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Harlem Renaissance Notes
Progressive Era
Progressive Reformers ignored the issues that directly affected former
slaves, nonwhite immigrants, Native Americans, and women.
African Americans
Before 1900, 9/10 of all African Americans lived in the South.
After 1900, many began moving north to find factory jobs.
Although they did find a better life, they still faced job discrimination,
inferior schools, and segregated housing.
Ideas about Achieving Civil Rights
Frederick Douglass believed that ultimate assimilation through selfassertion.
Booker T Washington believed in temporary accommodation to white
and through hard work and acquisition of property, African Americans
could prove they are worthy of respect.
Other believed in living separately from whites, returning back to
Africa, or in establishing African American communities in Oklahoma
Territory or Kansas.
WEB DuBois
What were the 1920s like for African
How did African Americans fight
discrimination in the 1920s?
How did Harlem become a center of African
American culture?
What were the characteristics of those
writers, musicians, and artists who helped
foster the cultural rebirth?
What did Harlem authors, artists, and
musicians express?
Why were African American actors,
musicians, and artists more “mainstream?”
Was an “anti-Bookerite”
Believed that African Americans could gain reasonable rights by not
throwing them away.
Felt African Americans should agitate for their rights.
Believed in the “talented tenth” who would use their skill to pursue
civil rights?
He and other political liberals formed the NAACP.
The NAACP wanted to end racial discrimination and to obtain voting
They faced poverty, discrimination, and segregation.
Many soldiers returned home from World War I only to realize they
were not likely to find equality and social justice at home.
Race riots erupted in the early years of the 1920s.
Marcus Garvey’s “Back to Africa” movement.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
protested violence through parades and campaigns against lynching.
The NAACP’s magazine The Crisis became the voice of those fighting
for civil rights.
Many southern African Americans moved to urban areas especially
New York.
Many immigrants from the West Indies, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Haiti
also moved to New York.
This resulted in a mix of cultures in Harlem.
Young, educated, middle class African Americans.
A new pride in the African American experience.
The trials of living as an African American in a white world.
Expressed a desire for civil rights and equality.
Created a “New Negro” image for white society.
Whites were lured to stylish and exotic nightclubs like the Cotton
Club. Jazz musicians played at these clubs.
Many Harlem Renaissance actors were popular in Europe because of
their talent.
Jazz music was played on the radio.