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Chapter 1 Human Body Orientation
1. Define Anatomical Position;
2. Directional Terms
A. Anterior (Ventral) versus Posterior (Dorsal)
B. Inferior versus Superior
C. Lateral versus Medial
D. Deep versus Superficial
3. Major Body Cavities
A. Anterior (Ventral) Body Cavity
1. Thoracic Cavity
2. Abdominal Pelvic Cavity
1
B. Dorsal (Posterior) Body Cavity
1. Cranial Cavity
2. Spinal Cavity
4. Organs within the Major Body Cavities
A. Thoracic Cavity
1. Right Pleural Cavity contains the Right Lung
2. Left Pleural Cavity contains the Left Lung
3. Mediastinum; region between pleural cavities
4. Pericardial cavity contains the heart
5. Thoracic Aorta
6. Superior vena cava
7. Trachea
A. Right primary bronchus
B. Left primary bronchus
2
8. Esophagus
9. Diaphragm
B.Abdominalpelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity
1. Stomach
2. Spleen
3. Liver
4. Gallbladder
5. Pancreas
6. Right kidney
7. Left kidney
8. Right ureter
9. Left ureter
10. Right adrenal gland
11. Left adrenal gland
12. Abdominal aorta
13. Inferior vena cava
3
14. Small Intestines
a. duodenum
b. jejunum
c. ileum
15. Large intestine (colon)
a. cecum
b. ascending colon
c. appendix
d. transverse colon
e. descending colon
f. sigmoid colon
16. Urinary bladder
..
4
Chapter 3 Cells and Tissues
1. Nuclear envelope
a. Nucleolus
b. Chromatin
2. Cytoplasm
3. Organelles
a. Mitochondria
b. Golgi body (Golgi apparatus)
c. Golgi vesicles
d. Lysosome
e. Fat vacuole
f. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
g. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
h. Ribosomes
i. Centrioles
5
j. Cytosol
4. Plasma Membrane
Mitosis
1Define Mitosis
2Define Cell Cycle
3Define Interphase
4Phases of Mitosis
a. Prophase
b. Metaphase
c. Anaphase
d. Telophase
5Cytokinesis
6
Tissues
1. Define the term tissue
2. Name the four types of tissues
3. Epithelial Tissues
a. Simple squamous epithelia
b. Simple cuboidal epithelia
c. Simple columnar epithelia
d. Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelia
e. Stratified squamous epithelia
f. Transitional epithelia
4. Connective Tissues
a. Bone
b. Hyaline cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Dense fibrous
7
e. Areolar
f. Adipose
g. Reticular
h. Blood
5. Muscle Tissues
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
6. Nervous tissue
8
Chapter 4 Skin
1. Name the two components of the skin.
2. Epidermis of 5 strata
a. Stratum corneum
b. Stratum lucidum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum spinosum
e. Stratum basele (stratum germinativum)
3. Dermis
a. Papillary dermis
1. Dermal papillae
2. Meissner’s corpuscles
b. Reticular dermis
i. Hair structures
1. Hair shaft
2. Hair root
3. Hair bulb
4. Hair follicle
9
4. Arrector pili muscle
5. Sebaceous glands (oil glands)
6. Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands)
a. Eccrine sweat gland
b. Apocrine sweat gland
7. Pacinian corpuscle
8. Subcutaneous layer
10
Chapter 5 Skeletal System
Microscopic Structure of Bone
1. Periosteum
a. Perforating fibers
2. Osteon (Haversian system)
a. Lamellae
b. Central (Haversian) canal
3. Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal
4. Spongy bone
Human Skeleton
5. Axial Skeleton
a. Skull
i. Cranium (8 bones)
ii. Facial bones (14 bones)
b. Thoracic cage
i. Ribs
ii. Sternum
c. Vertebral Column
6. Appendicular Skeleton
a. Bones of pectorial girdle
b. Upper limbs
c. Lower limbs
d. Bones of pelvic girdle
7. Skull (8 Cranium)
a. Frontal bone
11
b. Parietal bone (left and right)
c. Occipital bone
i. Foramen magnum
ii. Occipital condyle
d. Temporal bone (left and right)
i. Mastoid process
ii. External acoustic meatus
iii. Styloid process
iv. Zygomatic process
v. Carotid canal
vi. Jugular foramen
e. Sphenoid bone
i. Greater wing
ii. Foramen ovale
iii. Sella turcica
12
f. Ethmoid bone
i. Crista galli
ii. Cribriform plate
iii. Perpendicular plate
8. Sutures
a. Coronal suture
b. Sagittal suture
c. Lambdoidal suture
d. Squamous suture
9. Facial bones (14)
a. Zygomatic bone (2)
b. Maxilla (2)
i. Palatine process
c. Palatine bone (2)
d. Vomer (1)
e. Lacrimal bone (2)
13
f. Nasal bone (2)
g. Inferior nasal conchae (2)
h. Mandible (1)
i. Mandibular condyle
ii. Mandibular ramus
iii. Coronoid process
iv. Mental foramen
10. Hyoid bone
11. Vertebral column
a. Cervical vertebrae (7)
b. Thoracic vertebrae (12)
c. Lumbar vertebrae (5)
d. Sacral vertebrae (5 fused)
e. Coccyx vertebrae (4 fused)
12. Typical vertebra
a. Spinous process
b. Transverse process
14
c. Body (centrum)
d. Vertebral foramen
e. Transverse foramen (only in cervical vertebrae)
13. Thoracic (rib cage)
a. Sternum
i. Manubrium
ii. Body
iii. Xiphoid process
b. True ribs (1-7)
c. False ribs (8-12)
i. Floating ribs (11-12)
14. Shoulder Girdle
a. Clavicle
b. Scapula
i. Coracoid process
ii. Acromion
15
iii. Glenoid cavity
iv. Lateral border
v.
Medial border
vi. Spine
vii. Suprascapular notch
15. Humerous
a. Head
b. Greater tubercle
c. Lesser tubercle
d. Deltoid tuberosity
e. Radial fossa
f. Coronoid fossa
g. Medial epicondyle
h. Lateral epicondyle
i.
Capitulum
j.
Trochlea
16
k. Olecranon fossa
16. Radius and Ulna
a. Radius
i. Head and neck
ii. Radial tuberosity
iii. Styloid process
b. Ulna
i. Olecranon process
ii. Coronoid process
iii. Styloid process
17. Hand
a. Phalanges (14 bones)
i. Distal
ii. Middle
iii. Proximal
b. Metacarpals (5 bones)
17
c. Carpals (8 bones)
18. Pelvis girdle (coxal bone)
a. Illium
i. Iliac crest
ii. Greater sciatic notch
b. Pubic bone
i. Pubic symphysis
c. Ischium
i. Ischial spine
ii. Ischial tuberosity
d. Acetabulum
e. Obturator foramen
19. Femur
a. Head and neck
b. Greater trochanter
c. Lesser trochanter
18
d. Lateral condyle
e. Medial condyle
20. Tibia and fibula
a. Tibia
i. Anterior border
ii. Medial malleolus
21. Foot
a. Phalanges (14 bones)
i. Distal
ii. Middle
iii. Proximal
b. Metatarsals (5 bones)
c. Tarsals (7 bones)
i. Talus
ii. Calcaneous
19
Chapter 6 Muscular System
1. Neuromuscular Junction (Myoneural Junction)
a. Motor neuron
b. Nucleus
c. Myofibrils
d. Endomysium
e.
Sarcolemma
f. Sarcoplasma
2. Face and Neck Muscles
a. Frontalis
b. Occipitalis
c. Orbicularis occuli
d. Zygomaticus
e. Buccinators
f. Orbicularis oris
g. Temporalis
20
h. Masseter
i.
Sternocleidomastoid
j. Trapezius
3. Shoulder and Arm
a. Deltoid
b. Pectoralis major
c. Pectoralis minor
d. Levator scapulae
e. Serratus anterior
4. Arm (muscles acting on the forearm)
a. Biceps brachii
b. Brachialis
c. Triceps brachii
d. Brachioradialis
5. Muscles acting on the wrist and hand
a. Flexor carpi radialis
21
b. Flexor carpi ulnaris
c. Flexor digitorum superficialis
d. Palmaris longus
e. Extensor carpi radialis longus
f.
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
g. Extensor carpi ulnaris
h. Abductor pollicis longus
i.
Extensor pollicis brevis
6. Abdominal wall
a. Rectus abdominis
b. Transverses abdominis
c. Internal oblique
d. External oblique
7. Neck, trunk, and Arm
a. Sternocleidomastoid
b. Trapezius
22
c. Deltoid
8. Trunk
a. Erector spinae (group)
9. Hip, Thigh and Lower leg
a. Gluteus medius
b. Gluteus maximus
c. Adductor magnus
d. Adductor longus
e. Gracilis
f. Hamstring group
i. Biceps femoris
ii. Semitendinosus
iii. Semimembranosus
g. Gastroncnemius
10. Hip and Thigh (anterior view)
a. Iliopsoas
i. Psoas major
23
ii. Iliacus
b. Sartorius
c. Quadriceps
i. Rectus femoris
ii. Vastus lateralis
iii. Vastus medialis
11. Muscles acting on the foot
a. Extensor digitorum longus
b. Tibialis anterior
c. Gastrocnemius
d. Soleus
e. Fibularis longus
f. Fibularis brevis
24
Chapter 7 Nervous System
1. Divisions of the Nervous System
a. Central Nervous System
i. Brain
ii. Spinal cord
b. Peripheral Nervous System
i. Cranial Nerves (12 pairs)
ii. Spinal Nerves (31 pairs)
2. Anatomy of the Nervous System
a. Neuron (nerve cell)
i. Cell body
1. Nucleus
a. Nucleolus
2. Nissl bodies
3. Neurofibrils
ii. Dendrites
iii. Axon
1. Axon hillock
2. Axon terminal
iv. Schwann cell
25
1. Myelin sheath
2. Neurilemma
3. Node of Ranvier
v. Endoneurium
3. Brain
a. Cerebrum
i. Hemisphere (Right and Left)
ii.
Frontal lobe
iii.
Parietal lobe
iv. Occipital lobe
v. Temporal lobe
b. Grooves in the brain
i. Central sulcus
ii. Longitudinal fissure
iii. Lateral fissure
26
iv. Parieto-occipital sulcus
v. Transverse fissure
c. Hindbrain and Midbrain
i. Medulla oblongata
ii. Pons
iii. Midbrain
iv. Corpora quadrigemina
v. Cerebellum
1. Arbor vitae
d. Diencephalon
i. Thalamus
ii. Hypothalamus
iii. Pituitary gland
iv. Mammillary bodies
v. Pineal body (gland)
27
e. Connections of the brain
i. Corpus callosum
ii. Septum pellucidum
iii. Fornix
f. Ventricles and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Passages
i. Lateral ventricles (right and left)
ii. Third ventricle
iii. Fourth ventricle
iv. Interventricular foramen (Foramen of Monroe)
v. Cerebral Aqueduct (Mesencephalic aqueduct)
vi. Median aperture (Foramen of Magendie)
vii. Choroid plexus
4. Meninges
a. Dura mater
i. Epidural space
ii. Subdural space
28
b. Arachnoid
i. Subarachnoid space
c. Pia mater
5. Spinal cord
a. White matter
i. Dorsal columns
ii. Ventral columns
iii. Anterior median fissure
iv. Posterior median sulcus
b. Gray matter
i. Dorsal horn
ii. Lateral horn
iii. Ventral horn
iv. Gray commissure
v. Central canal
29
6. Spinal nerve
i. Dorsal spinal root (composed of sensory neurons)
1. Dorsal root ganglion
ii. Ventral spinal root (composed of motor neurons)
7. Sensory neuron (afferent nerve)
8. Interneuron
9. Motor neuron (efferent nerve)
10. Synapse
11. Spinal Nerves
a. Cervical nerve
i. Phrenic nerve
b. Brachial plexus
i. Radial nerve
ii. Ulna nerve
iii. Median nerve
30
c. Lumbar plexus
i. Femoral nerve
ii. Saphenous nerve
d. Sacral plexus
i. Sciatic nerve
ii. Tibial nerve
iii. Common fibular nerve
31
Chapter 8 Special Senses
1. Vision
a. Accessory Structures
i. Lacrimal apparatus
1. Lacrimal gland
2. Lacrimal sac
b. Extrinsic eye muscles and associated cranial nerve
Muscle
Nerve
i. Superior rectus
lll. Oculomotor
ii. Inferior rectus
lll Oculomotor
iii. Medial rectus
lll. Oculomotor
iv. Lateral rectus
Vl. Abducens
v. Superior oblique
lV. Trochlear
vi. Inferior oblique
lll. Oculomotor
32
c. Anatomy of the Eye
i. Tunics
1. Fibrous tunic (outer layer)
a. Sclera
b. Cornea
2. Vascular tunic (middle layer)
a. Choroid
b. Ciliary body
i. Ciliary muscle
c. Iris
d. Pupil
3. Sensory layer (inner layer)
a. Retina
b. Optic disc
i. Optic nerve
c. Fovea centralis
33
ii. Optical Apparatus
1. Lens
2. Suspensory ligaments
iii. Anterior cavity
1. Aqueous humor
2. Anterior chamber
3. Posterior chamber
iv. Posterior cavity
1. Vitreous humor/body
2. Hearing and Equilibrium
a. Anatomy of the Ear
i. External ear (outer ear)
1. Auricle (pinna)
a. Helix
b. Antihelix
c. Lobe
34
2. External auditory meatus (auditory canal)
3. Tympanic membrane
ii. Middle ear (tympanic cavity)
1. Auditory tube (Eustacian tube/Pharyngotypanic tube)
2. Ossicles
a. Malleus
b. Incus
c. Stapes
iii. Inner ear
1. Bony labyrinth
a. Perilymph
b. Semicircular canals
c. Oval window
d. Round window
2. Membranous labyrinth
a. Endolymph
35
b. Utricle
c. Saccule
d. Semicircular ducts
3. Vestibule
4. Cochlea
5. Vestibulocochlear nerve
b. Internal Anatomy of Cochlea
i. Scala vestibule (contains perilymph)
ii. Cochlear duct (scala media) contains endolymph
iii. Scala tympani (contains perilymph)
iv. Vestibular membrane
v. Tectoral membrane
vi. Basilar membrane
vii. Organ of Corti
36
Chapter 9 Endocrine System
1. Endocrine glands
a. Pituitary gland
b. Thyroid gland
c. Parathyroid gland
d. Adrenal gland
e. Pancreas
f. Gonads
i. Testes
ii. Ovaries
g. Thymus
h. Pineal body
37
Chapter 10 Blood
1. Composition of Blood
a. Plasma 55%
i. Water
ii. Solutes
iii. Plasma proteins
1. Albumins
2. Globulins
3. Fibrinogen
b. Formed elements 45%
i. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) 4-6 million/mm3
ii. Leukocytosis (White Blood Cells) 4000-11,000/mm3
1. Neutrophil (granulocyte)
2. Lymphocytes (agranulocyte)
3. Monocytes (agranulocyte)
4. Eosinophil (granulocyte)
5. Basophil (granulocyte)
iii. Platelets 250,000-500,000/mm3
38
Chapter 11 Cardiovascular System
1. Layers of the Heart Walls
a. Epicardium
b. Myocardium
c. Endocardium
2. Chambers of the Heart
a. Atrium (Right and Left)
i. Auricle (Right and Left)
b. Ventricle (Right and Left)
c. Interventricular septum
3. Valves of the Heart
a. Tricuspid valve
b. Bicuspid valve
c. Chordae tendineae
d. Papillary muscle
39
e. Semilunar valves
i. Pulmonary semilunar valve
ii. Aortic semilunar valve
4. Other structures
a. Apex
b. Fossa ovalis
c. Ligamentum arteriosum
5. Conduction System of the Heart
a. Sinoatrial node
b. Atrioventricular node
c. Bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle)
d. Bundle branches (Right and Left)
e. Purkinje fibers
40
6. Large Vessels associated with the Heart
a. Aorta
i. Ascending aorta
ii. Aortic arch
iii. Thoracic aorta (Descending aorta)
b. Superior Vena Cava
c. Inferior Vena Cava
d. Pulmonary Trunk
i. Left Pulmonary artery
ii. Right Pulmonary artery
e. Pulmonary Veins
i. Left Pulmonary Veins
ii. Right Pulmonary Veins
7. Coronary Circulation
a. Coronary arteries
i. Right coronary artery
41
1. Marginal artery
2. Posterior interventricular artery
ii. Left coronary artery
1. Anterior interventricular artery
2. Circumflex artery
b. Coronary veins
i. Anterior cardiac vein
ii. Small cardiac vein
iii. Middle cardiac vein
iv. Great cardiac vein
v. Coronary sinus
8. Electrocardiogram
a. P wave
b. QRS complex
c. T wave
42
1. Anatomy of Blood Vessels
a. Blood vessels walls
i. Tunica externa – loose connective tissue
ii. Tunica media – smooth muscle
iii. Tunica intima – simple squamous endothelium
iv. Lumen – diameter of blood vessel
b. Arteriole (small artery)
c. Venule (small vein)
d. Capillary (connects arteriole with venule)
2. Arteries
a.
b.
c.
d.
Carry blood away from the heart
Thick muscular tunica media
Do not contain valves
Smaller lumen than veins of the same outside diameter, due to
thicker tunica media
e. Thicker tunica externa than veins
3. Veins
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Carry blood toward the heart
Thinner media than arteries
Most have valves in the tunica interna to prevent backflow of blood
Thinner tunica externa than arteries
Larger lumen than arteries of the same outside diameter
43
4. Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation
a. Ascending aorta
i. Aortic arch
1. Brachiocephalic Artery
a. Right Common Carotid Artery
b. Right Subclavian Artery
ii. Left Common Carotid Artery
1. Internal Carotid Artery
2. External Carotid Artery
iii. Left Subclavian Artery
1. Left Vertebral Artery
a. Axillary Artery
i. Brachial Artery
1. Radial Artery
a. Superficial Palmar Artery
b. Deep Palmer Artery
44
2. Ulnar Artery
b. Arteries branching from the Abdominal Aorta
i. Celiac Trunk
ii. Superior Mesentery Artery
iii. Left and Right Renal Arteries
iv. Left and Right Gonadal Arteries
v. Inferior Mesenteric Artery
5. Arteries of the Lower Extremities
a. Common Iliac Artery (Left and Right)
i. Internal Iliac
ii. External Iliac
1. Femoral Artery
a. Popliteal Artery
i. Anterior Tibial Artery
1. Dorsalis Pedis Artery
ii. Posterior Tibial Artery
45
6. Major Veins of Systemic Circulation
a. Veins of the Head and Neck
i. Superior Vena Cava
1. Brachiocephalic Vein (Left and Right)
a. Internal Jugular Vein
b. External Jugular Vein
c. Subclavian Vein
i. Axillary Vein
ii. Cephalic Vein
1. Basilic Vein
a. Median Cubital Vein
i. Median
Antebrachial Vein
2. Brachial Vein
a. Radial Vein
b. Ulnar Vein
46
b. Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis
i. Inferior Vena Cava
1. Hepatic Vein
2. Renal Vein (Left and Right)
ii. Hepatic Portal Vein
1. Superior Mesenteric Vein
2. Inferior Mesenteric Vein
3. Splenic Vein
c. Veins of Lower Extremities
i. Inferior Vena Cava
1. Common Iliac Vein (Left and Right)
a. Internal Iliac Vein
b. External Iliac Vein
i. Femoral Vein
1. Great Saphenous Vein
ii. Popliteal Vein
47
1. Anterior Tibial Vein
2. Posterior Tibial Vein
3. Small Saphenous Vein
48
Chapter 13 Respiratory System
1. Upper Respiratory Tract
a. External nares (nostrils)
b. Frontal sinus
c. Spenoid sinus
d. Nasal Cavity
i. Concha
1. Superior concha
2. Middle concha
3. Inferior concha
ii. Meatuses
1. Superior meatus
2. Middle meatus
3. Inferior meatus
e. Oral Cavity
i. Hard Palate
49
ii. Soft Palate
iii. Uvula
f. Pharynx
i. Nasopharynx
1. Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)
2. Auditory tube (Eustacian tube/pharyngotympanic
tube)
ii. Oropharynx
1. Palatine tonsils
2. Lingual tonsils
iii. Laryngopharynx
g. Hyoid bone
h. Larynx
i. Epiglottis
ii. Thyroid cartilage
1. Laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple)
50
iii. Cricoid cartilage
iv. Arytenoid cartilage
v. Corniculate cartilage
vi. True vocal cords
vii. False vocal cords
viii. Glottis
2. Lower Respiratory Tract
a. Trachea
i. Right primary bronchi
ii. Left primary bronchi
1. Secondary bronchi
a. Tertiary bronchi
i. Bronchioles
1. Alveolus
51
b. Right Lung
i. Superior lobe
ii. Middle lobe
iii. Inferior lobe
c. Left lung
i. Superior lobe
ii. Inferior lobe
d. Diaphragm
52
Chapter 14 Digestive System
1. Mouth
a. Tongue
b. Salivary gland
i. Parotid gland
1. Parotid duct (Stensen’s duct)
ii. Sublingual gland
iii. Submandibular gland
c. Teeth
i. Incisors
1. Central incisor
2. Lateral incisor
ii. Canines (cuspids)
iii. Premolars (bicuspids)
1. 1st premolar
2. 2nd premolar
53
iv. Molars
1. 1st molar
2. 2nd molar
3. 3rd molar (wisdom teeth)
v. Regions of the teeth
1. Crown
2. Neck
3. Root
vi. Histology of teeth
1. Enamel
2. Cementum
3. Dentin
4. Pulp cavity
5. Pulp
6. Root canal
54
d. Dentitions
List the number of each type of teeth found these dentitions
Deciduous Teeth
Central incisors
Lateral incisors
Canines
Premolars
Molars
Total
2. Organs of the Digestive System
a. Esophagus
b. Stomach
i. Regions and valves of the stomach
1. Cardia
a. Cardiac sphincter
2. Fundus
3. Body
4. Pylorus
55
Permanent Teeth
a. Pyloric sphincter
ii. Curvatures and Omenta
1. Lesser curvature
a. Lesser omentum
2. Greater curvature
a. Greater omentum
iii. Histology of the stomach
1. Mucosa
a. Rugae
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis externa
a. Oblique muscle
b. Circular muscle
c. Longitudinal muscle
4. Serosa
56
c. Small Intestines
i. Duodenum
1. Major duodenal papilla
2. Minor duodenal papilla
ii. Jejunum
iii. Ileum
1. Ileocecal valve
d. Histology of the small intestines
i. Mucosa
1. Plicae circularis
ii. Submucosa
iii. Muscularis externa
1. Circular muscle
2. Longitudinal muscle
iv. Serosa
57
e. Large Intestines
i. Cecum
ii. Appendix
iii. Ascending colon
iv. Transverse colon
v. Descending colon
vi. Sigmoid colon
vii. Rectum
1. Anus
a. Internal anal sphincter
b. External anal sphincter
f. Histology of large intestines
i. Mucosa
ii. Submucosa
iii. Muscularis externa
1. Teniae coli
58
2. Haustra
3. Accessory Organs of Digestion
a. Pancreas
i. Pancreatic duct
ii. Accessory pancreatic duct
b. Liver
i. Right hepatic lobe
ii. Left hepatic lobe
iii. Quadrate lobe
iv. Caudate lobe
v. Ducts
1. Hepatic ducts (Left and Right)
2. Common hepatic duct
c. Gallbladder
i. Cystic duct
ii. Common bile duct
59
Chapter 15 Urinary System
1. Overview of Components
a. Kidneys (Left and Right)
b. Ureters (Left and Right)
c. Urinary bladder
d. Urethra
2. Kidneys
a. Renal capsule
b. Cortex
i. Renal columns
c. Medulla
i. Renal pyramids
ii. Renal papilla
d.
Minor calyx
e.
Major calyx
f. Renal pelvis
60
g. Hilum
3. Nephron; the functional unit of the kidneys
a. Renal corpuscle
i. Glomerulus capsule (Bowman’s capsule)
ii. Glomerulus
b. Renal tubule
i. Proximal convoluted tubule
ii. Nephron loop (Loop of Henle)
1. Descending limb
2. Ascending limb
iii. Distal convoluted tubule
iv. Collecting duct
4. Blood Supply
a. Abdominal aorta
b. Renal arteries (Left and Right)
61
c. Segmental arteries
d. Interlobar arteries
e. Arcuate arteries
f. Interlobular arteries
g. Afferent arterioles
h. Glomerulus
i.
Efferent arterioles
j.
Peritubular capillaries
k. Stellate vein
l.
Interlobular veins
m. Arcuate veins
n. Interlobar vein
o. Segmental veins (questionable)
p. Renal vein
q. Inferior vena cava
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5. Urinary bladder
a. Trigone
b. Mucosa
i. Rugae
c. Detrusor muscle
6. Urethra
a. Male Urethra
i. Prostatic urethra
ii. Membraneous urethra
iii. Penile urethra
1. Fossa navicularis
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Chapter 16 Reproductive System
1. Male Reproductive System
a. Testes (testicles)
i. Seminiferous tubules
b. Scrotum
c. Spermatic cord
d. Epididymis
e. Ductus deferens (vas deferens)
f. Ejaculatory duct
g. Accessory glands
i. Seminal vesicles
ii. Prostate gland
iii. Bulbourethral gland (Cowper’s gland)
h. Penis
i. Root
ii. Shaft (body)
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iii. Glans
1. Prepuce (foreskin)
iv. Erectile tissue
1. Corpora cavernosa
2. Corpus spongiosum
i.
Sperm structure
i. Head
1. Nucleus
2. Acrosome
ii. Neck
iii. Tail
2. Female Reproductive System
a. Uterus
i. Regions of the uterus
1. Fundus
2. Body
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3. Cervix
ii. Histology of Uterus
1. Endometrium
a. Functional endometrium
b. Basilar endometrium
2. Myometrium
3. Perimetrium
b. Fallopian tube (uterine tube/oviducts)
i.
Infundibulum
ii. Fimbriae
c. External genitalia (vulva)
i. Mons pubis
ii. Labia majora
iii. Labia minora
iv. Clitoris
v. Vestibule
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1. External urethral opening
2. Vaginal opening
3. Bulb of the vestibule
4. Vestibular gland (Bartholin’s gland)
d. Perineum
e. Vagina
f. Ovary
g. Mammary gland (Breast)
i. Lactiferous duct
ii. Lactiferous sinus
iii. Adipose tissue
iv. Nipple
v. Areola
vi. Areolar gland (sebaceous gland)
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