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LATINA IV ILIAD QUESTIONS NOMEN ______________________________ ILIAD I – The Rage of Achilles p. 77 – 98 1. How does the opening stanza – especially the first word – set the mood for Book I? 2. Why is there a plague in the Greek camp? 3. What do we learn about Agamemnon’s personality as he speaks to Chryses? Why is this information needed in the Iliad? 4. What does Achilles propose to stop the plague? 5. In lines 130 –135, what is ironic about Agamemnon’s feelings towards his wife? 6. What does Agamemnon want in exchange for Chryseis? Why can’t he get what he wants at first? What does Achilles offer instead? 7. Why did Achilles come to Troy? Why does he want to leave? 8. Why does Agamemnon take the girl from Achilles? 9. Why doesn’t Achilles kill Agamemnon? 10.Who tries to reconcile Achilles and Agamemnon? How does this man try to make them feel guilty? 11.What does each man do after his argument? 12.What rhetorical device is used in line 372? 13.How does Achilles treat the messengers, Talthybrius and Eurybates? How does this compare to Agamemnon’s treatment of Chryses? 14.Why does Homer have Achilles repeat the whole story thus far to his mother, Thetis? 15.How had Thetis saved Zeus before? 16.Why did the plague stop? 17.With what symbol does Zeus vow to grant the wish of Thetis? 18.Which goddess is not happy with Zeus’ decision? Who tries to comfort her? 19.Give the most commonly used epithet for each of the following: a) Achilles b) Apollo c) Hector d) Agamemnon e) Hera f) Athena g) Zeus h) Poseidon I) Eos (Dawn) ILIAD II – The Great Gathering of Armies p. 99 - 127 1. How does Zeus plan to glorify Achilles? 2. What device of oral epic poetry is exemplified in the first three pages of Book II? 3. By how much do the Greeks outnumber the Trojans? Why can't the Greeks win, according to Agamemnon? What does Agamemnon advise his men to do? 4. What two aspects of ancient epic poetry are present in Hera's and Athena's words and actions? (p.104-5) 5. How does Odysseus convince the Greeks to stay? 6. What omen does Odysseus describe to the Greeks to convince them to stay? 7. What part(s) of a prayer does Agamemnon employ? (p.112-3) What part(s) does he leave out? 8. To what is the bronze armor of the Greeks compared? To what four things is the Greek army compared? To what two things is Agamemnon compared? 9. Why does Homer invoke the Muses? (p. 115) 10. How many shiploads of Greeks prepare to fight? Which king had the greatest number of ships? Which had the least? 11. Which horses were the best? Who was the best warrior preparing for battle? 12. Who urges Hector to battle? 13. Name the Trojan/ally who leads each of the following: a) Trojans Zeleans d) Adrestians & Pityeans e) Thracians f) Cicones g) Carians b) Dardanians c) h) Lycians ILIAD III – Helen Reviews the Champions p.128-144 1. To what are Menelaus and Paris compared in the simile on page 129? To what is Paris compared when he sees Menelaus? 2. How does Hector feel about Paris? 3. Why don't the Greek archers kill Hector? Why is Hector in no man's land? 4. How does Priam feel about Helen? Why does he invite her to sit with him atop the city wall? 5. Whom did the king point out first among the Greeks? Why? Whom doe she ask about next? What are Odysseus' best qualities, according to Helen and Antenor? 6. Which two soldiers does Helen look for? Why? Why can't she find them? 7. Which gods are called to witness the proposal of Agamemnon? 8. How do they decide who throws his spear first? What happens when Paris throws his spear? What happens when Menelaus throws his spear? 9. What does Menelaus do when his weapons are useless? Why doesn't he kill Paris? 10. How does Agamemnon not react to the outcome of the battle? ILIAD IV – The Truce Erupts in War p.145-163 1. Why does Homer go back to the gods at the opening of Book 4? 2. What does Zeus want in return for the destruction of Troy? 3. How does Athena renew battle? To what is Menelaus compared? Why doesn't Lycaon kill him? 4. How does Agamemnon react to the wounding of Menelaus? How does Menelaus react? 5. How does Agamemnon rally the Greeks? To which leaders does he speak directly? 6. To what are Ajax's soldiers compared? 7. What is Nestor's strongest attribute? What is his weakness? 8. Why does Agamemnon deride Diomedes? 9. To what are the Greek troops compared as they enter battle? To what are the Trojans compared? 10. Which gods drive on the troops? Why are these gods appropriate? 11. Which Greek registered the first kill? Whom does Ajax slay? Why does Odysseus go on a killing spree? 12. Why does Homer include so much graphic detail in his battle accounts? ILIAD V – Diomedes fights the Gods P164-194 1. Which goddess helps Diomedes? To what is Diomedes compared in the epic simile in Book V? 2. Describe the fighting tactics used by the Greek warriors. 3. Why does Homer include so much detail about each victim's family? 4. Why does Homer include so much detail about each man's death? 5. To what is Diomedes compared in the epic simile on p. 167? 6. Who wounds Diomedes? How is he wounded? 7. In what two ways does Athena help Diomedes? What advice does she give him? 8. To what is Diomedes compared in the epic simile on p. 168-9? 9. Which Trojan dares fight Diomedes? 10.Where did the horses of Aeneas come from? 11.How did Pandarus die? 12.How is Aeneas wounded? How does he survive? 13.What does Diomedes do to Aphrodite? Why don't the gods ever die? 14.Describe other instances when the gods were injured by mortals. 15.What happens when Diomedes attacks Aeneas again? 16.Which gods help the Trojans and how do they help? 17.What two similes are used to describe Aeneas and his two victims on p. 182? 18.Who fights Heracles’ son? How are these two men related? What is the result of their conflict? 19.Who accompanies Hector on his rampage? Who opposes this partnership? 20.Describe Athena's armor. 21.Why does Athena think Diomedes has quit the battle? What reason does he give her? How does Athena encourage him to fight again? 22.Who is the second god injured? How did it happen? 23.Why do Hera and Athena withdraw from battle? ILIAD VI – Hector Returns to Troy p.195-213 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How does the battle progress with the gods no longer fighting? What does Adrestus offer Menelaus? Why doesn't Menelaus spare his life? What advice does Nestor give the Greeks? What does Helenus advise Aeneas and Hector to do? Which two soldiers face off one-to-one? Why does Diomedes recount the story of Lycurgus? From which Greek city is Glaucus' family line? From which Greek hero is Glaucus descended? 8. How does Diomedes react to Glaucus' story? What does each man give to the other? 9. What does Hector's mother offer him? Why does he refuse? 10.What do the Trojan women ask of Athena? What do they offer in return? How does Athena respond? 11.Why does Helen want Hector to sit down? How does she feel about Paris? How does she feel about herself and her current situation? 12.How had Andromache's father and brothers died? What happened to her father's body after he died? 13.What future event scares Hector more than any other? 14.Why won't Hector back down from the fighting? 15.How does Andromache react when Hector leaves to re-enter the battle? 16.To what is Paris compared in the epic simile at the end of Book VI? ILIAD VII – Ajax Duels with Hector p. 214-230 1. Why does momentum swing towards the Trojans? 2. What does Apollo have planned for Hector? 3. What conditions does Hector set for battle? 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Which Greek is the first to answer his challenge? Why doesn't this man fight? Why doesn't Nestor fight? What kind of warrior was Nestor in his prime? How do they finally decide which Greek will fight Hector? To whom do the Greeks pray? What do they pray for? Who strikes first in the duel? How does the duel progress? Which weapons do they use? Why do they stop? 9. What does each man give the other after the duel? 10.What advice does Nestor offer that night? 11.What advice does Antenor offer back in Troy? 12.What proposal do the Trojans offer the Greeks? How do the Greeks respond? 13.Who objects to the Greeks' wall being built? Why? How does Zeus solve the problem? ILIAD VIII – The Tide of Battle Turns p. 231 – 250 1. What does Zeus want the gods to do? What will be the punishment for those who disobey him? 2. What does Zeus place on either side of his scales? What is the outcome? 3. Which Greek does not flee at first? What causes him to turn his chariot around and flee? 4. What does Hector plan to do as he rouses his troops? 5. Name Hector’s horses. 6. Why doesn’t Poseidon help the Greeks? 7. Why does Zeus consent to help the Greeks so they are not completely destroyed? 8. Who does Teucer, the Greek, try to shoot? Why can’t he seem to hit him? What finally happens? 9. Which two goddesses plan to enter battle? How does Zeus react when he sees this? With which goddess is he angrier? Why is he not so angry with the other one? 10.For how long will Zeus fight the Greeks? 11.Why do the Trojans stop fighting? 12.What does Hector want the Trojans to do? 13.Why do you think Homer included Book VIII in his poem? Give evidence to support your answer. ILIAD IX – The Embassy to Achilles p. 251 - 275 1. 2. 3. 4. What is wrong with the Greeks as Book IX opens? What does Agamemnon propose in his fit of madness? What does Diomedes propose? What does Nestor propose? To what does Agamemnon attribute his behavior toward Achilles in Book I? Why does he make this claim? 5. What does Agamemnon offer Achilles? Under what condition does he make this offer? 6. Which soldiers make up the embassy to Achilles? 7. How does Achilles treat the embassy as they arrive? 8. How does Odysseus try to appeal to Achilles? What tactics does he use? 9. Why won’t Achilles return to fighting? 10.Why does Achilles refuse the gifts? 11.Why won’t Achilles marry Agamemnon’s daughter? 12.How does Phoenix try to appeal to Achilles? 13.In the parallel story told by Phoenix, who/what is compared to a) Achilles b) Troy c) Greek embassy Patroclus 14.Under what condition does Achilles tell Ajax he would fight? 15.What does Diomedes finally propose? d) death of ILIAD X – Marauding Through the Night p. 276 - 295 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Why can’t Agamemnon sleep? How does he try to solve this problem? Who else can’t sleep? How does he try to solve this problem? What does Agamemnon want Nestor to do with him? How does Nestor respond? Why is Nestor upset with Menelaus? How does Agamemnon feel about his brother? Where do all the Greek leaders convene to discuss strategy? What does Nestor first ask of all the kings? Which soldiers volunteer to meet Nestor’s challenge? Which two end up being chosen? How are these two chosen? 8. Why, do you think, does Homer include such detail as the two soldiers gear up before leaving? 9. What have the Trojans been doing while the Greeks plotted? 10.Which Trojan goes out to scout the Greeks? How do the Greeks capture him? Why do they capture him? 11.What do the two Greeks learn from Dolon? 12.Why do Diomedes and Odysseus attack the Thracians? Which goddess helps them? 13.Which god helps the Thracians? 14.What do we learn about the Greeks, especially Odysseus and Diomedes, from Book 10? ILIAD XI – Agamemnon’s Day of Glory p. 296 - 324 1. Keep a running list of epithets for Agamemnon in Book XI. 2. Describe Strife. 3. After reading the description of Agamemnon arming for battle, what images are left in your mind? 4. How does the battle progress by late morning? 5. Why doesn’t Agamemnon spare the sons of Antimachus? How does he kill them? 6. How does Zeus intervene? How does this intervention differ from the other times Zeus steps in? 7. When should Hector re-enter battle? 8. Why do we have an invocation to the Muses? (lines 253-5) 9. To what is Agamemnon’s pain compared before he withdrew from battle? 10.Which two Greeks want to rally the troops against Hector? 11.What prevents Diomedes from killing Hector? 12.How does Diomedes get injured? How does he react at first? 13.What debate does Odysseus have with himself? What does he decide? 14.How is Odysseus injured? 15.Whom does Paris injure with an arrow? Why is this victim so important to the Greeks? 16.Who rallies the Trojans along with Hector? Whom does Hector avoid? 17.To what two things is Ajax compared as he retreats? 18.What does Achilles want from Patroclus? 19.Why does Nestor tell his story of the “olden days”? 20.What does Nestor want from Patroclus? 21.What does Patroclus learn about the war during his visit to the Greek camp? ILIAD XII – The Trojans Storm the Ramparts p. 325 - 340 1. Why won’t the Greek wall last long? When will it finally fall? 2. Which Trojan rallies Hector and the others? What is his plan? 3. Who commands each of the five Trojan battalions? 4. Who defends the first attack against the wall? 5. What omen do Hector and Polydamas see? How does Polydamas interpret the omen? 6. How does Hector respond to the omen? 7. To what is Sarpedon compared? How does she rally Glaucus to fight? 8. What is there so much repetition on page 336? 9. Why don’t Ajax and Teucer kill Sarpedon? 10.How is Hector able to storm the gate? ILIAD XIII – Battling for the Ships p. 341 – 368 1. Why does Zeus stop helping the Trojans? 2. To what two things are the Trojans compared on page 343? 3. Whom does Poseidon urge to battle first? Why? How does Poseidon help before moving on? 4. To what is Hector compared as he attacks the Greek ships? 5. As the battle begins, who kills first? Who falls like a tall ash at the hand of Great Ajax? Why can’t Ajax kill Hector with his spear? What happens to the corpse of Imbrius? 6. Why does Idomeneus have so many spears? 7. In lines 400-419, why do Zeus and Poseidon each urge on the troops? Why does Poseidon avoid supporting the Greeks openly? What metaphor is used to describe their conflict? 8. On page 353ff., why do you think Homer included so much detail about: a) all the names, b) background stories of the fallen heroes, and c) how each man dies? 9. Why does Aeneas help Deiphobus? What causes Deiphobus to stop fighting and return to Troy? 10.According to Homer, which wound is the worst to receive? Who dies in this way? 11.What happens when Menelaus and Helenus face off? 12.What was fated for Euchenor before he set sail for Troy? How was this prophecy fulfilled? 13.Why do the Trojans begin to lose the battle? Why does Hector decide to call the leaders together? 14.What drives Hector on into fierce battle against the Greek ships? ILIAD XIV – Hera Outflanks Zeus p. 369 – 386 1. What are Diomedes, Odysseus, and Agamemnon doing when Nestor meets with them? Briefly describe the arrangement of the Greek ships. 2. What does Agamemnon propose to do? How does Odysseus react to his plan? 3. What does Diomedes propose to do? How does Agamemnon react to his plan? 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Why do you think Homer brings Poseidon into the story on page 374? What is Hera’s plan for Zeus? What do we learn about Greek fashion as Hera gets dressed? (p. 375) Why does Aphrodite help Hera even though they favor different armies? What does Hera want from Sleep? How does her prayer to him fit the proper prayer format? 9. Why is Sleep reluctant to help? What convinces him finally to grant Hera’s prayer? 10.Why does Hera tell the same story about Ocean and Tethys to Zeus? 11.Why do you think Homer included the list of Zeus’ women on page 380? What does this speech tell us about Zeus? …About Hera? 12.What happens to Hector’s spear as battle resumes? How does Hector get injured? Why can’t the Greeks kill Hector now? 13.Why does Homer invoke the Muses? Which Greek is most successful in this battle? ILIAD XV – The Achaean Armies at Bay p. 387 – 411 1. Why does Zeus want Iris and Apollo? 2. What is fated for Patroclus? Sarpedon? Hector? Achilles? What will Zeus do after Hector dies? 3. Who does Hera incite back on Olympus? How? Why? 4. Why is Zeus’ message to Poseidon repeated twice? 5. How does Poseidon react to Zeus’ message? How does Iris convince him to comply? Under what condition will he withdraw from fighting? 6. To what two things is Hector compared after Apollo revives him? 7. Why does Patroclus return to Achilles? 8. Why can’t Teucer kill Hector with his bow? 9. Which heroes lead each army in works and deeds at this point? 10.At what point will Zeus decide Hector has won enough glory? 11.What imagery does Homer use to describe Hector attacking on pages 407-8? Cite specific words used. How many Greeks does Hector kill during his rampage? ILIAD XVI – Patroclus Fights and Dies p. 412 - 441 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To what is Patroclus compared in the opening epic simile? Why has Patroclus returned to Achilles? How does Achilles feel about Agamemnon at this point (i.e. Book 16)? What advice / warning does Achilles give to Patroclus? How does the battle progress? How does Achilles react when he hears news from the Greek ships? 6. To what are the Myrmidons compared as Achilles rouses them? 7. What epic device does Homer use on page 418? What is his purpose for using it here? 8. How does Achilles’ prayer to Zeus fit / not fit the proper prayer format? Be specific. What does he pray for? 9. How does Homer use language to enact the battle which starts on page 422? To what are the Greek leaders compared? 10.Which Trojan dares stand against Patroclus? Who is his father? Why can this man not be saved? 11.What happened to Sarpedon’s first two javelin throws? What happened to Patroclus’ first throw? 12.What does Sarpedon ask of Glaucus? What does Glaucus ask of Apollo? Do these men get their wishes fulfilled? Explain. 13.Why do the Trojans flee? Why can’t Patroclus successfully storm the Trojan ramparts? 14.To what are the armies compared in the simile on page 437? 15.How does Patroclus die? Be specific. 16.What parting word does Patroclus tauntingly give Hector? 17.Why doesn’t Hector kill Automedon? ILIAD XVII – Menelaus’ Finest Hour p. 442 – 466 1. To what is Menelaus compared after he kills Euphorbus? 2. Why does Hector go after Menelaus? How does Menelaus react when he sees Hector’s advance? What does Menelaus finally decide to do? 3. Who gets Patroclus’ armor? Why does this man get it? How does he get it? 4. Briefly summarize Glaucus’ speech starting on page 447. What prompted him to give this speech? 5. How does the battle progress over the body of Patroclus? 6. What prompts Aeneas to rouse the Trojans? 7. How long does the battle continue? Why is his body so important to each army? 8. What two things does Zeus proclaim will occur? 9. To whom does Athena appear? In what form? Why does she help this man? 10.How does Zeus interfere twice in the fighting? 11.Why does Menelaus leave the front line? 12.What finally happens to the body of Patroclus? 13.Why do you think this book has been subtitled “Menelaus’ Finest Hour”? Is this title appropriate? Why or why not? ILIAD XVIII – The Shield of Achilles p. 467 - 487 In lieu of specific questions for Books 18, you will write a brief (2- 5 pages), typed paper addressing the following ideas: • • • role of mortals as portrayed through Thetis’ conversations with Achilles and Hephaestus depiction on Achilles’ shield with the symbolism / relevance / significance involved the use of prophecy & immortal interference in Iliad 18 and the impact/reaction of the characters involved ILIAD XIX – The Champions Arm for Battle p. 488 - 502 In lieu of specific questions for Books 18, you will write a brief (2- 5 pages), typed paper addressing the following ideas: • • • evolution of Achilles (Book 1 19) as furor arete (use specific textual reference when applicable) contrast of Greek heroes especially Achilles vs. Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Odysseus impact and symbolism of the hero arming for battle (p. 500ff.) ILIAD XX – Olympian Gods in Armor p. 503 - 519 1. Why do all the immortals gather on Mt. Olympus? Which is the only one not to come? Why? 2. Why does Zeus command the gods to join battle? 3. Which gods join the Greeks? Which gods join the Trojans? 4. Why doesn’t Aeneas want to fight Achilles? 5. How does Apollo convince Aeneas to fight Achilles? 6. Why does Aeneas reveal his ancestry? 7. To what two types of people does Aeneas compare himself and Achilles? 8. What happens to each hero’s spear after he throws it? 9. What does Poseidon do for Aeneas? Why? 10.Briefly describe Achilles’ rampage after he realizes Aeneas is gone. 11.Why don’t Achilles and Hector fight? 12.Why, do you think, does Homer choose to include so much detail as Achilles rages? ILIAD XXI – Achilles Fights the River p. 520 - 540 1. To what two things are the soldiers in the river compared? 2. What tactics does Lycaon use to persuade mercy from Achilles? Is he successful? Explain. 3. How is Achilles able to kill Asteropaeus? 4. Why does Homer choose to leave out the killing details on page 527? What stops Achilles’ rampage? 5. What prophecy does Achilles reveal about himself on page 529? What prophecy does Poseidon reveal to Achilles? 6. How is Achilles saved from Xanthus? 7. Which two immortals are beaten by Athena? 8. For each of the following list a) the god each challenges, b) the response of each challenged, c) the outcome of the battle. I. Poseidon II. Hera III. Hermes 9. Who dares stand up to Achilles? To what is this man compared? Why doesn’t Achilles kill this man? ILIAD XXII – The Death of Hector p. 540 - 558 1. What fate does Priam fear for himself? 2. What options does Hector ponder? What would be the result of each? What does he finally decide? 3. To what four things is Achilles compared as he pursues Hector? 4. Why won’t Zeus protect and save Hector? 5. How do Zeus, Athena, and Apollo interact with Achilles and Hector during their chase? 6. How does Athena appear to Hector? Why does she do this? 7. What does Hector ask of Achilles? How does Achilles respond? (before they begin battle) 8. As they clash, to what is each fighter compared? 9. Where is Hector struck by Achilles’ spear? 10.How do the other Greeks react to Hector’s dead body? 11.Why does Achilles not want to attack the city immediately after killing Hector? 12.Briefly describe how each of the following reacts to news of Hector’s death: a) Achilles b) Hecuba c) Priam d) Andromache ILIAD XXIII – Funeral Games for Patroclus p. 559 – 587 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Why won’t Achilles wash the blood off of himself? Why does Patroclus’ ghost appear to Achilles? What all does he ask of Achilles? What final gift does Achilles give Patroclus? What does he then ask of Agamemnon? Briefly describe Patroclus’ pyre. Which element is most surprising to you? Why? List the top five prizes for the chariot race. Briefly describe the chariot course as explained by Nestor. Do they turn clockwise or counter-clockwise? How do they decide who gets the inside position? 7. How does Apollo hinder Diomedes? How does Athena help him? 8. What are the results of the chariot race? What prizes does each man receive? 9. What are the prizes for the boxing match? Who steps up first? Who challenges him? What is the result of the match? 10.What are the wrestling prizes? Who wrestles? What are the results? 11.What are the prizes for the footrace? Why does Odysseus win? 12.What is the next event? What is at stake? Who competes? What is the final result? 13.What is the next event? What is the winner’s prize? Who wins? 14.What’s at stake in the archery contest? What is their objective? What is the result? 15.What is the final event? What is the result of this event? 16.Choose one event from the funeral games and write a newspaper-style article for the sports section. Include details and box scores as necessary. You may add information, but cannot change the action as described in the book. ILIAD XXIV – Achilles and Priam p. 588 - 614 1. How does Apollo continue to help Hector? 2. According to Apollo, why should Achilles be punished? According to Hera, why should Achilles be praised? According to Zeus, why should Hector be honored? 3. What does Zeus finally decide and decree to Thetis? 4. How do each of the following react to the messages from the gods: a) Achilles b) Priam c) Hecuba 5. How does Priam feel about the sons he lost? How does he feel about the ones still living? 6. How does Priam’s prayer to Zeus fit the proper prayer format? Which part(s) did he leave out? How does Zeus respond? 7. How does Hermes appear to Priam? What story does he tell Priam? When does he reveal his identity? 8. How does Priam plead to Achilles? How does Achilles react? 9. Why won’t Achilles let Priam see the body? 10.What does Achilles promise Priam before they sleep? 11.Why does Priam leave Achilles’ camp so hastily? 12.Who first sees Hector return? What does Andromache prophesize for Astyanax? Which two women join Andromache in a chorus of wailing? 13.Briefly describe the Trojan burial customs.