Download 1060 Diamonds Pstr fp - Saskatchewan Publications Centre

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Igneous rock wikipedia , lookup

Photographs of diamonds courtesy of Shore Gold Inc.
Diamond is the denser of the two crystalline forms of pure carbon (the other is graphite), and is renowned for being the hardest
naturally occurring mineral. However, despite its hardness, diamond can be 'cleaved' or split along certain crystal structural planes,
and this is the basis of the 'cutting' that transforms a rather dull looking crystal into a fiery, sparkling gem.
Pure diamond forms perfectly clear and colourless octahedral (double pyramid) crystals that have a slightly greasy appearance. Small amounts of impurities in the crystal
lattice may colour the crystals yellow, pink or blue; impurities in the form of larger inclusions decrease the clarity and can cause less desirable darker colours such as brown
and black. Most diamonds are found in kimberlite, a volcanic igneous rock that comes from great depths beneath the Earth's crust.
Diamond is used both as an industrial mineral and as a gemstone. Industrial diamonds are the small impure crystals used exclusively for their hardness in drills and saws that
require extremely sharp, long-lasting abrasive surfaces and cutting edges that will cut through materials such as hard steel, rock, and concrete. The use of diamond as a
gemstone depends on its colour, clarity, and "cut-ability"; all of which influence the behaviour of light passing through it. Diamond has a high refractive index and dispersion.
This means that rays of light passing through diamond are bent sharply as they enter or leave the gem and are further split into rainbow colours. Diamonds are cut into
well-defined shapes in order to fully exploit these properties, so that the gem sparkles and flashes.
Diamond discoveries in Saskatchewan were first announced in 1988, during a period of intense exploration across the country that resulted in the discovery and
development of Canada's first diamond mine, the Ekati, in the Northwest Territories. Since then, over 70 diamond-bearing kimberlite bodies have been discovered in
Saskatchewan, in a large area around Fort à la Corne, northeast of Prince Albert.