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Transcript
Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
MASTERY SET
©
8th Grade Social Studies Review and Power Package ©
This document provides an opportunity for students to regroup, review, organize and
synthesize their learning. It has been produced by Dr. Horton as a supplemental tool
for learning that has occurred during the course of instruction. The document is
presented by major areas of learning focus ( CONFLICT & CHANGE - DISTRIBUTION OF
POWER - GOVERNANCE - INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS & INSTITUTIONS - LOCATION, MOVEMENT/
MIGRATION - PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION & CONSUMPTION - RULE OF LAW -
“Focus, Organization,
Tools, Study Rituals
and Clear Learning
Targets Make the
Difference with
Teaching and
Learning…”
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION). This document does not take the place of classroom
teaching and learning. It is a resource for enrichment, review and organization.
Georgia:
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
Geography (LOCATION)
SS8G1 GA's location and physical features
A. Locate GA in relation to region, nation, continent, and hemispheres.
B. Describe the five geographic regions of GA.
C. Locate and evaluate the importance of key physical features on the development of GA.
D. Evaluate the impact of climate on GA's development.
• Southeastern Region of the U.S.A.
• A State in the U.S.A. (Nation)
• Georgia is in North America (Continent)
• Georgia is in the Western and Northern Hemispheres
Regions (5)
Physical Features (6)
Climate
Appalachian Plateau
Fall Line
Moderate Winter
Valley & Ridge
Okefenokee Swamp
Moderate Summer
Blue Ridge
Appalachian Mountains
Few Extreme Storms
Piedmont
Chattahoochee River
Costal Plain
Savannah River
Barrier Islands
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
Prehistoric Period (MOVEMENT/MIGRATION)
Development of Prehistoric Cultures (Native Americans) - SS8H1 The student will evaluate the
development of Native American cultures and the impact of European exploration and settlement on
the Native American cultures in Georgia.
NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES
• Describe the evolution of Native American cultures (Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian) prior to
European contact.
NATIVE AMERICANS
DESCRIPTION
PALEO
The first group to come to North America; From Asia across the Bering Land Bridge; Hunted huge
animals (Elephants/Bison); Were “nomadic” - moved around; Stone Age 10,000 Years ago;
ARCHAIC
Hunted Smaller Animals; Used tools to hunt (Choppers and Spears); Also moved about during
seasons; Created Clay pottery
WOODLAND
First to live in tribes (Villages); Invented the bow and arrow; Grew their food (Agriculture) and
hunted; Made jewelry; One indicator of their religion was the burial method of building mounds;
MISSISSIPPIANS
The most advanced group; They lived in Villages; They had livestock and farmed and hunted for
their food; built temples and worshipped many gods; (Creeks, Cherokee and Seminole);
Exploration and Colonization (Conflict and Change)
REASONS: GOD,GOLD and GLORY - (Brought diseases, Mission Settlements and Other themes of “Movement”.
SS8H1 European contact with Native Americans and European exploration
• Evaluate the impact of European contact on Native American cultures; include Spanish missions along the
barrier islands, and the explorations of Hernando DeSoto.
• Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto sailed with 600 men and equipment into the land that is now to
present day Florida. His goal was to march north and find gold. He did not find gold, but he set
up Spanish settlements in Florida.
• In “La Florida”, which included Georgia, the Spaniards begin to convert the Native Americans to
Christianity. The Spanish King required all subjects to practice Catholicism. They set up
“Missions” to accomplish this. The “Friars” (Catholic Missionaries) lived in the missions and
worked with the Natives. The first mission was formed on St. Catherine’s Island. The
missions expanded along the Barrier Islands.
• Two Regions were created to help manage the missions - Guale and Mocama.
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• Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of
the French, Spanish, and British in the southeastern area.
FACTS
FRANCE
The French colonized the land on the gulf coast (Southern Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi).
They also colonized northern Alabama. They were fur traders. They used the coast of Georgia for
part of their route. Their religious group for Christianity (Protestants) were called Hugenots.
SPAIN
Spanish explorers colonized present day Florida and for a little while developed settlements in
Georgia until they were removed by British forces. Set up Missions in the Barrier Islands.
Their goal was God, Gold and Glory!
BRITAIN
The British landed in present-day Virginia and created the first colony. They developed their first
settlement and named it Jamestown. Once they were well situated, they developed an
additional 12 colonies. The southern colonies were North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Georgia.They were more interested in exporting (Mercantilism) than importing.
History (Colonial Period)
SS8H2 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history.
a. Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity,
economics, and defense), Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah.
1. James Oglethorpe (British Parliament member) led (With the 21 Trustees) the
development of Georgia as a colony. He wanted a place for the “worthy poor”.
2. The Trustees were in place to keep Georgia from becoming a traditional colony. They
selected the first settlers (35 families).
3. King George II approved the making of Georgia as a colony, hence the colony was named
for him. The Charter of 1732 made Georgia a colony: for “Charity”, “Defense” and
“Economics”.
4. Tomochichi was the Chief of the Yamacraw Indian who gave their land to Oglethorpe; the
land became Georgia’s first city - Savannah. Mary Musgrove translated communication
between Oglethorpe and the Yamacraw.
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b. Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland
Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.
1. The Trustee Period was from 1732 until 1753 (21 Years). Oglethorpe was still the leader
after the period ended. Rules of the land were as follows:
A. Limits on land
B. Inheritance Laws
C. No Slave Labor
D. No Rum or Hard Liquor
E. No Catholics
2. The Salzburgers were rejected Protestants who were kicked out of Germany. King George
II allowed them to settle in Georgia, since he was also Protestant. The became the most
industrious group with silk (from the mulberry tree) harvesters.
The Agriculture
(WRIS crops) had not been very successful during the Trustee Period.
3. The Highland Scots were brought to Georgia to help defend against the Spanish. They
were key at the Battle of Bloody Marsh in defeating the Spanish.
4. One of the main reasons for Georgia was defense against the “Spanish Threat”. The
Highland Scot built a Fort to defend it against the Spanish along the Barrier Islands.
5. In 1752, the Trustees turned Georgia over to the British government. Their efforts to make
Georgia different failed. Those who opposed the rules and wanted Georgia to be a slave
owning and land owning territory won over (malcontents).
c. Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government,
and the impact of the royal governors.
1.
In 1752, the government of Georgia was placed under King George II. It was officially
know as a “Royal Colony”. Along came government, “Plantations”, Tobacco crop, no land
limits, and Three (3) “Royal Governors”:
• John Reynolds (The 1st Royal Governor; ineffective; removed by the King;)
• Henry Ellis ( The 2nd Royal Governor; Built a budget, taxes and a military defense; Left
Office due to failing health;)
• James Wright ( The most popular; Grew faster than other English colonies; Tried to keep
Georgia out of the Independence movement; Fled to England in 1776 when war erupted;)
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History (The
American Revolution and Statehood)
SS8H3 The student will analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution.
a. Explain the immediate and long-term causes of the American Revolution and their impact on Georgia;
include the French and Indian War (Seven Years War), Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, and
the Declaration of Independence.
b. Analyze the significance of people and events in Georgia on the Revolutionary War; include Loyalists,
patriots, Elijah Clarke, Austin Dabney, Nancy Hart, Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton, Battle of
Kettle Creek, and siege of Savannah.
A. The American colonist were generally satisfied for a long time living under the British rule. As a result of
their content, they were loyal to the British Empire. This didn’t last long for three reasons: Taxation,
Restricted Trade and Self Government. Following the French and Indian War, these things began to evolve
and the American colonist became discontent.
WHAT HAPPENED?
FACTS
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 1754
“The 7 Year War” - Between the British and France (Native Americans
fought with France.) - Fought over Controlling the Ohio River Valley
territory (West of the Appalachian Mountains) a border to its colonies The British Won -
PROCLAMATION OF 1763
King George III allowed the Native Americans to stay on the new territory
to avoid conflict, defend the mountain colonies and to trade with the
Native Americans. The Line separating the territory was the
Proclamation Line of 1763: Colonist couldn’t stay there - buy the land or take the land. Georgia colonist were ok with this because they gained
territory. The other colonist were NOT HAPPY!
SUGAR ACT OF 1764
If that wasn’t bad enough, The British Empire lost lots of money during
the French and Indian War. They had to to raise taxes on imported
goods: Sugar Act of 1764 ( sugar, molasses, coffee, wine and indigo)
STAMP ACT 1765
Then they required colonist to buy a government stamp for all paper
goods (Legal documents, newspapers, licenses, posters and playing
cards). “TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”
TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767
Parliament replaced the Stamp Act (after the Boston Massacre) with the
Townshend Acts. This raised taxes on imported items like glass, paint,
paper, tea and lead.
THE TEA ACT
In order to help the British East Indian Tea Company from going into
bankruptcy, the British Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773 which
forced everyone to only buy from the expensive company.
OTHER CAUSES OF DISCONTENT The colonist were treated differently from other British citizens ( Not
represented by government officials, had to support British soldiers in
their homes, didn’t get fair trials and homes could be searched without
warrants).
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WHAT HAPPENED?
FACTS
INTOLERABLE ACTS
The British Government tried to punish the Massachusetts colony for the
Boston Tea Party by coming up with the “Coercive Acts”- The Colonists
called them the “Intolerable Acts”:
1. The Boston Port Act - Closed the Boston Harbor
2. The Massachusetts Government Act - Shut down the MA
government and prohibited public meetings.
3. Administration of Justice Act - No British Official’s Trials in MA
QUARTERING ACT
The Quartering Act forced colonist to house and feed British Soldiers.
DECLARATION OF
INDEPENDENCE
July 4, 1776 - Drafted by Thomas Jefferson - 3 Parts (PreambleNatural Rights of People; Grievances against King George III; The actual
Declaration of Independence…
How Did the Colonist Respond?
1. 9 of the 13 colonies met at the “Stamp Act Congress” to oppose the actions of the government…
2. British goods were boycotted…
3. The “Patriots” were formed (People Who Opposed Taxes and Fought for Independence.) The
“Loyalist” (Tories) were loyal to Great Britain.
4. Radical colonist in Boston (“The Sons of Liberty”) formed in protest of the government.
5. Because GEORGIA’S GOVERNOR (James Wright) was well liked, Georgia was the only colony to sell the
stamp. They were still unhappy about the tax on paper and form the “Liberty Boys” to oppose the stamp act.
6. During a protest in Boston, British soldiers opened fire on colonists and “Patriots”. This event on March 5,
1770 was called the “Boston Massacre”.
7. On December 16, 1773, the “Sons of Liberty” snuck onto British Tea Ships and threw 300 chests (90,000
pounds) of tea overboard in protest - “The Boston Tea Party”.
8. Benjamin Franklin’s Political Cartoon leading up to the American Revolution…”Join or Die”!
9. The First Continental Congress met in 1774 with delegates from all 13 colonies (except Georgia). Their goal
was to boycott British goods. In the end, only two Georgia parishes (locations) agreed.
10. In 1775, Georgia “Patriots” formed a second government the “Provincial Congress”. They planned to send
delegates (Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and George Walton) to the “Second Continental Congress”.
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11. The “Battle of Lexington” started as a result of British attempts to arrest John Hancock and Samuel Adams.
Patriots heard about it and warned colonists - ‘“the British are coming…” - Paul Revere - THE BATTLE OF
LEXINGTON AND CONCORD…!
12. The Continental Army and Commander George Washington were organized.
13. Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress met in Tondee’s Tavern (“The Cradle of Liberty in Georgia”) in
Savannah, GA and appointed delegates to the Second Continental Congress. Georgia finally joined the
revolution!
14. In January 1776, Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet telling colonist why they should declare their
independence from Great Britain. it was called “Common Sense”.
B.
Georgia’s Participants in the Revolution
1. Loyalist - The “Loyalist” (Tories) were loyal to Great Britain.
2. Elijah Clarke - Poor GA farmer from NC who Lead during the Battle of Kettle Creek patriot victory
3. Nancy Hart - Patriot Spy; Rumored to have fought in the Battle of Kettle Creek; Captured Loyalist who
broke into her home;
4. Austin Dabne - Only African-American who fought at the Battle of Kettle Creek. Georgia paid for his
freedom for his bravery and service and gave him 50 acres of land
5. Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and George Walton - Georgia’s Second Provincial Congress met in
Tondee’s Tavern (“The Cradle of Liberty in Georgia”) in Savannah, GA and appointed delegates to the Second
Continental Congress. Signed the Declaration of Independence.
6. Georgia’s first encounter with fighting in the Revolution was in 1778 when Savannah, its capital city, was
taken (the siege of Savannah) over by the British. The British eventually took over every city in Georgia Governor Wright was back.
7. The Battle of Kettle Creek (February 14, 1779) was a major encounter in south Georgia during the
American Revolutionary War. It was fought in Wilkes County near Washington, Georgia. A militia force of
Patriots decisively defeated and scattered a Loyalist militia force that was on its way to British-controlled
Augusta. The battle Raised the morale of Georgia patriots. Georgia’s militia was led by Elijah Clarke and
Thomas Dooly.
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January 29, 2017
SS8H4 The student will describe the impact of events that led to the ratification of the United States
Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
a. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of both the Georgia Constitution of 1777 and the Articles of
Confederation and explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to a need to revise the Articles.
A.
Articles of Confederation (First Document That Created A Government For The USA). Although it included
three branches of government, It was weak because the government could not collect taxes, the legislative
branch was unicameral (Only One Branch) with too much power and it did not support having a military to
enforce laws.
STRENGTHS
ARTICLES OF
CONFEDERATION
GEORGIA’S
CONSTITUTION
WEAKNESSES
• Could Not Levy Taxes (Impossible
to pay debts/soldiers)
• It Didn’t regulate trade among the
states (Could put tariffs on each
other)
• It only had a Legislative Branch
(No Judicial or Executive)
• Congress could make laws, but
not enforce states to comply.
• Each State only received 1 vote,
regardless of population.
• All 13 States had to approve a
law for it to pass.
• Each State had its own currency.
• Separate Branches: Executive, Legislative
and Judicial
• Listed Basic Rights
• Outlined Election Process for Governor
• Created a Superior Court for each County
• Gave the State’s power to the Unicameral
legislature
• Too much Legislative power
• No check on the Legislative
Branch’s power
• Not ratified by the People’s vote
(Didn’t represent the people’s
interests…)
b. Describe the role of Georgia at the Constitutional Convention of 1787; include the role of Abraham Baldwin
and William Few, and reasons why Georgia ratified the new constitution.
B.
• In May 1787, delegates from all 13 states met in Philadelphia with the intent to change the Articles of
Confederation.
• They ended up writing a new document - The meeting became the “Constitution Convention”.
• Georgia had two delegate that signed the Constitution :
• Abraham Baldwin (His vote forced a tie over the issue to support small state representation)
• He helped develop the “Great Compromise” (Each state gets 2 members (bicameral) in the
Senate, but representation in the House of Representation was based on the states’
population.
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• William Few (voted in favor of the National Government)
• Baldwin and Few hoped the Federal Government would help them fight the Native
Americans in Georgia.
• On January 2, 1788, Georgia was the 4th State to Ratify (approve) the U.S. Constitution.
• Since southern states were made up of many slaves , how weren’t allowed to vote, the population was
counted by measuring each slave as 3/5 of a person (“The Three-Fifths Compromise”).
• In 1791, Ten Amendments were added to the Constitution called the “Bill of Rights”.
History (Growth and Expansion in Georgia)
SS8H5 The student will explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of
the growth of the United States between 1789 and 1840.
a. Explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist
churches.
b. Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and
the Yazoo land fraud.
c. Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia’s
growth.
d. Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander
McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew
Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears.
A.
a. Explain the establishment of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist
churches.
•
University of Georgia – Held first classes in 1801. Allowed people from all economic backgrounds to go to college.
First state university in the United States.
•
After the Revolutionary War Georgia’s capital was moved from Savannah to Louisville because Louisville was more
centrally located.
•
Due to the “Second Great Awakening” churches (like the Baptist and Methodist churches) were built all around
Georgia
b. Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries,
and the Yazoo land fraud.
• Headright System: As the Native Americans ceded (Gave up their land…), Georgia decided to give its land
to the head (White Male) of a family: Each receives 200 acres plus an additional 50 per family member. They
could not have more than 1000 acres.
• It favored veterans of the Revolutionary War and was on a first come basis.
• Land Lotteries - All white heads-of-household could buy a lottery chance and win land; millions of acres in
several states were given away.
• Yazoo Land Sale - Around 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislators so they could
buy land for less than it was worth. The public found out and protested; the legislators involved were
voted out of office. This became known as the Yazoo Land Fraud.
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c. Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on
Georgia’s growth.
•
Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney in 1793 invented a machine for separating cotton seeds from its fiber.
•
Railroads – Once railroads came to GA they allowed products to be moved over land quickly.
d. Analyze the events that led to the removal of Creeks and Cherokees; include the roles of Alexander
McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia,
Andrew Jackson, John Marshall, and the Trail of Tears.
• After the Revolutionary War, Alexander McGillivray became the Chief of the Creek Indians. He signed the
Treaty of New York giving up all land east of the Oconee River, but could keep land on the west side.
• Chief William McIntosh gave up the last of the Creek Land with the Treaty of Indian Springs.
• The Cherokee Indians assimilated to “white” life (example Sequoyah developed a written language) so they
were allowed to live on their land longer than many other groups.
• When gold was discovered in Dahlonega in 1829 many Georgians, with the support of American President
Andrew Jackson, wanted to remove the natives. The Supreme Court of the United States decided that the
Cherokee were a sovereign nation and should be allowed to rule themselves (Worcester v. Georgia).
Eventually, without the support of Chief John Ross, a rebellious Cherokee group signed a treaty giving away
all Cherokee land which led to the “Trail of Tears” (forced removal of the Cherokee Nation from Georgia to
Oklahoma).
History (Causes of the Civil War/Reconstruction)
SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights,
nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act,
Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.
b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation,
Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s
March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen’s
Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the
constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.
A.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’
rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, KansasNebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role
of Alexander Stephens.
•
Slavery – The economy of southern states was based on agriculture (farming mainly of crops such as cotton).
Slaves were thought to be a “necessary evil” in helping with the growing of crops.
•
States’ Rights - Belief that the state’s interests take precedence over interests of national government. Southern
states believed they had the right to govern themselves and decide what would be best for their own situation (one
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example would be the issue of slavery).Nullification – The Tariff of 1828 tried to protect northern factories from
competition by forcing the south to pay additional taxes on products purchased from England.
•
The south believed in nullification (the idea that they have the right not to follow a federal law).
•
Missouri Compromise – Missouri entered the U.S. as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state in 1820.
Outlawed slavery north of 36°30' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands
west of Missouri.
•
Compromise of 1850 – California enters the U.S. as a free state. Also included the Fugitive Slave Act which
required northern states to return runaway slaves to the south.
•
Georgia Platform – The North would support the Fugitive Slave Act and not ban slavery in new states in order to
uphold the Compromise of 1850. Georgia was credited with preventing war and secession.
•
Kansas-Nebraska Act - Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. Those territories had right of popular
sovereignty and could decide whether or not to allow slavery.
•
Dred Scott – Supreme Court case in 1857 Court ruled that slaves were not citizens and could not file lawsuits. Also,
the Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not stop slavery in the territories.
•
Election of 1860 – Republican Party had formed after the Dred Scott case. It took an anti-slavery position.
Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won the election of 1860 and became the American President.
•
Secession – Alexander Stephens, one of GA’s representatives in Congress, called for the south to remain loyal to
the Union and voted against secession. Following many debates over what Georgia should do, Georgia decided to
secede from the Union on January 21, 1861.
B.
b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation,
Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign,
Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
•
Antietam - Sept. 17, 1862. Bloodiest single day of the Civil War. Union Army defeated the Confederate Army
(under the leadership of Robert E. Lee). About 2,000 Northerners and 2,700 Southerners were killed and 19,000
people were wounded.
•
Emancipation Proclamation – Issued by Abraham Lincoln. Stated that all slaves in any states in rebellion against
the Union would become free on January 1, 1863.
•
Gettysburg - July 1 to July 3, 1863. Union Army defeats the Confederates. Union suffers 23,000 Causalities (dead
and wounded soldiers). Confederacy suffers 28,000 causalities
•
Chickamauga – September 1863. Union troops were driven back to Chattanooga; Confederates did not follow-up
on their victory. Union reinforcements later recaptured Chattanooga.
•
Union Blockade of GA’s Coast – The Union used naval ships to prevent the south from continuing to trade
materials (such as cotton) with the British. Kept the south from having the materials necessary to continue to fight.
•
Atlanta Campaign – William Tecumseh Sherman forced the confederate soldiers and citizens of Atlanta to retreat
out of the city. His soldiers then proceeded to burn 90% of Atlanta.
•
The March to the Sea - Part of the Lay Waste Strategy - Sherman’s Union army destroys everything in its path, 300
miles from Atlanta to Savannah. A sixty mile-wide area is burned, destroyed, and ruined during a two-month period.
Captured Savannah in 1864.
•
Andersonville Prison, in southwest Georgia, was overcrowded, and offered poor food, contaminated water, and
poor sanitation; 13,700 Union soldiers are buried there.
•
General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Virginia cannot defeat Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Petersburg; he
surrenders his army at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. The Civil War was over.
•
620,000 people died during the war; about two-thirds died from diseases, wounds, or military prison
hardships.
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January 29, 2017
C.
c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states, emphasizing Freedmen’s
Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to
the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.
•
After the Civil War the Union had to be reconstructed (bringing the north and south back together again).
•
Freedmen’s Bureau – Set up to assist freed slaves. Assisted them with food, clothing, shelter, education, and with
getting jobs.
•
Many freed slaves became sharecroppers or tenant farmers. Sharecropping was a farming method in which a
land owner loans farmers housing, seeds, and tools in return for part of the crop’s profits. Tenant farming was a
similar system except the tenant farmer would provide their own seeds and tools and only rented land.
•
13th Amendment – Outlawed slavery.
•
14th Amendment – Granted citizenship to freedmen and required “equal protection under the law” for all freed
slaves.
•
15th Amendment – Gave all males the right to vote regardless of race.
•
Due to these amendments, African Americans (Henry McNeal Turner and other black legislators) won elections
in Georgia for the first time.
•
Klu Klux Klan - Secret organization – originally started as a social club for men returning from the war.
•
Members hid behind robes and masks.
•
The group terrorized blacks to keep them from voting.
History (The New South)
SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between
1877 and 1918.
a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the
Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on
Georgia during this period.
b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement,
and racial violence.
c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.
d. Give reasons for World War I and describe Georgia's contributions.
a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the
Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system
had on Georgia during this period.
Joseph Brown (KKK), John Gordon (KKK), and Alfred Colquitt (KKK) dominated Georgia politics from the 1870s to
the 1890s. Each argued that GA’s future was not in the agricultural economy of the past, but in BUSINESS &
INDUSTRY!!! Each used their wealth and popularity to reestablish the strength of the Democratic Party.
Together, they were known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate”. The name “Bourbon” comes from an elite ruling
French family.
The Bourbon Triumvirate found an ally in Henry Grady (Editor of the Atlanta Journal and Constitution - He was known as
the “Voice of the New South”). Grady urged Georgians to forget the past and focus on the “New South”.
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
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In order to place the spotlight on Georgia, Georgia hosted the International Cotton Explosion (ICE). It worked; it began
to attract investors to Georgia.
There were those who didn’t like the new direction. Farmers didn’t like the emphasis on industry and business. In order to
protect their interests, they formed a movement called the Farmer’s Alliance. Tom Watson supported the
Farmer’s Alliance and became the leader of a new political party called the Populist Party (the “people’s
party”). In the late 1890’s, the Populist Party lost its momentum - they returned to the Democratic Party.
Watson was eventually elected into the Senate. He died in office. When he died the Governor appointed a woman,
Rebecca Latimer Felton, to replace him. She was the first female U.S. Senator - she lasted 24 hours.
In 1906, Hoke Smith, ran for Governor of Georgia. He promised to take away the voting rights of blacks. Racial Tension
escalated. On September 22, 1906, newspapers published articles alleging that black males were assaulting
white females. Later that night, a black messenger (on a bicycle) was attacked. This started the Atlanta 1906
race riots which lasted 4 days.
In the early 1900’a, antisemitism (Hatred towards Jews) had become a major cause of some conflict. (The Frank Leo
Case) A jewish man, Frank Leo of murder - although evidence pointed to his innocence, he was convicted. He
was later kidnapped from his jail cell and hang.
In 1917, farmers were able to convince GA’s leaders to adopt the county unit system. The county unit system gave
each county two unit votes in elections for each member of the House of Assembly the county had. Since no
county had more than 3 Assembly members, no county received more than 6 county unit votes. This meant that
small, rural counties had equal or more votes than large, urban counties.
b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson,
disenfranchisement, and racial violence.
Soon after Reconstruction, many states began passing Jim Crow Laws, segregating schools, hotels, restaurants,
restrooms, etc.
In 1892, Homer Plessy (who was only partially African-American) was arrested for riding in the “whites only” section of a
Louisiana railroad car. Plessy sued in court, arguing that his 14th Amendment rights to “equal protection”
were violated. The U.S. Supreme Court, in Plessy vs. Ferguson, said that segregation was legal, as long
as facilities were “separate but equal”.
Although the 14th and 15th Amendments made African- Americans fully equal, participating citizens,
discrimination continued through a series of “loopholes” and there forms of disenfranchisement (denying
rights):
1. Poll tax: required citizens to pay a tax prior to voting (eliminating the poor)
2. Literacy tests: required citizens to prove the ability to read before being able to vote (eliminating the illiterate)
3. Inconvenient voter registration: since most blacks in the South were sharecroppers, registration was often
scheduled during planting season
4. Racial violence: the Ku Klux Klan used several tactics (“lighting” crosses, burning churches, guarding polling
places, beatings, murder, etc.) to scare blacks away from voting
5. The Democratic White Primary: since political parties are private, not public, organizations, Constitutional law
does not apply. Blacks, therefore, were not permitted to vote in the Democratic primary (an election
within a party to determine a party’s candidate)
c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.
Booker T. Washington believed that the way for blacks to advance was not through integration, but through hard work
and vocational education.
Unlike Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African-Americans should speak out constantly for full civil, social, and
political rights. Believed that Washington had been too willing to compromise the rights of blacks.
John Hope made multiple achievements in the field of education. He served as the first black president of Morehouse
College in Atlanta. He served as the founding president of Atlanta University (later Clark Atlanta University).
While President of AU, he established the first graduate studies program specifically for African-Americans.
Lugenia Burns Hope founded Neighborhood Union, an organization to provide poor blacks in Atlanta with a health
clinic, boys and girls clubs, job training classes, and resources to improve basic living conditions.
Alonza Herndon - A slave; a barber; Atlanta’s wealthiest African-American upon his death; - Founded Atlanta Life
Insurance Company…
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
d. Give reasons for World War I and describe Georgia's contributions.
WWI was a factor of: M.A.I.N. and the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Georgia provided training camps. By the end of the war, Georgia had more training camps than any other state.
1. Camp Gordon was the largest in the state.
2. Built airplanes
3. Trained over 2000 pilots
4. Prisoners of war camps
5. Grew Victory Gardens (Food Garden) to help supply the troops
(History) The Great Depression and World War II
SS8H8 The student will analyze the important events that occurred after World War I and their impact on Georgia.
a. Describe the impact of the boll weevil and drought on Georgia.
b. Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression.
c. Discuss the impact of the political career of Eugene Talmadge.
d. Discuss the effect of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural
Adjustment Act, rural electrification, and Social Security.
a. Describe the impact of the boll weevil.
The Boll Weevil:
The boll weevil is a destructive insect that laid its eggs in cotton plants. As the larvae matures, it devours the cotton bolls.
The insect was first swept into GA in 1915 in dust clouds from the west. By the early 1920s, it had destroyed nearly 2/3 of
Georgia’s cotton crops.
The 1920s Drought:
Soon after the boll weevil crisis, a severe drought struck Georgia and the entire southeastern from 1924- 1927.
The 1920s drought was the worst drought in Georgia history on record. The year 1925 was the year “you could walk across
the Chattahoochee River.”
The Cost of Farm Equipment:
Farm machinery producers began to stop producing old equipment, and began to turn to new farm technology, such as the
motorized tractor. Unfortunately, the boll weevil and the drought drastically cut farm production, making it
impossible for farmers to buy new equipment.
The Migration of Farmers:
The boll weevil catastrophe, the great 1920s drought, and the rising cost of farm equipment made it difficult for many
farmers to survive. In the late 1920s, many farmers began to leave the farm and move to the city to find work.
b. Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression (1929-the late 30’s).
The Great Depression was longest period of unemployment and low economic activity in the U.S. history. It was the period
following WWI. It was caused by :
1.
2.
3.
4.
Unemployment
Low Wages
Other Countries owed the U.S. money, but they weren't able to repay it because of the costs of WWI.
Debt
c. Discuss the impact of the political career of Eugene Talmadge.
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
President Franklin Roosevelt’s greatest political rival in the state of Georgia was Eugene Talmadge, a powerful, colorful,
and controversial figure in Georgia politics from 1926-1946. Talmadge served three times as the commissioner of
agriculture and three times as governor. Farmers backed Talmadge passionately, and he fought for farmer’s issues
throughout his entire career. As governor, Talmadge resisted efforts to give more civil rights to AfricanAmericans.
d.Discuss the effect of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural
Adjustment Act, Rural Electrification and Social Security.
THE NEW DEAL was introduced by President F.D.R. It included:
1.The Social Security Act created insurance for elderly, unemployed, and disabled people through contributions made by
employees and their employers.
2. Rural Electrification – In 1935, only 3% of Georgia’s farms had power. The Rural Electrification Administration offered
low-interest loans to organizations to build power lines in rural areas. By 1950, over 90% of GA farms had
electricity.
3. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) – Because many agricultural products had been overproduced (including
cotton and peanuts), the AAA was passed to pay farmers subsidies in order to not grow certain products, restrict
supply, and drive prices up.
4. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – This agency was created to put young men to work in projects aimed at
conserving the nation’s natural resources (soil conservation, tree planting, improving national parks, etc.).
SS8H9 The student will describe the impact of World War II on Georgia's development economically, socially, and
politically.
a. Describe the impact of events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include Lend-Lease and the
bombing of Pearl Harbor.
b. Evaluate the importance of Bell Aircraft, military bases, the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards, Richard
Russell, and Carl Vinson.
c. Explain the impact of the Holocaust on Georgians.
a. Discuss the ties to Georgia that President Roosevelt had and his impact on the state. Describe the impact of events
leading up to American involvement in World War II; include Lend-Lease and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
1. The events following WWI had an impact on the entire world - The Treaty of Versailles, the Great Depression and a
World full of Dictators (Hitler, Mussoli and Hirohito). Germany attacked Poland in 1939 and started WWII.
2. Several events led to America’s involvement in WWII:
The Land Lease Act - In 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, lending supplies to any country whose defense
was critical to U.S. security, in exchange for bases on Greenland and Iceland. The U.S. ultimately provided the Allies
with $50 billion in supplies. Roosevelt referred to the United States as an “arsenal for democracy.”
Japan’s Aggression in Asia - Tensions between the United States and the Empire of Japan increased because of
Japanese conquests of China, Thailand, and Indochina.
The Attack on Pearl Harbor - On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S. naval
base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Pearl Harbor was the 2nd greatest attack in the history of the United States, only behind
the terrorist attacks of 9-11.
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
On June 6, 1944, the U.S. led the D-Day invasion of Nazi- occupied Europe.
By May 8, 1945, Hitler was dead and Nazi Germany surrendered to the Allies.
By August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered to the Allies after the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki.
b. Evaluate the importance of Bell Aircraft, Military Bases, the Savannah Brunswick Shipyards, Richard Russell and
Carl Vinson.
Prior to World War 2, Georgia was in a poor economic state. WWII brought prosperity to Georgia:
Savannah and Brunswick, both deep-sea ports, provided ideal naval yards for the construction of war ships. GA
became the home of the Liberty Ship, a large, simple, square-hulled ship designed to carry supplies to troops (grain,
trucks, mail, etc.).
Georgia became home to more military training bases than any other state in the U.S. besides Texas. GA’s military
installations include: Ft. Benning (Columbus), Fort Gordon (Augusta), Fort McPherson (Atlanta), Robins Air
Service Command (Macon), and Hunter Field (Savannah).
Former GA Governor Richard Russell was elected to the U.S. Senate for seven consecutive terms. Russell became
the Chairman of the powerful Senate Armed Services Committee responsible for overseeing the U.S. Armed Force.
Russell used his power and influence to bring bases to GA.
Carl Vinson was served in the U.S. House of Representatives for 50 years.He worked with Russell to bring military
bases to GA.
c. Explain the impact of the Holocaust on Georgians.
The Holocaust describes the persecution and murder of 6 million Jews and 6 million other minorities by the Nazis.
In 1986, Gov. Joe Frank Harris established the Georgia Commission on the Holocaust. In 1988, the commission
became a permanent state agency whose goal is to teach future generations about the dangers of prejudice, racial
hatred, and genocide. Jewish organizations like the Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta and the Jewish Family
and Career Services provides assistance to Holocaust survivors.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt:
President Roosevelt suffered from a painful, paralyzing disease called polio.To treat his polio, Roosevelt often
visited Warm Springs, GA, where the natural warm spring waters provided therapeutic pain relief for their pain.
Roosevelt established the Warm Springs Foundation in 1927 and built a home nearby after his presidential election
in 1932.
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
(History) Georgia After World War II
SS8H10 The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970.
a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth.
b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major
league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.
c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.
a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth.
1. Changes in agriculture:
Tenant farmers were no longer needed because of: The New Deal’s Agricultural Adjustment Act and A new
invention ….(The Tractor)
Agriculture focused on fewer but larger farms: 1945 – GA had 226,000 farms averaging 105 acres large 1969 –
GA had 67,000 farms averaging 500 acres large
Farmers reduced the number of crops and turned to a new product: Poultry = 1/3 of farm output by 1970 and
Thousands of displaced farmers had to find work elsewhere….(The City)
b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr.,
and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.
After World War II, Atlanta became a major city. In 1940, 65% of Georgians lived in rural areas. By 1976, 60%
lived in or near cities... ATLANTA WAS THE LARGEST.... thanks to William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr.
WIlliam B. Hartsfield - Was a champion and pioneer of advancements in transportation throughout his career. In 1925,
he helped purchase the racetrack that became Atlanta’s first airport. It was named Hartsfield International Airport in 1971.
Today it is THE BUSIEST IN THE WORLD!!! He directed the building of Atlanta’s expressway system. He was mayor of
Atlanta from the 1930s to the 1960s.
Ivan Allen, Jr. - Became mayor after Hartsfield, and served from 1962 – 1970.He built Atlanta’s Memorial Arts cultural
center ($13 million). He built Atlanta’s Civic Center ($9 million). He brought in Atlanta’s three major professional sports
franchises: the Braves (baseball), the Hawks (basketball), & the Falcons (football).
c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.
Served as Governor of Georgia from 1943-1947
Considered one of the most open-minded and effective governors in Georgia history
In a major surprise victory, the little known Arnall defeated the legendary Eugene Talmadge for Governor in 1943.
Unlike Talmadge, who often ruled Georgia like a dictator, Arnall promised a “people’s administration” and made several
important changes:
1. Education – Arnall’s TOP PRIORITY; he removed the Governor from the University of Georgia’s Board of Trustees and
restored UGA’s accreditation.
2. Arnall lowered the voting age to 18 YEARS OLD!!!
3. Arnall abolished the poll tax in Georgia.
4. Arnall revised the state’s constitution.
5. Arnall paid off the state debt.
6. Arnall was a champion of prison reform, ending many practices such as the chain gang.
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Dr. Eldrick H. Horton
January 29, 2017
SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.
a. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia’s role during the 1940s and 1950s; include the roles of Herman
Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor’s race and the end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education,
Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.
b. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and 1970s; include
such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission,
admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany Movement, March on
Washington, Civil Rights Act, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.
c. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.
For the notes associated with this standard, visit this link:
http://www.cobblearning.net/samuelsgastudies/files/2014/04/SS8H11-Civil-Rights-Movement-Summary-Sheet-highlighted-16jm2qm.pdf
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