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Transcript
SYLLABUS
COURSE TITLE
FACULTY/INSTITUTE
SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS – SELECTED ISSUES
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL
SCIENCES / DEPARTMENT OF THEORETICAL
PHYSICS
COURSE CODE
DEGREE PROGRAMME
FIELD OF STUDY
DEGREE LEVEL
FORMA
MODE
ENGINEERING PHYSICS
BACHELOR
STATIONARY
COURSE FORMAT
YEAR AND SEMESTER
NAME OF THE TEACHER
STUDIÓW/STUDY
2015/2016 WINTER SEMESTER
MALGORZATA SZNAJDER
COURSE OBJECTIVES
THE AIM OF THE LECTURE IS TO PRESENT A BASIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT BASIC PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS STARTING FROM FOUNDATIONS OF
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, BONDING IN CRYSTALS, X-RAY DIFFRACTION, FOUNDATIONS OF
QUANTUM STATISTICS OF CHARGE CARRIERS AND THEORY OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
WHICH ARE THE BACGROUND FOR SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS AND
MICROELECTRONICS. ADDITIONALY, AN UDERGRADUATE STUDENT GAINS KNOWLEDGE ON
BASIC PROPERTIES OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON GAS AND LOW-DIMENSIONAL
STRUCTURES BEING THE BASIS FOR NANOELECTRONICS. BASED ON THE DISCUSSED TOPICS,
A STUDENT SHOULD DEVELOP ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND INTUITIVELY THE DISCUSSED
PHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND TO USE A CORRECT PHYSICAL TERMINOLOGY.
PREREQUISITES
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS
(KINEMATICS, ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, STRUCTURE OF
ATOMS), MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS (DIFFERENTATIONS,
INTEGRATIONS), AND QUANTUM MECHANICS (TIME
INDEPENDENT SCHRODINGER’S EQUATION).
KNOWLEDGE:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
STUDENT HAS KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS,
ELECTRONICS AND INFORMATION THEORY NECESSARY TO
UNDERSTAND SOME BASIC TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES,
KNOWS AND UNDERSTANDS PRODUCTION PROCESSES OF
SEMICONDUCTOR ELEMENTS, OPTOELECTRONIC ELEMENTS
AND RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES – FT_W08
SKILLS:
CAN DESIGN SIMPLE CIRCIUTS AND OPTOELECTRONIC
SYSTEMS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS, CAN PERFORM
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF UNDERTAKEN ENGINEERING
ACTIVITIES – FT_U07
FINAL COURSE OUTPUT - SOCIAL COMPETENCES
IS AWARE OF SOCIAL ROLE OF A GRADUATE STUDENT FROM
UNIVERSITY, UNDERSTANDS A NECESSITY TO TRANSFER THE
KNOWLEDGE
CONCERNING
LASER
PHYSICS,
OPTOELECTRONICS, THEORETICAL PHYSICS, RENEWABLE
ENERGY RESOURCES AND THEIR ENGINEERING ASPECTS TO
THE SOCIETY, TRIES TO GIVE INFORMATION IN A
COMUNICABLE ABLE WAY, UNDERSTANDS THE NECESSITY TO
PROMULGATE THE ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE– FT_K03
COURSE ORGANISATION –LEARNING FORMAT AND NUMBER OF HOURS
45 HOURS OF LECTCURES AND 45 HOURS OF CLASS EXERCISES
COURSE DESCRIPTION
1. INTRODUCTION. SOLIDS: CRYSTALS, AMORPHOUS MATERIALS,
POLYCRYSTALS, LIQUID CRYSTALS, GLASSES. PHASE DIAGRAM OF CRYSTAL
SOLIDS. APPLICATION OF LIQUID CRYSTALS – DISPLAYS.
2. BASIC CRYSTALLOGRAPHY: STRUCTURE AND SYMMETRY OF CRYSTALS
PRIMITIVE AND COMPLEX LATTICES, THE BRAVAIS LATTICE, TRANSLATION
SYMMETRY, POINT SYMMETRY, CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC SYSTEMS, SIMPLE
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES (FCC, BCC, SODIUM CHLORIDE, DIAMOND, ZINCBLENDE, HCP, WURTZITE STRUCTURE), PACKING, MILLER INDICES, THE
CZOCHRALSKI METHOD OF CRYSTAL GROWTH.
3. CHEMICAL BONDING IN SOLIDS: IONIC, COVALENT, METALIC, HYDROGEN,
AND VAN DER WAALS BONDING.
4. WAVE DIFFRACTION AND THE RECIPROCAL LATTICE: X-RAY DIFFRACTION IN
PERIODIC STRUCTURES, BRAGG LAW, RECIPROCAL LATTICE VECTORS,
RECIPROCAL SPACE. DIFFRACTION CONDITIONS, LAUE EQUATIONS. THE
STRUCTURE FACTOR, ATOMIC FORM FACTOR. EVALD’S CONSTRUCTION.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO STUDY SCATTERING: DEBYE-SCHERRER
METHOD, ROTATING CRYSTAL METHOD. THEOREM ON THE RECIPRCAL
LATTICE FOR THE FCC AND BCC LATTICE, BRILLOUIN ZONE, EQUAITON
DESCRIBING THE BRILLOUIN ZONE PLANE. REDUCED WAVE VECTOR.
5. DYNAMICS OF CRYSTAL LATTICE:
VIBRATIONS OF ONE DIMENSIONAL CRYSTAL LATTICE WITH MONO- AND
DIATOMIC BASIS. DISPERSION RELATIONS: ACOUSTIC AND OPTICAL
BRANCHES. GROUP VELOCITY, PHASE VELOCITY, LONG WAVELENGTH LIMIT.
NORMAL VIBRATION MODES IN ONE DIMENSIONAL LATTICE, QUANTISATION,
PHONOS.
6. QUANTUM MECHANICAL DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRON STATES IN
CRYSTALS: ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION, PERIODIC CRYSTAL POTENTIAL, ONEELECTRON SCHRODINGER EQUATION WITH PERIODIC POTENTIAL.
7. ELECTRON STATES IN A PERFECT CRYSTAL: ELECTRON MOTION IN A
PERIODIC POTENTIAL FIELD. BLOCH THEOREM. K VECTOR AS A QUANTUM
NUMBER. BORN-VON-KARMAN BOUNDARY CONDITIONS, EMPTY LATTICE
APPROXIMATION, NEARLY-FREE ELECTRON APPROXIMATION. FIRST BRILLOUIN
ZONE, ENERGY BAND GAPS. DIVISION OF SOLIDS: METALS, SEMIMETALS,
DIELECTRICS, SEMICONDUCTORS. NUMBER OF QUANTUM STATES IN A BAND.
THE E(K) DEPENDENCE OF AN ELECTRON NEAR A ZONE BOUNDARY. ELECTRON
MOTION UNDER INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL ELECTRIC FIELD, EFFECTIVE MASS.
8. FREE ELECTRON FERMI GAS: FERMI GAS OF ELECTRONS AT T=0K. FERMI
ENERGY. FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION AT T=0K AND T>0K. DENSITY
OF STATES FUNCTION IN 1D, 2D, AND 3D SYSTEMS. CONCENTRATION,
DEGENERATE ELECTRON GAS. FERMI SURFACE. PROPERTIES OF 2D ELECTRON
GAS. CARBON NANOTUBES, NANOWIRES, QUANTUM DOTS AS AN EXAMPLE
OF
LOW-DIMENSIONAL
STRUCTURES.
OPTICAL
PROPERTIES
OF
SEMICONDUCTOR MICROSTRUCTURES: ENERGY LEVELS IN QUANTUM WELL,
OPTICAL TRANSITIONS, EXCITONS.
9. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS: EQUATION OF MOTION OF
AN ELECTRON IN A BAND. HOLES. PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE
EFFECTIVE MASS. EFFECTIVE MASSES IN SEMICONDUCTORS. THE BAND
STRUCTURES OF BASIC SEMICONDUCTORS. ELECTRON MOTION IN MAGNETIC
FIELD,
CYCLOTRON
RESONANCE,
CYCLOTRON
EFFECTIVE
MASS.
CONCENTRATION
OF
FREE
CHARGE
CARRIERS
IN
INTRINSIC
SEMICONDUCTORS. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CONCENTRATION OF
CHARGE CARRIERS AND ON THE FERMI LEVEL. DOPANTS IN
SEMICONDUCTORS, DONOR AND ACCEPTOR LEVELS. INFLUENCE OF DOPANTS
ON THE ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SEMICONDUCTOR. DEFECTS. P-N
JUNCTION AND ITS APPLICATION IN SEMICONDUCTORS. THE PHOTOVOLTAIC
EFFECT, PHOTO-ELECTROMOTORIC FORCE. SILICON-BASED SOLAR CELLS.
HETEROSTRUCTURES AND SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS, LIGHT-EMITTING
DIODES, ORGANIC LED.
9. TRANSPORT PHENOMENA AND SEMICONDUCTORS: BOLTZMANN
TRANSPORT EQUATION, RELAXATION TIME APPROXIMATION. ELECTRIC
CONDUCTIVITY AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON TEMPERATURE. ELECTRIC
CONDUCTIVITY OF NONDEGENERATE SEMICONDUCTORS WITH SIMPLE BAND
STRUCTURE. MECHANISMS OF SCATTERING OF CHARGE CARRIERS AND THEIR
INFLUENCE ON THE RELAXATION TIME. THE HALL EFFECT IN
SEMICONDUCTORS.
HALL
CONSTANT,
MAGNETORESISTANCE.
THERMOELECTRIC EFFECT, THE PELTIER EFFECT.
METHODS OF INSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS
GRADING SYSTEM
TOTAL STUDENT WORKLOAD
NEEDED TO ACHIEVE EXPECTED
LEARNING OUTCOMES EXPRESSED
IN TIME AND ECTS CREDIT POINTS
LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION
INTERNSHIP
MATERIALS
LECTURE, CLASS EXERCISES
CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENTS
TUTORIAL WORK AND ATTENDANCE (5%)
EXAM (95%)
Lectures
45 hr
Class exercises
45 hr
Preparation for classes
45 hr
Tutorials
6 hr
Preparation for exam
60 hr
Exam
4 hr
Total number of hours
205 hr
ECTS
8
ENGLISH
PRIMARY OR REQUIRED BOOKS/READINGS:
CH.KITTEL, INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE PHYSICS,
JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD, 2005
H. IBACH, H. LUTH, SOLID-STATE PHYSICS, SPRINGER
2003
O. MADELUNG INTRODUCTION TO SOLID-STATE
THEORY, SPRINGER, 1996
SUPPLEMENTAL OR OPTIONAL BOOKS/READINGS:
MICHAEL C. PETTY “MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS FROM
PRINCIPLES TO PRACTICE”, JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD,
2008
O.
MADELUNG,
“SEMICONDUCTORS:
DATA
HANDBOOK”, 3RD ED. EDITED BY O. MADELUNG,
SPRINGER, BERLIN 2004