Matter, Energy,
and Geology21
The Science Behind the Story: Monitoring
Bird Populations at Hakalau Forest
Conserving Biodiversity
4
64
69
Species Interactions
and Community Ecology74
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Black and White, and Spread
All Over: Zebra Mussels
Invade the Great Lakes
75
Species Interactions76
Ecological Communities80
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
The Tohoku Earthquake: Has
It Shaken the World’s Trust
in Nuclear Power? The Science Behind the Story:
Hawaii: Species Factory
and Lab of Evolution
56
Levels of Ecological Organization60
Population Ecology61
22
The Science Behind the Story:
Tracking Fukushima’s Nuclear Legacy
26
Energy: An Introduction29
The Science Behind the Story:
Chronicling Ecological Recovery
at Mount St. Helens
Earth’s Biomes
86
90
93
CONTENTS
Matter, Chemistry, and the Environment23
The Science Behind the Story:
Determining Zebra Mussels’ Impacts
on Fish Communities
v
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5
E
nvironmental Systems
and Ecosystem Ecology104
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
The Vanishing Oysters
of the Chesapeake Bay
International Environmental Policy178
Approaches to Environmental Policy180
P art T W O
105
Earth’s Environmental Systems106
Ecosystems110
Biogeochemical Cycles117
6
The Science Behind the Story:
“Turning the Tide” for Native Oysters in
Chesapeake Bay
118
The Science Behind the Story:
FACE-ing a High-CO2 Future
124
E
thics, Economics, and
Sustainable Development132
Environmental Issues and
the Search for Solutions
8
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Costa Rica Values Its
Ecosystem Services
China’s One-Child Policy
189
133
Culture, Worldview, and the Environment134
Environmental Ethics135
Economics and the Environment141
The Science Behind the Story:
Do Payments Help Preserve Forest?
Human Population188
144
The Science Behind the Story:
Ethics in Economics: Discounting
and Global Climate Change
148
Sustainable Development156
Our World at Seven Billion
190
The Science Behind the Story: Mapping
Our Population’s Environmental Impact
194
Demography
196
Population and Society202
The Science Behind the Story: Did Soap
Operas Reduce Fertility in Brazil?
9
204
Soil and Agriculture214
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
7
E
nvironmental Policy:
Making Decisions and
Solving Problems161
215
162
Soil: The Foundation for Sustainable
Agriculture216
Soil as a System218
Conserving Soil222
Environmental Policy: An Overview
164
The Science Behind the Story: Can No-Till
Farming Help Us Fight Climate Change?
230
Watering and Fertilizing Crops232
The Science Behind the Story: Does
Fracking Contaminate Drinking Water?
U.S. Environmental Law and Policy
166
169
The Science Behind the Story:
Restoring the Malpai Borderlands
234
Agricultural Policy237
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Hydrofracking the
Marcellus Shale
vi
Iowa’s Farmers Practice No-Till
Agriculture
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10
Agriculture,
Biotechnology, and
the Future of Food243
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Transgenic Maize in
Southern Mexico?
244
The Race to Feed the World245
Raising Animals for Food 249
Preserving Crop Diversity252
Conserving Pollinators, Controlling Pests254
Organic Agriculture257
Forest Ecosystems and Forest Resources308
Forest Loss311
Forest Management314
Parks and Protected Areas323
The Science Behind the Story:
Fighting over Fire and Forests
324
The Science Behind the Story:
Forest Fragmentation in the Amazon
330
13
The Science Behind the Story:
How Productive Is Organic Farming?
258
Genetically Modified Food261
The Science Behind the Story: Transgenic
Contamination of Native Maize?
266
Sustainable Food Production
268
11 Biodiversity and
Conservation Biology274
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Will We Slice through
the Serengeti?
The Science Behind the Story:
Wildlife Declines in African Reserves
286
Benefits of Biodiversity290
Conservation Biology: The Search
for Solutions
294
12
300
Forests,
Forest Management,
and Protected Areas306
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Managing Growth in
Portland, Oregon
336
Our Urbanizing World337
Sprawl339
Creating Livable Cities342
Urban Sustainability350
The Science Behind the Story: Baltimore
and Phoenix Showcase Urban Ecology
352
307
14
Environmental Health
and Toxicology358
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Poison in the Bottle:
Is Bisphenol A Safe?
Environmental Health
359
360
The Science Behind the Story:
Testing the Safety of Bisphenol A
362
Toxic Substances and Their
Effects on Organisms367
Toxic Substances and Their
Effects on Ecosystems372
Studying Effects of Hazards374
The Science Behind the Story:
Pesticides and Child Development in
Mexico’s Yaqui Valley
378
Risk Assessment and Risk Management380
Philosophical and Policy Approaches382
CONTENTS
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Certified Sustainable Paper
in Your Textbook
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
275
Our Planet of Life
276
Extinction and Biodiversity Loss281
The Science Behind the Story: Using
Forensics to Uncover Illegal Whaling
The Urban Environment:
Creating Sustainable
Cities335
vii
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15
Freshwater Systems
and Resources388
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Starving the Louisiana Coast
of Sediment
389
Freshwater Systems391
Human Activities Affect Waterways
396
Ozone Depletion and Recovery
The Science Behind the Story:
Discovering Ozone Depletion
and the Substances Behind It
470
Addressing Acid Deposition
473
Indoor Air Quality475
18
16
410
Marine and Coastal
Systems and Resources419
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Collapse of the
Cod Fisheries
Rising Seas May Flood
the Maldives
The Science Behind the Story: Reading
History in the World’s Longest Ice Core
490
Current and Future Trends and Impacts492
The Science Behind the Story:
How Do Climate Models Work?
494
Responding to Climate Change507
420
The Oceans421
Marine and Coastal Ecosystems426
The Science Behind the Story:
Will Climate Change Rob Us of Coral Reefs? 428
Marine Pollution
432
The Science Behind the Story:
Predicting the Oceans’ “Garbage Patches”
434
Emptying the Oceans437
Marine Conservation443
Atmospheric Science,
Air Quality, and
Pollution Control448
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Clearing the Air in L.A.
and Mexico City
449
The Atmosphere450
Outdoor Air Quality456
viii
The Science Behind the Story:
Measuring the Health Impacts
of Mexico City’s Air Pollution
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483
Our Dynamic Climate
484
Studying Climate Change488
19
17
Global Climate Change482
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
The Science Behind the Story:
Is It Better in a Bottle?
400
Solutions to Depletion of Fresh Water405
Freshwater Pollution and Its Control408
The Science Behind the Story: Hypoxia
and the Gulf of Mexico’s “Dead Zone”
468
Fossil Fuels,
Their Impacts, and
Energy Conservation518
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Alberta’s Oil Sands and
the Keystone XL Pipeline
519
Sources of Energy520
Fossil Fuels and Their Extraction524
The Science Behind the Story: Locating
Fossil Fuel Deposits Underground
530
Addressing Impacts of Fossil Fuel Use536
The Science Behind the Story:
Discovering Impacts of the Gulf Oil Spill
540
Energy Efficiency and Conservation546
20
Conventional Energy
Alternatives552
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Sweden’s Search for
Alternative Energy
553
466
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Alternatives to Fossil Fuels554
Nuclear Power555
23
Minerals and Mining633
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
The Science Behind the Story: Health
Impacts of Chernobyl and Fukushima
562
Bioenergy566
The Science Behind the Story:
Assessing EROI Values of Energy Sources
572
Hydroelectric Power574
21
New Renewable Energy
Alternatives580
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
Germany Goes Solar
581
Mining for . . . Cell Phones?
634
Earth’s Mineral Resources635
Mining Methods and Their Impacts639
The Science Behind the Story:
Mountaintop Removal Mining: Assessing
the Environmental Impacts
644
Toward Sustainable Mineral Use646
24
Sustainable Solutions653
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
“New” Renewable Energy Sources582
The Science Behind the Story:
Comparing Energy Sources
586
Solar Energy588
The Science Behind the Story:
What Are the Impacts of Solar
and Wind Development?
592
Wind Power594
Geothermal Energy598
Ocean Energy Sources600
Hydrogen602
De Anza College Strives
for a Sustainable Campus
654
Sustainability on Campus655
Strategies for Sustainability665
Precious Time670
Appendix A
Answers to Data Analysis Questions
A-1
Appendix B
22
How to Interpret Graphs
Managing Our Waste608
Transforming New York’s
Fresh Kills Landfill
Appendix C
Metric System
CENTRAL CASE STUDY
B-1
C-1
Appendix D
609
Periodic Table of the Elements
D-1
Appendix E
Approaches to Waste Management
Municipal Solid Waste
610
611
The Science Behind the Story:
Tracking Trash
620
Industrial Solid Waste622
Hazardous Waste624
628
E-1
Glossary
G-1
Credits
CR-1
Selected Sources and References
for Further Reading
R-1
Index
I-1
CONTENTS
The Science Behind the Story:
Testing the Toxicity of “E-Waste”
Geologic Time Scale
ix
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Preface
Dear AP Student,
Dear AP Teacher,
You are coming of age at a unique and momentous time in
history. Within your lifetime, our global society must chart
a promising course for a sustainable future. The stakes could
not be higher.
Today we live long lives enriched with astonishing technologies, in societies more free, just, and equal than ever
before. We enjoy wealth on a scale our ancestors could hardly
have dreamed of. Yet we have purchased these wonderful
things at a price. By exploiting Earth’s resources and ecological services, we are depleting our planet’s bank account and
running up its credit card. We are altering our planet’s land,
air, water, nutrient cycles, biodiversity, and climate at dizzying speeds. More than ever before, the future of our society
rests with how we treat the world around us.
Your future is being shaped by the phenomena you will
learn about in your environmental science course. Environmental science gives us a big-picture understanding of the
world and our place within it. Environmental science also
offers hope and solutions, revealing ways to address the problems we create. Environmental science is not simply some
subject you learn in college. Rather, it provides you basic literacy in the foremost issues of the 21st century, and it relates
to everything around you over your entire lifetime.
We have written this book because today’s students will
shape tomorrow’s world. At this unique moment in history,
students of your generation are key to achieving a sustainable future for our civilization. The many environmental challenges that face us can seem overwhelming, but you should
feel encouraged and motivated. Remember that each dilemma
is also an opportunity. For every problem that human carelessness has created, human ingenuity can devise a solution.
Now is the time for innovation, creativity, and the fresh perspectives that a new generation can offer. Your own ideas and
energy will make a difference.
You perform one of our society’s most vital jobs by educating
today’s students—the citizens and leaders of tomorrow—on
the fundamentals of the world around them, the nature of science, and the most central issues of our time. We have written this book to assist you in this endeavor because we feel
that the crucial role of environmental science in today’s world
makes it imperative to engage, educate, and inspire a broad
audience of students.
In Environment: The Science Behind the Stories, AP Edition, we strive to implement a diversity of modern teaching
approaches and to show how science can inform efforts to
bring about a sustainable society. We aim to encourage critical thinking and to maintain a balanced approach as we flesh
out the vibrant social debate that accompanies environmental
issues. As we assess the challenges facing our civilization and
our planet, we focus on providing forward-looking solutions,
for we truly feel there are many reasons for optimism.
In crafting the fifth edition of this text, we have incorporated the most current information from this fast-moving field
and have streamlined our presentation to promote learning. We
have examined every line with care to make sure all content is
accurate, clear, and up-to-date. Moreover, we have introduced
a number of major changes that are new to this edition.
–Jay Withgott and Matthew Laposata
New to This Edition
With the fifth edition we welcome Dr. Matthew Laposata as
an author. Professor of environmental science at Kennesaw
State University in Georgia, Matt teaches and coordinates
his university’s environmental science courses while actively
engaging in outside projects to promote environmental science education. Matt’s ideas, energy, and commitment to outstanding teaching have already enlivened and strengthened
this book as well as its brief version, Essential Environment.
Please welcome him to our author team!
This fifth edition includes an array of revisions that
together enhance our content and presentation while strengthening our commitment to teach science in an engaging and
accessible way.
x
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CENTR AL C A S E S T UDY
Ten of our 23
Central Case Studies are new to this edition, providing
a wealth of fresh stories and new ways to frame issues in
environmental science. Students will travel from Pennsylvania to Hawai‘i and from Africa to Japan as they
learn how debates over hydraulic fracturing, oil sands
extraction, air pollution, and wildlife conservation are
affecting people’s lives.
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• Chapter 2: The Tohoku Earthquake: Has it Shaken
the World’s Trust in Nuclear Power?
• Chapter 3: Saving Hawaii’s Native Forest Birds
• Chapter 5: The Vanishing Oysters of the
Chesapeake Bay
• Chapter 6: Costa Rica Values its Ecosystem Services
• Chapter 7: Hydrofracking the Marcellus Shale
• Chapter 9: Iowa’s Farmers Practice No-Till Agriculture
• Chapter 11: Will We Slice through the Serengeti?
• Chapter 15: Starving the Louisiana Coast of Sediment
• Chapter 17: Clearing the Air in L.A. and Mexico
City
• Chapter 19: Alberta’s Oil Sands and the Keystone
XL Pipeline
• Chapter 20: Health Impacts of Chernobyl and
Fukushima
• Chapter 20: Assessing EROI Values of Energy
Sources
• Chapter 21: Comparing Energy Sources
• Chapter 21: What are the Impacts of Solar and
Wind Development?
new feature highlights questions frequently
FAQ This
posed by students in introductory environmental
science courses. Some FAQs address widely held misconceptions, whereas others fill in common conceptual gaps
in student knowledge. This feature addresses not only the
questions students ask, but also the questions they sometimes hesitate to ask. In so doing, it shows students they
are not alone in having these questions, and it helps to
foster an environment of open inquiry in the classroom.
THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE STORY
A01_WITH7428_05_AP_FM.indd 11
Each chapter now contains questions that help
students to actively engage with graphs and
other data-driven figures. The questions accompany several figures in each chapter, challenging students to practice quantitative skills of interpretation and analysis. To
encourage students to test their understanding as they
read, answers are provided in Appendix A.
Currency and coverage of topical issues To live up to our
book’s hard-won reputation for currency, we’ve incorporated the most recent data possible throughout, and we’ve
enhanced coverage of issues now gaining prominence. As
climate change and energy concerns play ever-larger roles in
today’s world, our coverage has evolved. This edition highlights how renewable energy is growing, yet also how we
continue reaching further for fossil fuels with deep offshore
drilling, Arctic drilling, hydraulic fracturing for oil and shale
gas, and extraction of oil sands. These choices make energy
returned on investment (EROI) ratios crucially important,
especially as climate change gathers force. Climate change
connections continue to proliferate among topics throughout
our text, and our climate change chapter includes new coverage of climate modeling, geoengineering, research into
jet stream effects on extreme weather, impacts of Hurricane
Sandy and other events, the latest climate predictions for the
United States and the world, efforts toward carbon neutrality, and political responses at all levels.
This edition also expands its coverage of a diversity of topics including the valuation of ecosystem services, introduced species and their ecological impacts
on islands, prospects for nuclear power and safety after
Fukushima, advanced biofuels, hormone-disrupting substances, impacts on coastal wetlands, plastic pollution
in the oceans, environmental policy, ocean acidification,
sustainable agriculture, green-collar jobs, and the rebound
effect in energy conservation. We continue to use sustainability as an organizing theme throughout the book,
and we aid these efforts by moving primary coverage of
sustainable development to Chapter 6 and previewing
Chapter 24’s campus sustainability coverage in Chapter 1.
P R E FAC E
Fully 18 of our 42 Science Behind the Story features are new to this edition, providing a current
and exciting selection of scientific studies to highlight. Students will follow researchers as they help
to restore an oyster fishery; monitor animal populations; evaluate energy sources; and assess impacts
of smog, aquifer contamination, fallout from Fukushima, and oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill.
Selected features are supported by new “Process of
Science” exercises online in MasteringEnvironmentalScience that use these examples to help students explore
how scientists conduct their work.
• Chapter 2: Tracking Fukushima’s Nuclear Legacy
• Chapter 3: Hawaii: Species Factory and Lab of
Evolution
• Chapter 3: Monitoring Bird Populations at
Hakalau Forest
• Chapter 4: Chronicling Ecological Recovery at
Mount St. Helens
• Chapter 5: “Turning the Tide” for Native Oysters
in Chesapeake Bay
• Chapter 6: Do Payments Help Preserve Forest?
• Chapter 7: Does Fracking Contaminate Drinking
Water?
• Chapter 8: Did Soap Operas Reduce Fertility in
Brazil?
• Chapter 9: Can No-Till Farming Help Us Fight
Climate Change?
• Chapter 11: Wildlife Declines in African Reserves
• Chapter 16: Predicting the Oceans’ “Garbage
Patches”
• Chapter 17: Measuring the Health Impacts of
Mexico City’s Air Pollution
• Chapter 18: How Do Climate Models Work?
• Chapter 19: Discovering Impacts of the Gulf Oil
Spill
xi
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Enhanced style elements We have updated and improved
the look and clarity of our visual presentation throughout the
text. A more open layout, more engaging photo treatments,
improved maps in the case studies, and redesigned table
styles all make the book more inviting and accessible for
learning. This edition includes over 30% new photos, graphs,
and illustrations, while existing figures have been revised to
reflect current data or for better clarity or pedagogy.
Existing Features
We have also retained the major features that made the first
four editions of our book unique and that are proving so successful in classrooms across North America:
An emphasis on science and data analysis We have
maintained and strengthened our commitment to a rigorous presentation of modern scientific research while at the
same time making science clear, accessible, and engaging
to students. Explaining and illustrating the process of science remains a foundational goal of this endeavor. We
also continue to provide an abundance of clearly cited
data-rich graphs, with accompanying tools for data analysis. In our text, our figures, and numerous print and online
features, we aim to challenge students and to assist them
with the vital skills of data analysis and interpretation.
An emphasis on solutions For many students, today’s
deluge of environmental dilemmas can lead them to believe
that there is no hope or that they cannot personally make
a difference in tackling these challenges. We have aimed
to counter this impression by highlighting innovative solutions being developed around the world. While being careful not to paint too rosy a picture of the challenges that
lie ahead, we demonstrate that there is ample reason for
optimism, and we encourage action. Our campus sustainability coverage (Chapters 1 and 24) shows students how
their peers are applying principles and lessons from environmental science to forge sustainable solutions on their
own campuses. To recognize the efforts of faculty and students in encouraging sustainable practices on campus and
in their communities, Pearson Education will continue to
grant Sustainable Solutions Awards to exceptional campus
programs. See www.masteringenvironmentalscience.com
for entry details and for profiles of previous winners.
Central Case Studies integrated throughout the
text. We integrate each chapter’s Central Case Study
into the main text, weaving information and elaboration
throughout the chapter. In this way, compelling stories
about real people and real places help to teach foundational concepts by giving students a tangible framework
with which to incorporate novel ideas. We are gratified that
students and teachers using our book have so consistently
applauded this approach, and we hope it continues to bring
further success in environmental science education.
xii
The Science Behind the Story Because we strive
to engage students in the scientific process of testing and
A01_WITH7428_05_AP_FM.indd 12
discovery, we feature The Science Behind the Story boxes
in each chapter. By guiding students through key research
efforts, this feature shows not merely what scientists discovered, but how they discovered it.
Weighing the Issues These questions aim to help
develop the critical-thinking skills students need to
navigate multifaceted issues at the juncture of science,
policy, and ethics. They serve as stopping points for
students to reflect on what they have read, wrestle with
complex dilemmas, and engage in spirited classroom
discussion.
Diverse end-of-chapter features Reviewing Objectives summarizes each chapter’s main points and relates
them to the chapter’s learning objectives, enabling students to confirm that they have understood the most crucial ideas and to review concepts by turning to specified
page numbers. Testing Your Comprehension provides
concise study questions on main topics, while Seeking
Solutions encourages broader creative thinking aimed at
finding solutions. “Think It Through” questions place
students in a scenario and empower them to make decisions to resolve problems. Calculating Ecological Footprints enables students to quantify the impacts of their
own choices and measure how individual impacts scale
up to the societal level.
MasteringEnvironmentalScience
With this edition we are thrilled to offer expanded opportunities through MasteringEnvironmentalScience, our powerful
yet easy-to-use online learning and assessment platform. We
have developed new content and activities specifically to support features in the textbook, thus strengthening the connection between these online and print resources. This approach
encourages students to practice their science literacy skills in
an interactive environment with a diverse set of automatically
graded exercises. Students benefit from self-paced activities
that feature immediate wrong-answer feedback, while teachers can gauge student performance with informative diagnostics. By enabling assessment of student learning outside the
classroom, MasteringEnvironmentalScience helps the teacher
to maximize the impact of in-classroom time. As a result, both
educators and students benefit from an integrated text and
online solution.
New to this edition Informed by teacher feedback and
teachers, desires for students to leave their environmental
science course with a mastery of science literacy skills, the
following are additions to MasteringEnvironmentalScience.
The first three were created specifically for the fifth edition
by our textbook’s co-author Matthew Laposata:
• Process of Science activities help students navigate
the scientific method, guiding them through in-depth
explorations of experimental design using Science
Behind the Story features from the fifth edition. These
activities encourage students to think like a scientist
and to practice basic skills in experimental design.
12/07/13 2:08 PM
• Interpreting Graphs and Data: Data Q activities pair
with the new in-text Data Analysis Questions and
coach students to further develop skills related to
presenting, interpreting, and thinking critically about
environmental science data.
• “First Impressions” Pre-Quizzes help teachers determine their students’ existing knowledge of environmental issues and core content areas at the outset
of the academic term, providing class-specific data
that can then be employed for powerful teachable
moments throughout the term. Assessment items in
the Test Bank connect to each quiz item, so teachers
can formally assess student understanding.
• More Video Field Trips have been added to the existing library in MasteringEnvironmentalScience. With
three new videos you can now kick off your class
period with a short visit to a wind farm, a site tackling
invasive species, or a sustainable college campus.
Existing features MasteringEnvironmentalScience also
retains its popular existing features. These include existing Interpreting Graphs and Data exercises and the interactive GraphIt! program, each of which guides students
in exploring how to present and interpret data and how to
create graphs; interactive Causes and Consequences exercises, which let students probe the causes behind major
issues, their consequences, and possible solutions; and
Viewpoints, paired essays authored by invited experts who
present divergent points of view on topical questions.
Environment: The Science Behind the Stories, AP Edition, has
grown from our experiences in teaching, research, and writing. We have been guided in our efforts by input from the
hundreds of teachers across North America who have served
as reviewers and advisors. The participation of so many
learned, thoughtful, and committed experts and educators has
improved this volume in countless ways.
We sincerely hope that our efforts are worthy of the
immense importance of our subject matter. We invite you to
let us know how well we have achieved our goals and where
you feel we have fallen short. Please write to us in care of our
editor Alison Rodal (alison.rodal@pearson.com) at Pearson
Education. We value your feedback and are eager to know
how we can serve you better.
–Jay Withgott and Matthew Laposata
Supplements
A01_WITH7428_05_AP_FM.indd 13
This powerful media package is organized chapter-by-chapter
and includes all teaching resources in one convenient location. You’ll find Video Field Trips, PowerPoint presentations,
Active Lecture questions to facilitate class discussions (for use
with or without clickers), and an image library that includes
all art and tables from the text.
Included on the IRDVD, the test bank includes hundreds of
multiple-choice questions plus unique graphing, and scenariobased questions to test students’ critical-thinking abilities.
Instructor Guide
This comprehensive resource provides chapter outlines, key
terms, and teaching tips for lecture and classroom activities.
Pearson Education Test Prep Series
for AP® Environmental Science
The new edition, written specifically to accompany
Environment: The Science Behind the Stories 5e, AP Edition,
includes a chapter-by-chapter topic review; study tips and
organization ideas; misconception warnings; practice quizzes
for each chapter with answers and explanations; and practice
AP-like exams. Available for purchase.
MasteringEnvironmentalScience™ for Environment: The Science Behind the Stories\MasteringEnvironmentalScience with
Pearson eText is the most effective and widely used online
tutorial, homework, and assessment system for the sciences.
Upon textbook purchase, students and teachers are granted
access to MasteringEnvironmentalScience with Pearson
eText. Teachers can obtain preview or adoption access for
MasteringEnvironmentalScience in one of the following ways:
Preview Access
Teachers can request preview access online by visiting PearsonSchool.com/Access_Request (choose option 2). Preview Access
information will be sent to the teacher via email.
Adoption Access
• A Pearson Adoption Access Card, with codes and complete instructions, will be delivered with your textbook
purchase (ISBN: 0-13-034391-9).
• Ask your sales representative for an Adoption Access
Code Card (ISBN: 0-13-034391-9).
• Visit PearsonSchool.com/Access_Request (choose
option 3). Adoption access information will be sent to
the teacher via email.
Students, ask your teacher for access.
P R E FAC E
Some of the teacher supplements and resources for this text are
available electronically to qualified adopters on the Instructor
Resource Center (IRC). Upon adoption or to preview, please
go to www.pearsonschool.com/access_request and select
Instructor Resource Center. You will be required to complete
a brief one-time registration subject to verification of educator
status. Upon verification, access information and instructions
will be sent to you via email. Once logged into the IRC, enter
ISBN 0133540146 in the “Search our Catalog” box to locate
resources. Electronic teacher supplements are also available
within the Instructor’s tab of MasteringEnvironmentalScience.
Instructor Resource Center
on DVD with TestGen
xiii
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Acknowledgments
xxii
A textbook is the product of many more minds and hearts than
one might guess from the names on the cover. The two of us
are exceedingly fortunate to be supported and guided by a tremendous publishing team and by a small army of experts in
environmental science who have generously shared their time
and expertise. The strengths of this book result from the collective labor and dedication of innumerable people.
We would first like to thank our acquisitions editor, Alison
Rodal. Alison joined us at the outset of this edition, bringing
a fresh perspective to the book along with skills and experience from multiple aspects of publishing. Her insight, alacrity,
and efficacy have greatly enhanced the outcome. We—and the
instructors and students who use this book—are fortunate to
have her at the helm.
Project editor Anna Amato was also key to the success of
this edition. Anna’s careful and perceptive editing benefited
all of us, and her creative involvement in layout and in the art
program improved the book in many ways. We also appreciated her skillful management of the endless publishing logistics during the preparation of this edition. It was a pleasure to
work with Alison and Anna on this edition, and we appreciate
their patience with us and their dedication to top-quality work.
We wish to thank our editor-in-chief Beth Wilbur for her
strong and steady support of this book through its five editions.
We also thank executive director of development Deborah
Gale. Sincere gratitude is due to Beth and to Pearson’s upper
management for continuing to invest the resources and topnotch personnel that our books are enjoying now and have
enjoyed over the past decade.
Editorial assistants Rachel Brickner and Libby Reiser provided timely and effective help. We also thank Camille Herrera,
who helped launch production of this edition, and Shannon
Tozier, who saw it through production. Sally Peyrefitte once
again provided meticulous copy editing of our text, and photo
researcher Zoe Milgram helped acquire quality photos. Wynne
Au Yeung did an exceptionally smooth job with the art program, and Yvo Riezebos designed the brilliant new text interior
and the cover. We send a huge thank-you to production editor
Kelly Keeler and the rest of the staff at Cenveo® Publisher Services for their fantastic work putting this fifth edition together.
In addition, we remain grateful for lasting contributions
to the book’s earlier editions by Nora Lally-Graves, Mary Ann
Murray, Susan Teahan, Tim Flem, and Dan Kaveney, as well
as by Etienne Benson, Russell Chun, Jonathan Frye, April
Lynch, Kristy Manning, and many others. Needless to say,
Scott Brennan was instrumental. His ideas, words, and voice
have reverberated through the editions even as the particulars
have evolved many times over. And as much as anyone, our
former editor Chalon Bridges deserves credit for making this
book what it is. Chalon’s heartfelt commitment to quality educational publishing has long inspired us all, and our efforts
continue to owe a great deal to her astute guidance and vision.
A01_WITH7428_05_AP_FM.indd 22
As we move deeper into the electronic age, MasteringEnvironmentalScience plays an ever-larger role in what we do.
As we worked to expand our online offerings with this edition, we thank Kayla Rihani, Julie Stoughton, Steven Frankel,
Karen Sheh, Tania Mlawer, Juliana Golden, Lee Ann Doctor,
and Daniel Ross for their work on the Mastering website and
our media supplements. A special thanks to Eric Flagg for his
tremendous Video Field Trips.
As always, a select number of top instructors from around
North America have teamed up with us to produce the supplementary materials used by so many educators, and we remain
deeply grateful for their valuable help. Our thanks go to Danielle
DuCharme for updating our Instructor’s Guide, to Todd Tracy
for his help with the Test Bank, and to Steven Frankel for revising the PowerPoint lectures and clicker questions.
Of course, none of this has any impact on education without the sales and marketing staff to get the book into your
hands. Marketing Managers Amee Mosley and Lauren Harp
are dedicating their talent and enthusiasm to the book’s promotion and distribution.
Moreover, the many sales representatives who help to
communicate our vision, deliver our product to instructors,
and work with instructors to assure their satisfaction, are absolutely vital. We have been blessed with an amazingly sharp
and dedicated sales force, and we deeply appreciate their tireless work and commitment.
In the lists of reviewers that follow, we acknowledge the
many instructors and outside experts who have helped us to
maximize the quality and accuracy of our content and presentation through their chapter reviews, feature reviews, class
tests, focus group participation, and other services. If the
thoughtfulness and thoroughness of these hundreds of people
are any indication, we feel confident that the teaching of environmental science is in excellent hands!
Lastly, we each owe personal debts to the people nearest
and dearest to us. Jay thanks his parents and his many teachers
and mentors over the years for making his own life and education so enriching. He gives loving thanks to his wife, Susan, who
has endured this book’s writing and revision over the years with
patience and understanding, and who has provided caring support
throughout. Matt thanks his family, friends, and colleagues, and is
grateful for his children, who give him three reasons to care passionately about the future. Most importantly, he thanks his wife,
Lisa, for blessing every day of his life for the past 25 years with
her keen insight, passion for life, unconscious grace, and effortless beauty—and for understanding him in ways no one else ever
could. The talents, input, and advice of Susan and of Lisa have
been vital to this project, and without their support our own contributions would not have been possible.
We dedicate this book to today’s students, who will shape
tomorrow’s world.
–Jay Withgott and Matthew Laposata
12/07/13 2:08 PM
Correlated to The College Board Topics
for AP® Environmental Science
The following correlates the Advanced Placement® Environmental Science topics as outlined by the College Board (dated Fall
2013) with the corresponding chapters in the 5th edition of Environment: The Science Behind the Stories, AP Edition. We continually monitor the College Board’s AP® Course Description for updates to exam topics. For the most current AP® Exam Topic
correlation for this textbook, visit www.PearsonSchool.com/AdvancedCorrelations.
I. Earth Systems and Resources (10–15%)
Chapter 2, Chapter 17, Appendix E: Geologic Time Scale
(Geologic time scale; plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism;
seasons; solar intensity and latitude)
B. The Atmosphere
Chapter 16, Chapter 17, Chapter 18
(Composition; structure; weather and climate; atmospheric
circulation and the Coriolis Effect; atmosphere—ocean
interactions; ENSO)
C. Global Water Resources and Use
Chapter 15, Chapter 16
(Freshwater/saltwater; ocean circulation; agricultural, industrial, and domestic use; surface and groundwater issues; global
problems; conservation)
D. Soil and Soil Dynamics
Chapter 2, Chapter 9
(Rock cycle; formation; composition; physical and chemical
properties; main soil types; erosion and other soil problems; soil
conservation)
II. The Living World (10–15%)
A. Ecosystem Structure
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5
(Biological populations and communities; ecological niches;
interactions among species; keystone species; species diversity
and edge effects; major terrestrial and aquatic biomes)
B. Energy Flow
Chapter 2, Chapter 4, Chapter 5
(Photosynthesis and cellular respiration; food webs and trophic
levels; ecological pyramids)
C. Ecosystem Diversity
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 11
(Biodiversity; natural selection; evolution; ecosystem services)
D. Natural Ecosystem Change
Chapter 4, Chapter 18
(Climate shifts; species movement; ecological succession)
E. Natural Biogeochemical Cycles
Chapter 2, Chapter 5
(Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, water, conservation of
matter)
III. Population (10–15%)
A. Population Biology Concepts
Chapter 3
(Population ecology; carrying capacity; reproductive strategies;
survivorship)
B. Human Population
1. Human population dynamics
Chapter 1, Chapter 8
(Historical population sizes; distribution; fertility rates; growth
rates and doubling times; demographic transition; age-structure
diagrams)
2. Population size
Chapter 8
(Strategies for sustainability; case studies; national policies)
3. Impacts of population growth
Chapter 8, Chapter 10, Chapter 11
(Hunger; disease; economic effects; resource use; habitat
destruction)
IV. Land and Water Use (10–15%)
A. Agriculture
A01_WITH7428_05_AP_FM.indd 23
C O R R E L AT I O N G U I D E
A. Earth Science Concepts
xxiii
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1. Feeding a growing population
Chapter 9, Chapter 10, Chapter 12
(Human nutritional requirements; types of agriculture; Green
Revolution; genetic engineering and crop productions;
deforestation; irrigation; sustainable agriculture)
2. Controlling pests
Chapter 10, Chapter 14
(Types of pesticides; costs and benefits of pesticide use;
integrated pest management; relevant laws)
B. Forestry
Chapter 12
(Tree plantations; old growth forests; forest fires; forest management; national forests)
C. Rangelands
Chapter 9
(Overgrazing; deforestation; desertification; rangeland management; federal rangelands)
D. Other Land Use
1. Urban land development
Chapter 13
(Planned development; suburban sprawl; urbanization)
2. Transportation infrastructure
Chapter 12, Chapter 13, Chapter 15
(Federal highway system; canals and channels; roadless areas;
ecosystem impacts)
3. Public and federal lands
Chapter 3, Chapter 6, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 19
(Management; wilderness areas; national parks; wildlife refuges; forests; wetlands)
4. Land conservation options
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 6, Chapter 11, Chapter 12,
Chapter 22, Chapter 23
(Preservation; remediation; mitigation; restoration)
5. Sustainable land-use strategies
Chapter 9, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 13
E. Mining
Chapter 6, Chapter 19, Chapter 23
(Mineral formation; extraction; global reserves; relevant laws
and treaties)
F. Fishing
Chapter 10, Chapter 16
(Fishing techniques; overfishing; aquaculture; relevant laws and
treaties)
G. Global Economics
Chapter 1, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 24
(Globalization; World Bank; Tragedy of the Commons; relevant
laws and treaties)
V. Energy Resources and Consumption (10–15%)
A. Energy Concepts
Chapter 2, Chapter 19
(Energy forms; power; units; conversions; Laws of
Thermodynamics)
B. Energy Consumption
1. History (Industrial Revolution; exponential growth; energy
crisis)
Chapter 1, Chapter 8, Chapter 19
2. Present global energy use
Chapter 2, Chapter 19, Chapter 20, Chapter 21
3. Future energy needs
Chapter 2, Chapter 19, Chapter 20, Chapter 21
C. Fossil Fuel Resources and Use
Chapter 19, Chapter 20
(Formation of coal, oil, and natural gas; extraction/purification
methods; world reserves and global demand; synfuels; environmental advantages/disadvantages of sources)
D. Nuclear Energy
Chapter 20
(Nuclear fission process; nuclear fuel; electricity production;
nuclear reactor types; environmental advantages/disadvantages;
safety issues; radiation and human health; radioactive wastes;
nuclear fusion)
xxiv
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Chapter 15, Chapter 20
(Dams; flood control; salmon; silting; other impacts)
F. Energy Conservation
Chapter 13, Chapter 18, Chapter 19
(Energy efficiency; CAFÉ standards; hybrid electric vehicles;
mass transit)
G. Renewable Energy
Chapter 2, Chapter 20, Chapter 21
(Solar energy; solar electricity; hydrogen fuel cells; biomass;
wind energy; small-scale hydroelectric; ocean waves and tidal
energy; geothermal; environmental advantages/disadvantages)
VI. Pollution (25–30%)
A. Pollution Types
1. Air pollution
Chapter 13, Chapter 17, Chapter 18, Chapter 19
(Sources- primary and secondary; major air pollutants;
measurement units; smog; acid deposition- causes and effects;
heat islands and temperature inversions; indoor air pollution;
remediation and reduction strategies; Clean Air Act and other
relevant laws)
2. Noise pollution
Chapter 13
(Sources; effects; control measures)
3. Water Pollution
Chapter 5, Chapter 7, Chapter 15, Chapter 16, Chapter 19
(Types; sources, causes, and effects; cultural eutrophication;
groundwater pollution; maintaining water quality; water
purification; sewage treatment/septic systems; Clean Water Act
and other relevant laws)
4. Solid Waste
Chapter 22
(Types; disposal; reduction)
B. Impacts on Environment and Human Health
1. Hazards to human health
Chapter 14, Chapter 17
(Environmental risk analysis; acute and chronic effects; doseresponse relationships; air pollutants; smoking and other risks)
2. Hazardous chemicals in the environment
Chapter 14, Chapter 22
(Types of hazardous waste; treatment/disposal of hazardous
waste; cleanup of contaminated sites; biomagnification; relevant
laws)
C. Economic impacts
Chapter 1, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 24
(Cost-benefit analysis; externalities; marginal costs;
sustainability)
VII. Global Change (10-15%)
A. Stratospheric Ozone
Chapter 17
(Formation of stratospheric ozone; ultraviolet radiation; causes
of ozone depletion; effects of ozone depletion; strategies for
reducing ozone depletion; relevant laws and treaties)
B. Global Warming
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 6, Chapter 11, Chapter 18
(Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect; impacts and
consequences of global warming; reducing climate change;
relevant laws and treaties)
C. Loss of Biodiversity
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 16
1. Habitat loss; overuse; pollution; introduced species; endangered and extinct species.
2. Maintenance through conservation
Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 11, Chapter 12, Chapter 16
3. Relevant laws and treaties
Chapter 11
C O R R E L AT I O N G U I D E
E. Hydroelectric Power
xxv
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Engage with real people, real places, and real data
Integrated Central Case Studies highlight the real people, real places, and real data behind
environmental issues. The Integrated Central Case Studies provide contextual framework to make
science memorable and engaging.
NEW! 30% of the Central Case Studies
in the book are entirely new. New case studies
focus on hydraulic fracturing (Ch07), sustainable
agriculture (Ch09), wildlife conservation (Ch12),
air pollution (Ch17), oil sands extraction (Ch19),
and more!
CEN TR A L C A S E S T UDY
The Tohoku Earthquake:
Has It Shaken the World’s Trust
in Nuclear Power?
NORTH
KOREA
Central Case Studies draw
students into the chapter
with engaging topics
that begin and are woven
throughout each chapter.
“This used to be one of the best places for a
business. I’m amazed at how little is left.”
Sea of Japan
(East Sea)
Fukushima
Daiichi
SOUTH
KOREA
JAPAN
—Takahiro Chiba, surveying the devastated
downtown area of Ishinomaki, Japan, where his
family’s sushi restaurant was located
“Fukushima should not just contain lessons
for Japan, but for all 31 countries with nuclear
power.”
North Pacific
Ocean
At 2:46 p.m. on March 11, 2011, the land along the northeastern coast of the Japanese island of Honshu began to shake
violently—and continued to shake for six minutes. These tremors were caused when a large section of the seafloor along
a fault line 125 km (77 mi) offshore suddenly lurched, releasing huge amounts of energy through the crust and generating
an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale (a scale
used to measure the strength of earthquakes). Little did anyone know at the time that this quake would initiate a series of
events that would affect not only Japan, but also the future of
nuclear power around the world.
The Tohoku earthquake, as it was later named, was not the
first major earthquake to strike Japan. The city of Kobe experienced substantial damage from a quake in 1995 that claimed
over 5500 lives. And in 1923, an earthquake devastated the
cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, resulting in over 142,000 deaths.
Losses of life and property from the Tohoku quake were far
less extensive than the losses from these earlier events, thanks
to new stringent building codes that enable buildings to resist
crumbling and toppling over during earthquakes. But even when
the earth stopped shaking, the residents of northeastern Japan
knew that further danger might still await them—from a tsunami.
A tsunami (“harbor wave” in English) is a powerful surge
of seawater generated when an offshore earthquake displaces
large volumes of rocks and sediment on the ocean bottom,
suddenly pushing the overlying ocean water upward. This
upward movement of water creates waves that speed outward
from the earthquake site in all directions. These waves are
hardly noticeable at sea, but can rear up to staggering heights
—Tatsujiro Suzuki, Vice-chairman, Japan Atomic
Energy Commission
as strong ocean surges followed the 1923 Tokyo–Yokohama
earthquake, pushing walls of debris in front of them and drowning victims still trapped in the wreckage from the earthquake.
The Japanese had built seawalls to protect against tsunamis,
but the Tohoku quake caused the island of Honshu to sink, lowering the height of the seawalls by up to 2 m (6.5 ft) in some locations.
Waves reaching up to 15 m (49 ft) in height then overwhelmed
these defenses (Figure 2.1). The raging water swept up to 9.6
km (6 mi) inland, scoured buildings from their foundations, and
New topographical maps help students see Figure
the political
andovertop a seawall following the
2.1 Tsunami waves
environmental context of stories.
xiv
WITH7428_05_WT_PRF.indd 2
Tohoku earthquake in 2011. The tsunami caused a greater loss
of life and property than the earthquake that generated it and led
to a meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
12/07/13 2:39 PM
www.masteringenvironmentalscience.com
NEW! Video Field trips include:
• Invasive Species: Lionfish
• Solutions: Sustainability on Campus
• Wind Power
Wind Power
Video Field Trips offer fascinating tours of real
environmental issues and solutions employed to
cope with them. These videos are assignable in
MasteringEnvironmentalScience and are on the
Instructor Resource DVD.
Solar Energy
Current Events from the New York
Times are regularly updated and invite
you to connect course topics with current
environmental issues.
ABC News video clips invite you to
engage in the current conversation about
the environment and sustainability.
xv
WITH7428_05_WT_PRF.indd 3
12/07/13 2:40 PM
that feed on plankton-eating fish. (The left side of Figure
more energy per calorie that
products.
levels. When an organism dies and sinks to the bottom,
detritivores scavenge its tissues and decomposers recycle
its nutrients.
features highlight how scientists develop hypotheses, test
WEIGhING thE
4.9 shows these relationships in a very generalized form.)
interpret and analyze stories
Zebra mussels and quagga mussels, by eating both phytoplankton and
zooplankton, function on multiple trophic
using scientific literacy
skills
Science Behind the Story
predictions, analyze and interpret data, and share findings.
Energy, biomass, and numbers decrease
at higher trophic levels
At each trophic level, organisms use energy in cellular respiration (p. 32) to grow and maintain themselves. More energy
goes toward maintenance than to building new tissues, and
most ends up being given off as heat. Only a small amount
of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level through
NEW!
30%Aofgeneral
the Science
predation, herbivory, or
parasitism.
rule of thumb
is that each trophic level
containsthe
justStories
10% of the
energy of
Behind
are
the trophic level below it (although the actual proportion can
entirely new in the text.
vary greatly). This pattern can be visualized as a pyramid
(Figure 4.10).
Topics include:
This pyramid-like pattern also tends to hold for the
• Tracking Fukushima’s nuclear
numbers of organisms at each trophic level; in general,
fewer organisms exist atlegacy
higher(Ch02)
trophic levels than at
lower ones. A grasshopper
eats many
plants in itsof
lifetime,
• Tracking
Populations
a rodent eats many grasshoppers,
and
a
hawk
eats
many
Hakalau’s Forest Birds (Ch03)
rodents. Thus, for every hawk in a community there must
• Does Fracking Contaminate
brazilian soap operas, called telenovelas, are a surprising cultural force for promoting
be many rodents, still more grasshoppers, and an immense
lower fertility. Here, residents gather outside a cafe in Rio de Janeiro to watch the popuDrinking
Water?
number of plants. Moreover,
because
the(Ch07)
difference in
lar program Avenida Brasil.
numbers of organisms among trophic levels tends to be
And More!
large, the same pyramid-like relationship often holds true
characters, settings, and plot lines
China; the procedure is illegal except in
forcanbiomass, the collective mass of living matter in a given
with which everyday Brazilians
rare circumstances.
identify.
As Brazil’s economy grew with
place and time.
Telenovelas do not overtly
industrialization, people’s nutrition
address fertility issues, but they The pyramid pattern illustrates why eating at lower
and access to health care improved,
do promote a vision of the “ideal”
greatly reducing infant mortality rates.
trophic levels—being vegan or vegetarian, for instance—
Brazilian family. This family is typically
Families no longer needed to have
decreases a person’s ecological footprint. Each amount of
middle or upper class, materialistic,
more children than they desired for fear
individualistic, and full of empowone or more would die at a young age.
meat or other animal product we eat requires the input of a
ered women. By challenging existing
Increasing personal wealth promoted
greater amount of plant material (see Figure 10.9,
cultural and religious valuesconsiderably
through
materialism and greater emphasis on
their characters, novelas had,
career and possessions over family
p.and
249). Thus, when we eat animal products, we use up far
THE SCIENCE BEHINd THE STORy
did Soap Operas
Reduce Fertility
in Brazil?
Over the past 50 years, the South
American nation of Brazil experienced
the second-largest drop in fertility
among developing nations with large
populations—second only to China.
In the 1960s, the average woman in
Brazil had six children. Today, Brazil’s
total fertility rate is 1.9 children per
woman, which is lower than that of the
United States. Brazil’s drastic decrease
in fertility is interesting because, unlike
China, it occurred without governmental policies that advocated controls on
its citizens’ reproduction.
So how did Brazil accomplish this?
A major factor was change in society’s
view of women. It began with a civil
rights movement in the 1960s, which
gave females equal access to education
and the opportunity to pursue careers
outside the home. These efforts have
been highly successful. Women now
comprise 40% of the workforce in Brazil
and graduate from college in greater
numbers than men. And in 2010,
Brazilians elected a woman, Dilma
Rousseff, as their nation’s president.
Although the Brazilian government
does not put restrictions on people’s
reproduction, it provides family planning
and contraception to all its citizens free
of charge. Eighty percent of married
women of childbearing age in Brazil
currently utilize contraception, a rate
higher than that in the United States
or Canada. Universal access to family
planning has given women control over
their desired family size and has helped
reduce fertility across all economic
groups, from the very rich to the very
poor.
Brazil is largely Roman Catholic,
and Roman Catholicism prohibits the
use of artificial methods of birth control,
so the high rates of contraceptive use
in modern Brazil represent a significant
shift from traditional values. Induced
abortion is not utilized in Brazil as it is in
204
M08_WITH7428_05_SE_C08.indd 204
and children. The nation also urbanized
as people flocked to growing cities
such as Río de Janeiro and São Paolo,
conveying the fertility reductions that
occur when people leave the farm for
the city.
It turns out, however, that Brazil
had a rather unique influence affecting
its fertility rates over the past several
decades—"soap operas.” Brazilian
soap operas, called telenovelas or
novelas, are a cultural phenomenon
and are watched religiously by people
of all ages, races, and incomes. Each
novela follows the activities of several
fictional families, and these TV shows
are wildly popular because they have
continue to have, a profound impact
on Brazilian society. In essence, these
programs provided a model family
for Brazilians to emulate—with small
family sizes being a key characteristic.
In a 2012 paper in the American
Tertiary
Economic Journal: Applied
consumers
Economics, a team of researchers from Bocconi University inSecondary
Italy,
George Washington University, and
consumers
the Inter-American Development Bank
(based in Washington, D.C.) analyzed
Primary
various parameters to investigate
consumers
statistical relationships between telenovelas and fertility patterns in Brazil
Producers
from 1965 to 2000. Rede Globo,
the
network that has a virtual monopoly
NEW! Data Analysis Q’s are
paired with select figures in each
chapter to help you develop your
scientific literacy skills. These
questions allow you to check your
own understanding of environmental data as you read through
each chapter.
WITH7428_05_WT_PRF.indd 4
10
100
1000
Figure 4.10 Lower trophic levels generally contain more
organisms, energy content, and biomass than higher trophic
levels. The tenfold ratio shown here is typical, but the shape of the
pyramid may vary greatly.
05/07/13 4:41 PM
82
xvi
1
Using the ratios shown in this example, let’s suppose that
a system has 3000 grasshoppers. How many rodents
would be expected?
thE FOOtPrINtS OF OUr dI
would you estimate consist
animal products? Would you
portion in order to reduce yo
some other ways in which
through your food choices.
Food webs show feed
and energy flow
As energy is transferred from
ones, it is said to pass up a fo
ing relationships. Plant, grass
up a food chain—as do phyto
fish-eating birds.
Thinking in terms of fo
ful, but ecological systems a
ple linear chains. A more
feeding relationships in a
visual map of energy flow
many paths along which en
sume one another.
Figure 4.11 shows a food
ous forest of eastern North A
and leaves out the vast majorit
occur. Note, however, that eve
we can pick out a number of fo
of species.
A Great Lakes food w
plankton that photosynthesiz
zooplankton that eat them, f
zooplankton, larger fish that
preys that parasitize the fish
native mussels and clams an
sels and quagga mussels tha
include diving ducks that form
now prey on the mussels.
This food web would al
benthic (bottom-dwelling) inv
refuse of the non-native muss
promotes bacterial growth an
ease to native bivalves, it al
ish many benthic invertebrat
include underwater plants a
growth is enhanced as the non
plankton, allowing sunlight to
column. (Jump ahead to Figur
of some of these effects.)
Overall, zebra and quagg
food web by shifting product
benthic and littoral (nearshor
sels help benthic and littoral
open-water fishes (see The Scie
M04_WITH7428_05_SE_C04.indd 82
12/07/13 2:40 PM
use
www.masteringenvironmentalscience.com
to practice scientific literacy skills
NEW! Process of Science
Coaching Activities,
created by coauthor Matt
Laposata, help you practice
the process of science demonstrated in the Science Behind
the Story feature. These activities allow you to think like a
scientist and put the scientific
method into practice.
Wrong Answer Feedback
Gain a better understanding
of the process of science
with specific wrongfeedback.
Expanded! Interpreting
Graphs and Data Activities
help you develop basic data
analysis skills and practice
interpreting environmental data.
Keep Practicing
GraphIt Activities help you
analyze an environmental
issue and understand the
research data.
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WITH7428_05_WT_PRF.indd 5
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identify learning goals
and recognize misconceptions
3
NEW!
FAQs highlight and correct
areas would sometimes fly into death zones. Today, thousands
common
misconceptions
of honeycreepers
from mountain forests about
die each year when
they fly downslope and are bitten by malarial mosquitoes. As
environmental
isssues.
environmental conditions
vary in time and space, adaptation
Great
Dane
becomes a moving target.
One-quarter of Hakalau is
FaQ
Native Hawaiian forest at Hakalau Forest NWR, and the endangered ‘akiapōlā‘au
Evolution, Biodiversity,
and Population Ecology
Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Explain natural selection and cite evidence for this
process
Outline the characteristics of populations that help predict
population growth
Describe how evolution influences biodiversity
Assess logistic growth, carrying capacity, limiting factors,
and other fundamental concepts in population ecology
Discuss reasons for species extinction and mass extinction
events
List the levels of ecological organization
Identify efforts and challenges involved in the conservation of
biodiversity
Almost no area r
above the 13°C isotherm
and malaria-free, and
nearly all of it is above the
17°C isotherm.
above the 13°C i
Chihuahua
so malaria will en
the whole refuge
Isn’t evolution based on just one man’s
beliefs?
Because Charles Darwin contributed so much to our early
understanding of evolution, many people assume the concept itself hinges on his ideas. But scientists and laypeople
17°C
had been observing nature and puzzling over fossils for a long
isotherm
(a) Ancestral wolf (Canis l
time, and the notion of evolution was being discussed long
13°Cbefore Darwin. Once he and Alfred Russel Wallace indepenHakalau
isotherm
dently proposedForest
the NWR
concept of natural selection, scientists
finally gained a precise and feasible mechanism to explain
(a) Todayhow and why organisms change across generations.
(b) With
2°C of climate warming
Later,
Cabbage
geneticists discovered Gregor Mendel’s research and worked
Figure 3.21
Researchers have modeled how a warming climate will affect the native birds of
out how traits are inherited—and modern evolutionary biolHakalau Forest NWR. Avian malaria cannot survive where temperatures dip below 13°C, and it peaks where
ogy was born.
Fisher,
summer temperatures
averageTwentieth-century
17°C. Today (a), 24%scientists
of Hakalau lies
aboveWright,
(cooler than) the 13°C isotherm
Simpson,
and
others
ran
experiments
and is freeDobzhansky,
of malaria. If climate
warmsMayr,
by 2°C,
however
(b),
then
the isothermsand
move upslope, and only 1% of
Brussels
Hakalau will
remain cooler
than 13°C and
malaria-free. Data
from: Benning,
T.L., et al. 2002. Interactions of climate change
developed
sophisticated
mathematical
models,
documenting
sprouts
with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information
phenomena with extensive evidence and making evolutionsystems. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. 99: 14246–14249.
ary biology into one of science’s strongest fields. Since then,
evolutionary research by thousands of scientists has driven
understanding
of change
biology mean
and has
Theour
challenges
of climate
that facilitated
scientists spectacular
advances
medicine,
and
and managers
needintoagriculture,
come up with
new ways
to biotechnology.
help save
The honeycreepers of Hakalau Forest N
declining populations. We will learn about the many efforts
Refuge, along with many other Hawaiia
being made across the world in our exploration of biodiversity
helped to illuminate the fundamentals of ev
and conservation biology in Chapter 11. In Hawai‘i, it remains
Ancestral
Brassica
oler
ulation ecology(b)
that
are integral
to environ
to be seen how effectively management and ecotourism can
processes of natural selec
stem the
tide of challenges
and help preserve
systemsus The evolutionary
Evidence
of selection
is allnatural
around
Figure 3.4 Selective breed
and extinction help determine Earth’s biod
in the long term. Resources and efforts to preserve habitat
resulted in our many breed
The
results
of
natural
selection
are
all
around
us,
visible
in
standing how ecological processes functio
and protect endangered species will likely need to be stepped
With dogs (a), we began with
every adaptation
of every
organism.
In addition,
scientists
tion level is crucial to protecting biodiversi
up. Programs
to restore altered
communities
to their
former
ancestral wild species, and b
the mass extinction event that many biolog
have demonstrated
rapid evolution
of also
traits
condition—as
is being done the
at Hakalau
Forest—will
be by selection
ing for the traits we prefer, we
now
underway.
Population ecology also in
necessary.
The
restoration
of
ecological
communities
is
one
in countless lab experiments, mostly with fast-reproducing
as Great(Chapter
Danes and
of human populations
8), Chihuah
another
phenomenon
we will
examine
in our next
chapter,
as weflies.
shift
organisms
such
as bacteria,
yeast,
and fruit
environmental created
science.our immense variety
from populations to communities.
Conclusion
Learning Objectives at the beginning of each
M03_WITH7428_05_SE_C03.indd 47
chapter define what you should be able to do after
completing the chapter. MasteringEnvironmentalScience
also links assessments to learning objectives so
professors can track students’ progress.
04/07/13 2:01 PM
The evidence for selection that may be most familiar
sprouts, broccoli, and cauliflo
to us is that which Darwin himself cited prominently in his
ancestral species, Brassica o
work 150 years ago: our breeding of domesticated animals.
In domesticated dogs, cats, and livestock, we have conducted
millennia (Figure 3.4b). Th
selection under our own direction. We have chosen animals
created corn with bigger
with traits we like and bred them together, while not breedwith larger and more num
those with
we do
• Wehaveproducedourpets,farmanimals
you ing
should
nowvariants
be able
to:not like. Through such selective
oranges with better taste. W
breeding, we have been able to augment particular traits
we
by artificial
selection. (p. 52)
many—for instance, breed
prefer.
Explain
natural selection and cite evidence for this
oleracea to create broccoli
3.4a). how evolution influences biod
processConsider the great diversity of dog breeds (FigureDescribe
sprouts. Our entire agricu
People generated every type of dog alive today by •starting
Naturalselectioncanactasadiversifying
• Becauseorganismsproduceexcessyoung,individualsvary
selection. We depend on a
withtraits,
a single
ancestral
species
and
selecting
adapt to their environments in myriad way
in their
and many
traits are
inherited,
some
individu-for particular
for the very food we eat.
desired
traits
as
individuals
were
bred
together.
From
Great
als will prove better at surviving and reproducing. Their
• Speciation by geographic isolation (or ot
Dane
all become
dogs are
ableprominent
to interbreed
andduces
pro-new species. (pp. 53–54)
genes
willtobeChihuahua,
passed on and
more
in
future
generations.
(p. 50)
duce
viable offspring,
yet breeders maintain striking differEvolution
• The
branching
patterns ofgenerates
phylogenetic
ences among them by allowing only like individuals to
breed
• Mutationsandrecombinationprovidethegeneticvariation
historical pattern in which lineages of
This (p.
process
Just as artificial selection
for with
naturallike.
selection.
50) of selection conducted under human
diverged. (p. 54)
direction is termed artificial selection.
farm animals, and crop
Artificial selection has given us the many crop plants we
elaborate and diversify trai
depend on for food, all of which people domesticated from
term, natural selection help
52 wild ancestors and carefully bred over years, centuries, or cies and whole new types o
Reviewing objectives
Reviewing Objectives at the
end of each chapter use a learning
objective framework to help you review
concepts and prepare for exams.
xviii
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use
to enhance
www.masteringenvironmentalscience.com
your understanding and improve your grade
Concept Review Activities
guide you through an understanding
of complex content.
The Pearson eText gives you access
to your text whenever and wherever
you can access the Internet so you
can view it on your computer and/or
your mobile device (including IOS and
Android)
C e N t R a l C a s E s t U dy
3
saving Hawaii’s Native Forest Birds
KAUA`I
O`AHU
Hakalau
Forest NWR
MAUI
Pacific
Ocean
“When an entire island avifauna . . . is devastated almost overnight because of human
meddling, it is, quite simply, a tragedy.”
—H. douglas Pratt, ornithologist and expert on
Hawaiian birds
HAWAI ` I
Mauna Kea
HAWAI`I
Hilo
“To keep every cog and wheel is the first
precaution of intelligent tinkering.”
—aldo Leopold
Mauna Loa
Native Hawaiian forest at Hakalau Forest NWR, and the endangered ‘akiapōlā‘au
Evolution, Biodiversity,
and Population Ecology
Upon completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Explain natural selection and cite evidence for this
process
Outline the characteristics of populations that help predict
population growth
Describe how evolution influences biodiversity
Assess logistic growth, carrying capacity, limiting factors,
and other fundamental concepts in population ecology
Discuss reasons for species extinction and mass extinction
events
List the levels of ecological organization
Identify efforts and challenges involved in the conservation of
biodiversity
48
Jack Jeffrey stopped in his tracks. “I hear one!” he said. “Over
there in those trees!”
Jeffrey quickly led his group of ecotourists through a
misty woodland of ferns, grasses, koa trees, and red-flowering
‘ōhi‘a-lehua trees toward an emphatic chirping sound that carried farther than the other bird songs in the forest. At last they
spotted the bird—an ‘akiapōlā‘au, one of fewer than 1500 of
its kind left alive in the world.
The ‘akiapōlā‘au (or “aki” for short) is a sparrow-sized
wonder of nature—one of many exquisite birds that evolved
on the Hawaiian Islands and exists only here. For millions of
years, this chain of islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean
has acted as a cradle of evolution, generating an abundance
of new and unique species. Yet in recent years, many of these
species have gone from cradle to grave. Half of Hawaii’s native
bird species (70 of 140) have gone extinct in recent times, and
the percentage of species that teeter on the brink of extinction
here today is higher than anywhere else in the world.
The aki is one of 30 species of endangered birds remaining
on the Hawaiian Islands. It is a type of Hawaiian honeycreeper,
a group of birds numbering 18 living species (and at least 38
species recently extinct), all of which originated from individuals of a single ancestral species that reached Hawai‘i several
million years ago. As new volcanic islands emerged from the
ocean and then eroded away, and as forests expanded and
contracted over the millennia, populations were split many
times, and new honeycreeper species evolved.
As honeycreeper species diverged from one another, they
evolved different colors, sizes, body shapes, feeding behaviors,
M03_WITH7428_05_SE_C03.indd 48
M03_WITH7428_05_SE_C03.indd 47
mating preferences, diets, and bill shapes. Bills in some species
became short and straight, allowing birds to glean insects from
leaf surfaces. In other species, bills became long and downcurved, enabling birds to probe into flowers to sip nectar. The
bills of still other species became thick and strong for cracking
seeds. Some bills became highly specialized: The aki uses the
short, straight lower half of its bill to peck, woodpecker-style,
into dead twigs and branches of koa trees to find beetle grubs,
and then uses the long, downcurved upper half to reach in and
extract the grubs.
Hawaii’s honeycreepers thrived for several million years in
the island’s forests, amid a unique community of plants. The
stately ‘ōhi‘a, a slow-growing tree that can live for 2000 years,
spreads twisting gnarled limbs covered with moss and lichens
through the misty air, and offers up bright red flowers that provide
nectar and pollen to birds and insects. The koa thrives here too,
a fast-growing acacia tree with twigs that the aki snaps off in its
search for grubs. A multitude of shrubs, herbs, and vines found
nowhere else in the world used to fill out the forest understory.
Today native Hawaiian forests are under siege. The crisis began several hundred years ago when Polynesian settlers
colonized the islands, cutting down trees and introducing nonnative animals. Europeans arrived in the 1800s and did more
of the same. Pigs, goats, and cattle ate their way through the
native plants, transforming lush forests into ragged grasslands.
Rats, cats, dogs, and mongooses destroyed the eggs and
young of native ground-nesting birds. Foreign plants from Asia,
Europe, and America, whose seeds accompanied the people
and animals, spread across the altered landscape.
04/07/13 2:01 PM
04/07/13 2:01 PM
Additional MasteringEnvironmentalScience Resources Include:
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Environment
The Science Behind the Stories
5TH EDITION
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