Download Tides - Feiro Marine Life Center

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Ecology wikipedia , lookup

Renewable resource wikipedia , lookup

History of wildlife tracking technology wikipedia , lookup

Marine conservation wikipedia , lookup

Lake ecosystem wikipedia , lookup

Habitat wikipedia , lookup

Natural environment wikipedia , lookup

Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Week 1
Page 12
Tidepool Explorations
Syllabus Fall 2013
Classes Begin October 8, 6-8pm every Tuesday
Call 417-6254 or email to register or for more
information. Program cost $50.00 – scholarships available
Join the staff and volunteers at Feiro Marine Life Center and learn about the incredible marine
life in the waters of the Pacific Northwest. This eight week program includes opportunities for
hands-on learning experiences including participating in plankton tows and beach seines and a
field trip to explore a local tide pool. You’ll learn, phylum by phylum, the marine animals that
inhabit the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Classes meet Tuesday evenings, beginning October 8, from 68pm. The classes will be held at the marine life center on the City Pier in Port Angeles. This
training meets the requirements for participants to volunteer at the center.
Volunteer opportunities may include working with visitors to the center as a naturalist, helping
with school groups, sharing your computer skills with the office staff, helping with exhibits and
displays, or cleaning and caring for the exhibits. Be a part of the Feiro community and explore,
discover and learn.
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Tuesday, October 8, 2013
Welcome/introductions/syllabus review
Floor time
Tides/tidepools/basic biology/ecology
Tuesday, October15, 2013
Intro to plankton
Plankton seine and lab
Macroalgae (kelp and sea grass)
Tuesday, October 22, 2013
Sponge structure/lab
Tuesday, October 29, 2013
Dichotomous Key exercise
Tuesday, November 5, 2013
Visit Olympic Coast Discovery Center
Tuesday, November 12, 2013
Week 1
Page 1
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Week 7
Volunteer expectations – for potential volunteers
Tuesday, November 19, 2013
Update on Elwha River Restoration with Olympic National Park
Wrap-up and overview
Week 8
TBD - Salt Creek Recreation Area – Tongue Point tide pools
Page | 2
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Feiro Marine Life Center Mission Statement
The mission of the Feiro Marine Life Center is to foster the understanding of, and a commitment
to, the health of the marine environment and related watersheds of the Olympic Peninsula, and
their importance to its communities.
This is done by:
 Providing students from pre-school through college with meaningful learning experiences
related to their place in a healthy marine environment.
 Providing community members with the information we need to live sustainably with our
marine resources.
 Providing opportunists for visitors to increase their appreciation and care for the Olympic
Peninsula’s marine resources.
Feiro Marine Life Center Vision
The Feiro Marine Life Center is the go-to place on the north Olympic Peninsula for marine
education. We help people see beneath the surface and become stewards of our shared marine
environment. (2008)
Feiro Marine Life Center Facility
Flow through system Water is pumped directly from the harbor into storage tanks that
distribute water to the individual exhibits
System handles about 40 GPM with a turnover time of approximately 1 ½ hours.
Water is not filtered
o Good
 Temperature
 Water chemistry
 Food for the filter feeders
 Potential new specimen’s for exhibit
o Bad
 Silt from harbor during heavy storms
 Fouling of the water delivery system
o Ugly
 Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Events
Only species native to the Pacific Northwest are exhibited. If you see it alive in the Feiro it lives
in the waters around here, usually within ten miles. We occasionally do get critters from the
deep, usually provided by local commercial fishermen who fish the waters off the west coast of
the Peninsula.
Feiro has a Scientific Collection Permit issued by the Washington Department of Fish and
Wildlife (WDFW).
Page | 3
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Basic Biology
Taxonomy – The science of hierarchal classification of organisms.
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primate
Family Hominidae
Genus Homo
Species sapiens
Binomial classification: The use of genus species to specifically define a unique
organism. Example: H. sapiens
Our focus will be on 3 kingdoms:
Animalia – Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Prostista – Macroalgae (Kelp)
Plantae – Eel grass
Page | 4
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Marine Biology
An Ecological Approach
Study of interrelationships existing between organisms and their environment –
inorganic as well as organic
A more inclusive broad view that looks at the whole system
Why are we taking an “ecological approach”??
To demonstrate the interdependence of all facets of nature
Species adaptation to niches in the eco-system
Ecosystem Levels
Trophic Levels
Definition: Each of the steps in a food chain
Autotroph: An organism that manufactures its own organic matter by using energy
from the sun or other sources
Heterotroph: An organism that obtains energy from organic matter
Page | 5
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Components Required
Ecosystem Trophic
Energy – Sunshine
Nutrients – Phosphates/Nitrates
Water -- Ocean
What is the major source of the energy that drives the eco-system?
How does that energy enter the eco-system?
What is the major source of the nutrients needed for the trophic structure?
How do the nutrients enter the system?
Bio-geo-chemical cycles
Nitrogen cycle
Phosphate cycle
Water cycle
Marine derived nutrients
Limiting Factor Concept
Limiting Resource: An essential factor whose short supply limits the growth of a
Page | 6
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Simplistic View of Trophic Levels
Level 1
Conversion Ratios
Transfer of mass from level to level ranges from 5 to 20%
Relationship of mass transfer from level to level is essentially logarithmic
It takes approximately 10 pounds of a level one organism to produce 1 pound of
a level two organism
Marine Biomass
Phytoplankton comprises the major biomass in the marine environment
Copepods comprise the major biomass of zooplankton in the marine environment
Page | 7
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
The place that is natural for the life and growth of an organism. – Random House
The physical, chemical, and biological features of the environment where an
organism lives. – Fisheries Techniques Text
The place where an organism lives for a specific phase of its life cycle. – Bob
What does an organism’s habitat(s) provide for it?
Place and opportunity for reproduction
Oxygen for respiration
Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis in the case of plants
Aquatic habitat areas:
Coastal area
Open ocean
Different types of marine habitat
Demersal – On or near the bottom
Benthic – in the bottom
Pelagic – In the water column
o Planktonic
o Nectonic
Compare Habitats
Jellyfish vs. sea anemones
Flatfish vs. rockfish
Oysters vs. clams
Kelp vs. eelgrass
Barnacles vs. crabs
Ochre sea stars vs. sunflower stars
Page | 8
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Peanut worm vs. tubeworm
Surf perch vs. gunnels
Organisms with multiple habitats (usually a function of life cycle)
Sea Anemones
Clams, oysters, scallops
Special adaptations to habitat environments
Chitons and limpets – tight attachment to rocks at edge of shell to resist being
lifted and moved by wave action in intertidal zone.
Page | 9
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Page | 10
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Tide Pool- Depression in the rocks or sand that holds seawater when the tide goes out.
Tide- Natural raising and lowering of the sea level at a given site caused by the Sun and
Moon gravitational pull on the Earth.
Modified diurnal tide cycle
24 hours 50 minutes
Data available at
Port Angeles Tides for October 8, 2013
6:20 am
Tide Pool Points to Ponder
What unique features must organisms posses to survive?
Why are tides important to the ecosystem?
What is a “spring tide”?
What is a “neap tide”?
Page | 11
Tide Pool Explorations
Week 1
Week 1
Fall 2013
Page 12
Page 1
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
The word "tides" is a generic term used to define the alternating rise and fall in sea level
with respect to the land, produced by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the
sun. To a much smaller extent, tides also occur in large lakes, the atmosphere, and
within the solid crust of the earth, acted upon by these same gravitational forces of the
moon and sun. Additional nonastronomical factors such as configuration of the coastline,
local depth of the water, ocean-floor topography, and other hydrographic and
meteorological influences may play an important role in altering the range, interval
between high and low water, and times of arrival of the tides.
The most familiar evidence of the tides along our seashores is the observed recurrence of
high and low water - usually, but not always, twice daily. The term tide correctly refers
only to such a relatively short-period, astronomically induced vertical change in the
height of the sea surface (exclusive of wind-actuated waves and swell); the expression
tidal current relates to accompanying periodic horizontal movement of the ocean water,
both near the coast and offshore (but as distinct from the continuous, stream-flow type
of ocean current).
Knowledge of the times, heights, and extent of inflow and outflow of tidal waters is of
importance in a wide range of practical applications such as the following: Navigation
through intracoastal waterways, and within estuaries, bays, and harbors; work on harbor
engineering projects, such as the construction of bridges, docks, breakwaters, and deepwater channels; the establishment of standard chart datums for hydrography and for
demarcation of a base line or "legal coastline" for fixing offshore territorial limits both on
the sea surface and on the submerged lands of the Continental Shelf; provision of
information necessary for underwater demolition activities and other military engineering
uses; and the furnishing of data indispensable to fishing, boating, surfing, and a
considerable variety of related water sport activities.
The Astronomical Tide-Producing Forces: General Considerations
At the surface of the earth, the earth's force of gravitational attraction acts in a direction
inward toward its center of mass, and thus holds the ocean water confined to this
surface. However, the gravitational forces of the moon and sun also act externally upon
the earth's ocean waters. These external forces are exerted as tide-producing, or socalled "tractive" forces. Their effects are superimposed upon the earth's gravitational
force and act to draw the ocean waters to positions on the earth's surface directly
beneath these respective celestial bodies (i.e., towards the "sublunar" and "subsolar"
High tides are produced in the ocean waters by the "heaping" action resulting from the
horizontal flow of water toward two regions of the earth representing positions of
maximum attraction of combined lunar and solar gravitational forces. Low tides are
created by a compensating maximum withdrawal of water from regions around the earth
midway between these two humps. The alternation of high and low tides is caused by the
daily (or diurnal) rotation of the earth with respect to these two tidal humps and two
tidal depressions.
Page | 13
Tide Pool Explorations
Fall 2013
Week 1- Vocabulary
Ecology- the relationships between a group of living things and their environment
Tide- natural raising/lowering of sea level at a given geographic site- caused by gravitational pull of
Tide pool- depression in sea floor that holds water after tide goes out (down)
Spring tide- a tide of greater-than-average range around the times of new moon and full moon
Neap tide- a tide of minimum range occurring at the first and the third quarters of the moon
Salinity- relative proportion of salt in a solution
Estuary- a water passage where the tide meets a river current
Upwelling- the process of upward movement to the ocean surface of deeper cold usually nutrient-rich
waters especially along some shores due to the offshore movement of surface waters
Trophic levels- one of the hierarchical strata of a food web characterized by organisms which are the
same number of steps removed from the primary producers
Autotroph- organisms that synthesis their own carbon compounds for metabolic synthesis
Heterotroph- organisms that obtain carbon compounds by ingesting plant or animal matter for metabolic
Photosynthesis- formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in
the chlorophyll-containing cells (as of green plants) exposed to light
Food chain- an arrangement of the organisms of an ecological community according to the order of
predation in which each uses the next usually lower member as a food source
Taxonomy- orderly classification of plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
Binomial classification- a system in which each species of animal or plant receives a name of two terms
of which the first identifies the genus to which it belongs and the second the species itself
Page | 14