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```SECTION
FLUIDS CAN EXERT A FORCE ON OBJECTS.
BIG IDEA Newton’s
KEY CONCEPT
laws apply to all forces.
Fluids can exert a force on objects.
Vocabulary
buoyant force the upward force on objects in a ﬂuid
Bernoulli’s principle states that the faster a ﬂuid moves, the less pressure it exerts
on surfaces or openings it ﬂows over
Pascal’s principle states that when an outside pressure is applied at any point to
a ﬂuid in a container, that pressure is transmitted throughout the ﬂuid with equal
strength.
Review
1.
You can increase the pressure exerted on an object by increasing the
____________ or decreasing the ____________.
Take Notes
Fluids can exert an upward force on objects.
2.
Why does a boat ﬂoat in water?
A. Buoyancy
3.
Fill in the four square diagram for buoyant force.
Definition:
Examples:
Objects seem
BUOYANT
FORCE
Characteristics:
Direction of force is
in water.
Non-examples:
.
B. Density and Buoyancy
4.
A piece of ironwood sinks in water. How does the density of ironwood
compare to the density of water?
MOTION AND FORCES, CHAPTER 12, READING STUDY GUIDE A 183
CHAPTER 12
Gravity, Friction, and Pressure
I.
5.
In the diagram on the right, which beaker contains a
buoyant force that is equal to the force of the weight?
II. The motion of a ﬂuid affects its pressure.
A. Bernoulli’s Principle
6.
Complete the main idea chart about Bernoulli’s principle.
The motion of a fluid
The faster a fluid moves,
B. Applying Bernoulli’s Principle
The air above the wings of an airplane in ﬂight has a lower
pressure than the air under the wings. Label the area where
the air is moving the fastest.
III. Forces can be transmitted through ﬂuids.
A. Pascal’s Principle
8.
The system below is ﬁlled with ﬂuid. Piston A is
pushed down with a force of 10 N. Does piston B
exert an upward force that is more than, less than,
or the same amount as the force on Piston A?
B
A
B. Hydraulics
9.
Name two types of machines that use hydraulics to do work.
184 MOTION AND FORCES, CHAPTER 12, READING STUDY GUIDE A