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Name ______________________________________ Date ________________ Period _____ PreAP Africa Study Guide Fall 2016 TEST DATE ___________________________________ 1. Fill in the blanks: a. When tectonic plates pull apart, or separate, a ________________________ is formed. b. Dry winds across the Sahara are called ________________________. c. An __________________ is where river freshwater and saltwater meet. d. The ____________________ is a man-made structure that made Egypt a regional power. e. The Sahara is an example of _______________________ because the desert is spreading due to drought and improper land use. 2. Define the following terms: a. Colonialism _____________________________________________________________ b. Delta __________________________________________________________________ c. Escarpment _____________________________________________________________ d. Geometric boundaries _____________________________________________________ e. Mesopotamia ____________________________________________________________ 3. Identify and explain the significance of the following: a. Axum __________________________________________________________________________ b. Kingdom of Ghana _______________________________________________________________ c. Nubia/Kush_______________________________________________________________________ d. Mali Empire _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Explain the significance of the following people: a. Cleopatra _______________________________________________________________________ b. Hammurabi _____________________________________________________________________ c. Mansa Musa _____________________________________________________________________ d. Sundiata Kieta ___________________________________________________________________ e. Nelson Mandela __________________________________________________________________ Answer the following questions using your book, notes, and worksheets. 5. In 1994, what significant event happened in South Africa? 6. Describe the relative location of the Sahara. 7. Explain why the Nile River helped early civilizations develop. 8. Where did the culture hearth of Mesopotamia begin? 9. How has a large number of ethnic groups affected Equatorial Africa? 10. What is cuneiform? 11. Explain how Sonni Ali strengthened the Songhai Empire. 12. What natural resource helped Ghana become a powerful kingdom? 13. What resource did Nubia/Kush have large amounts of? 14. Explain the role camels played in trade. 15. What physical features are located on and between the Great Rift Valley? 16. What is a cereal? Where are they primarily grown? 17. What caused Europeans to increase the slave trade in Africa before colonization? 18. Why is the Niger River important? The Congo? 19. How did Arabs influence North Africa? 20. What are the two most important resources to the Middle East? Why? Answer the following in 4-6 complete sentences. BE SPECIFIC. 17. How has the physical geography of Africa impacted the people who live there? 18. Explain the role European colonization has played on the continent of Africa. Be sure to include reasons for colonization, who colonized, and lasting effects.