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Georgia Studies CRCT Study Guide (History)
Paleo Indians
Archaic Indians
exploration in
North America
Charter of 1732
Reasons for the
Settlement of
Mary Musgrove
City of Savannah
Trustee Period
Made by: Karan Achtani
 The oldest culture of prehistoric Indians
Describe their evolution  Invented the atlatl, a device used for hunting
 Lived off of nomadic hunting, so they did not do a lot of farming/ growing. They hunted large game.
 The second oldest culture of prehistoric Indians
 Invented the axe and pottery
 Slowly began moving from being dependent on hunting to also using berries, nuts, and horticulture (the science of
Describe their evolution
cultivating plants and trees)
 Shifted to hunting smaller game because of extinction or climate change
 Began the idea of semi-permanent villages and clans
 Usually divided into three distinctive sub-periods
 Third prehistoric Indian group
 Began to use the bow and arrow, and started religious ceremonies
Describe their evolution  Developed the idea of tribes, which are groups of people who share common ancestry and ways of living
 Made huts for their villages
 Became more dependent on growing food, and they developed the idea of horticulture into the practice of agriculture
 The latest group of prehistoric Indians
 Developed the idea of larger and more permanent villages
Describe their evolution
 Their food source was mainly based on farming and not hunting as it had been in the past
 Became more religious and cultural than their predecessors by dressing more elaborately
 Missions were established in St. Augustine, Guale, and Cumberland Island by the Spanish in order to convert the Native
Evaluate impact on Native
Americans’ culture to that of their own (Roman Catholicism, Spanish language, European customs). This was because the
Spanish believed that their culture was superior to the culture of the Native Americans.
 He was the first explorer to enter Georgia.
Evaluate impact on Native
 He wanted to find gold in Georgia, but he couldn’t. In his attempt to find gold, he brutally killed many natives and
indirectly killed many more by diseases brought to Georgia by him and his men.
 God (to spread religion, mainly Christianity)
 Gold (to gain money for their empire)
Explain reasons
 Glory (to say that their empire was the biggest in the world)
 France was looking for gold. Spain was trying to spread religion. England was trying to spread the Protestant religion as
well as improve its economy by using resources found in the Americas.
 He was the major supporter of the creation of the Georgia colony.
Explain importance in
 He was a wealthy politician who strongly supported prison reform in England. His friend, Robert Castell, died in debtors’
Georgia’s colonial period
prison because of disease, so Oglethorpe sought out a way to help debtors avoid prison. His original idea for Georgia was
to make it a debtors’ colony, where debtors could start a new life; however, this did not end up happening.
 Signed by King George II, this charter gave James Oglethorpe and 20 other trustees permission to start and govern the
Georgia colony for 21 years.
 It established the following boundaries for Georgia: Savannah River (North), Atlantic Ocean (East), Altamaha River
(South), and the Pacific Ocean (West)
Explain importance in
Georgia’s colonial period  Declared that trustees were to manage the colony, but could not (1) get paid (2) own land (3) hold public office (4) make
laws, but they could make regulations
 Established rules for the settlers: (1) banned Catholics, blacks, alcohol dealers, and lawyers (2) banned slavery and
alcohol (3) limited land ownership (4) all colonists were to help defend the colony if needed
 Charity: England wanted to lower its poverty and unemployment
 Economics: Britain wanted to sustain a policy of mercantilism (exporting more than what is being imported), so Georgia’s
Explain importance in
excellent agricultural sources would help increase Britain’s trade and wealth. The mulberry trees of Georgia were an
Georgia’s colonial period
important source of silk for Britain.
 Defense: Georgia would act as a defensive buffer for the established colonies to the North by protecting them from the
Spanish in Florida and the French in the West.
 He was the chief of the Yamacraw Indians, on whose land the colonists were allowed to settle.
Explain importance in
 He allowed the settlers to use Savannah (Yamacraw Bluff) because his tribe had become dependent on trading with the
Georgia’s colonial period
British in South Carolina. Trading with the British in Savannah would make things much easier.
 He and Oglethorpe became very good friends.
 She was instrumental in the creation of Georgia because she served as translator for Oglethorpe and Tomochichi.
Explain importance in
Without her, Tomochichi would not be able to understand what Oglethorpe was trying to do and might not have let him
Georgia’s colonial period
 The place where Oglethorpe and the first settlers of Georgia settled
Explain importance in
Georgia’s colonial period  First planned city in America (laid in squares)
 Overall, this period in Georgia’s history (1733-1752) was managed by the 21 trustees and run indirectly by King George II
 All religions were allowed except for Catholicism
 Slavery was illegal, and land ownership was limited
 The trustee period was a successful starting point, but had a lot of bumps (disease, discontent, Spanish threat). It ended
in 1752 and was not continued after the Charter’s 21-year period.
What to do?
Highland Scots
Spanish threat
from Florida
Georgia as a
Royal Colony
 They were German Protestants that lived in a Catholic Austria. They came to Georgia in March of 1734 to gain religious
 Oglethorpe agreed to let them stay and gave them land to farm on, which they called Ebenezer. This land was not
Identify their role in
adequate for farming, so Oglethorpe allowed them to move to another location, which they called New Ebenezer.
Georgia’s trustee period
 They did not speak the language of the settlers, so they mainly kept to themselves. However, they did help defend the
colony against the Spanish when needed.
 Opposed slavery
 They were warriors from Scotland who were invited by Oglethorpe to come to the colony and help defend it.
 They came in January of 1736 and established the town of Darien.
Identify their role in
Georgia’s trustee period  Played an important role in the Battle of Bloody Marsh during the fight against the Spanish
 Opposed slavery
 Many colonists become angry with the regulations that ban alcohol (rum), slavery, and the passing of land to female
Identify their role in
heirs. These people become known as malcontents, and start to pose a problem for Georgia’s trustees.
Georgia’s trustee period
 These mainly included rich Scottish colonists who were upset that they couldn’t own slaves or more land
 The Spanish invaded Georgia in 1739 as a part of the War of Jenkins Ear. Since Britain and Spain were already fighting in
Europe, Oglethorpe decided to fight back in the New World. Both sides were fighting for the land around Georgia’s
southern border.
Identify its role in Georgia’s
trustee period
 Oglethorpe failed to capture the Florida island of St. Augustine at the beginning of the war, but he staged an ambush at
St. Simons Island and pushed the Spanish back into Florida. Oglethorpe ended up winning the war.
 The cost of this war made the British Parliament question the cost-effectiveness of the Georgia trustee colony.
 Georgia’s boundaries were Savannah River (North), Atlantic Ocean (East), St. Mary’s River (South), and the Mississippi
River (West)
 Under royal rule, a royal governor controlled the colony, but still reported to the British Monarch
Explain the development
 Land ownership was less restricted and slavery was legal. Alcohol was eventually legalized as well.
 The Anglican Church became the official church of Georgia.
 Georgia was divided into 8 parishes (religious counties).
Explain its importance in the
Land Ownership development of Georgia as a
Royal Colony
Explain its importance in the
 Slavery was legalized in 1750, and allowed Georgia’s economy to prosper more. It also made the colonists happier
development of Georgia as a
because they really wanted the right to own slaves.
Royal Colony
Explain its importance in the
development of Georgia as a
Royal Colony
Explain their role in the
Royal Governors development of Georgia as a
Royal Colony
French and
Indian War
Explain its impact on Georgia
and how it was a cause of the
American Revolution
Explain its impact on Georgia
Proclamation of
and how it was a cause of the
American Revolution
Stamp Act
 In 1750, colonists were allowed to own up to 500 acres, and they were free to use the land how they wished. They could
also pass down land to female heirs.
Explain its impact on Georgia
and how it was a cause of the
American Revolution
 The first form of government in Georgia consisted of a bicameral legislature.
 The upper house, called the Governor’s Council, was made mainly to advise the governor and had lots of power. These
officers were appointed by the King of Britain and were usually wealth, well-to-do people.
 The lower house, the Commons House of Assembly, made the laws. These were elected positions
 To hold office, you had to have at least 500 acres of land.
 To vote, you had to have at least 50 acres of land.
 The King appointed John Reynolds as the first Royal Governor. Because Reynolds was a military oriented man, the King
thought that he would be a good governor to protect Georgia from the French. Reynolds was governor during the French
and Indian War, but did not play a major role. During his leadership, he established a government and court system in
Georgia, but he began to disagree with other elected officials and decided to take over control of Georgia. After lots of
discontent among the colonists, the King replaced Reynolds.
 Henry Ellis was the next Royal Governor. Under his command, Georgia’s economy prospered. Also, he was well liked; he
signed a treaty with the Creek Indians, and the colonists liked him. However, he did not like the hot weather of Georgia,
and once he caught malaria, he decided to resign his position.
 James Write was the final Royal Governor. His political and business skills helped him to make Georgia’s economy excel
and its standing improve. He also cooperated with the Indians. He was dedicated to helping the state while still being
loyal to the King. When the Revolutionary War began, he was pulled out of Georgia.
 This was a nine year war between the French and the British over disputed lands in the Ohio River Valley. Both empires
claimed this land, but neither of them wanted to share it. The British end up winning the war, and France is forced to
cede Canada and all of its lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain. Because Spain allied with France, it is forced to
give up Florida.
 Georgia did not play a major role in the war. However, the Treaty of Paris of 1763 set Georgia’s western boundary to the
Mississippi River.
 The costs of this war were immense, and the British did not have the money repay the money it had borrowed during
the war. Therefore, the government of England thought to start taxing the colonists to repay the war debt. This angered
the colonists because they didn’t see why they were the only ones being taxed on everyday items.
 Proceeding the French and Indian War, King George III issued this order. It extended Georgia’s southern boundary to the
St. Mary’s River. The downside was that it forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, so that
area could be reserved for the Native Americans.
 Colonists were angered by this new law because they were anxious to expand westward. They didn’t care about the
Indians and didn’t understand why they couldn’t move west.
 A tax on newspapers, licenses, and other official documents
 This angered many of the colonists, and Georgia was the only state that actually sold the stamps required by the tax.
 Georgia’s only newspaper, the Georgia Gazette, went out of business because of the higher costs of printing and selling
 Because of the Boston Tea Party (the throwing of tea in the Boston Harbor by the Sons of Liberty to protest the Tea Act
in 1773), Britain wanted to punish the colonists through the Intolerable Acts
Explain their impact on
Georgia and how they were a  This law closed the Boston Harbor until the colonists paid for the ruined tea. It also banned Massachusetts colonists from
Intolerable Acts
cause of the American
having any meetings or gatherings without the approval of the Governor. Finally, it included the Quartering Act, which
required colonists to house and feed any soldiers that asked for this service.
 This further angered the colonists and eventually resulted in the Continental Congress.
Declaration of
Lyman Hall, &
George Walton
Explain its impact on Georgia  Drafted and approved in the Second Continental Congress
and how it was a cause of the  Approved on July 4, 1776, the DOC declared to King George III and the rest of the world that the United States were
American Revolution
independent of Britain. King George realized that he could not appease the colonists, and war would be inevitable.
Analyze their significance in
 The three men who represented Georgia at the Second Continental Convention and signed the Declaration of
the American Revolution
from Georgia’s perspective
Analyze their significance in
the American Revolution
from Georgia’s perspective
Analyze their significance in
the American Revolution
from Georgia’s perspective
Nancy Hart
Analyze her significance in
the American Revolution
from Georgia’s perspective
Battle of Kettle
Analyze its significance in the
American Revolution from
Georgia’s perspective
Elijah Clarke
 Colonists that were still loyal to Great Britain and wanted to stay a colony
 Sometimes called Tories
 There was a lot of discrimination against them from the patriots
 Colonists that wanted to break away from Britain and were willing to fight for it
 Sometimes called Whigs
 One of the most famous female patriots of the Revolutionary War, commonly associated with helping during the Battle
of Kettle Creek
 No one knows exactly what happened, but the story goes that her neighbor was killed by Tories. The Tories then stopped
by her house a few days later, demanding that they be fed. Nancy stealthily took away their rifles and shot at least one of
 Hart County is named after her, the only county in Georgia named after a female.
 One of the few battles fought in Georgia
 Happened in 1779 in Northeastern Georgia
 Elijah Clarke commanded his militia to defeat a large force of British troops. Although this was a minor battle, it allowed
the Continental Army to steal much needed ammunition, horses, and supplies.
Analyze his significance in
the American Revolution  Commander of the patriot forces at the Battle of Kettle Creek.
from Georgia’s perspective
 One of the many blacks who fought in the Revolutionary War alongside the patriots
Austin Dabney
Analyze his significance in
 Famous for fighting in the Battle of Kettle Creek and saving Elijah Clarke’s life
the American Revolution
from Georgia’s perspective  After the war, when war veterans were given free land, Dabney did not receive any because he was colored. However,
after a lot of debate, Dabney was allotted a reasonable plot of land.
Siege of
Analyze its significance in the  As of September of 1779, the British still commanded Savannah as a fort. Thousands of French and American soldiers
American Revolution from
tried to take over, or siege, Savannah. However, this attempt failed, with many fatalities, and Savannah would stay under
Georgia’s perspective
British control for a while.
Constitution of
Analyze the strengths and
Articles of
Analyze the strengths and
weaknesses. Explain how the
weaknesses led to the need
for revision.
Convention of
Describe Georgia’s role, the
role of its delegates, and its
reasons for ratification
 First constitution in Georgia
 Strengths were:
o separated government power (executive, legislative, & judicial)
o replaced parishes with counties
o guaranteed citizens civil liberties
 Weaknesses were:
o The legislature had too much power. It was unicameral and appointed almost all government positions, including
the governor.
o The governor’s power was severely limited. He was appointed by the legislature, served a one-year term, and had
to get almost all of his laws approved by the legislature.
o Only white men over 21 and that had property could vote.
o Amending it was difficult.
 The first form of government in the United States
 It gave Congress power over foreign relations (military, war, peace, treaties, etc.)
 It did not allow the government to tax or interfere with trade among states. It also did not create an executive leader. In
other words, it created a loose organization of states that independently operated without much regulation from the
federal government.
 Many problems arose that caused the revision of the Articles of Confederation.
o States were not cooperating with each other
o The national government could not settle disputes between states
o The national government was depending on the states to pay their fair share of money, but it had no way of
forcing the states to do so. Consequently, the national government was not able to pay for necessities.
o Overall, it was a very weak form of national government that did not function well for the United States.
 Drafted and signed the modern-day constitution that outlines our government and serves as the “Supreme Law of the
 Abraham Baldwin and William Few were the two Georgia delegates that signed the Constitution
 Abraham Baldwin was instrumental in the Great Compromise, which gave equal representation in the Senate and
population-based representation in the House
 It was ratified by the states because of the need to replace the Articles of Confederation
Ratification of
US Constitution
and Bill of Rights
Describe the impact of
events that led to the
ratification of both these
 In order for all of the states to ratify the Constitution, delegates had to make some changes to make everybody happy.
The first ten changes (amendments) were called the Bill of Rights. They outline the rights of citizens and state
governments, and they explain the due process of law.
University of
Explain its establishment and  By the late 1700’s, the Georgia government and citizens recognized the need for “higher education”.
explain how it affected the  The University of Georgia was established as the first university in Georgia, and was opened in 1801.
development of Georgia  The first land grant university (built on donations on land from the national government) and the first state created
between 1789 and 1840
Explain its establishment and  It was the third capital of Georgia.
explain how it affected the  It was established as the capital because Georgia’s population was moving westward, so there came a need for the
development of Georgia
capital to follow.
between 1789 and 1840  During its decade as capital, it sparked huge economic growth in its area.
Baptist and
Explain how they spread and  These religions spread throughout Georgia in the early 19 century and played an instrumental role in influencing the
religious values of the people of Georgia
explain how they affected
the development of Georgia  The Georgia Baptist Convention unified the different types of Baptists in Georgia
between 1789 and 1840  Camp meeting grounds are associated with the Methodist Church
Evaluate its impact on
distributed was in eastern Georgia.
Georgia and explain how it
 Under this system, each Head of Household got 200 acres of land and an additional 50 for each family member (max of
affected the development of
1,000). People got to choose which land they got, so the land parcels were usually irregularly shaped in order to get the
Georgia between 1789 and
best possible land resources.
 This was the first way that the Georgia government decided to distribute the land gained from natives. The land that was
Yazoo Land
Evaluate its impact on
Georgia and explain how it
affected the development of
Georgia between 1789 and
Land Lotteries
Evaluate their impact on
Georgia and explain how
they affected the
development of Georgia
between 1789 and 1840
Cotton Gin
Explain its impact on
Georgia’s growth
Expansion of
Explain its impact on
Georgia’s growth
Analyze his role in the
removal of the Creeks and
Analyze his role in the
removal of the Creeks and
Analyze his role in the
removal of the Creeks and
John Ross
Analyze his role in the
removal of the Creeks and
 This caused the population of Georgia to grow because many people were attracted to the free land.
 In 1795, four companies bribed Governor George Matthews and other state legislators to allow them to buy unsettled
Georgian lands east of the Chattahoochee River (present day Alabama and Mississippi) from the state government for a
very cheap price. The companies then sold the land to other speculators and businesses for a very large profit.
 When the citizens learned of this fraud, they were outraged at the Georgia government. The indicted officials resigned,
and Georgia tried to provide sufficient refunds to the people who had bought the land. However, the speculators did not
want to give up their bargain land. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court, which resulted in the federal
government having to buy the land from the settlers for millions of dollars. It also caused the federal government to
reduce Georgia’s western boundary to the Chattahoochee River (now the boundaries were the same as those of
modern-day Georgia).
 Because of the frauds during the Headright System, the Georgia government created the land lottery system to
distribute the rest of Georgia’s land (within the boundaries set because of the Yazoo Land Fraud). Note that this land was
Cherokee and Creek territory until the government steadily took away their land.
 These were square parcels of land distributed to Georgians by means of a random drawing. The people who were “lucky
winners” had to pay a small fee on the land and then it was theirs.
 There were eight land lotteries held during the early 1800’s.
 This helped to develop and establish English civilization in the previously indigenous and undeveloped areas of Georgia.
 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin; it separated the seeds from the cotton fibers.
 This allowed the Cotton Kingdom (SE USA) to prosper. This made processing cotton much more efficient, and greatly
augmented Georgia’s cotton output.
 Because the cotton was being processed faster, cotton needed to be picked faster; therefore, the need for slave labor
also increased with this invention.
 Terminus (present-day Atlanta) was established as a railroad center for the southeast.
 The growth of railroads allowed Georgians to quickly transport goods throughout the country by connecting sellers to a
wide range of markets. This was especially helpful in the selling of cash crops (i.e. cotton, tobacco)
 He was a Creek chief who tried to protect the Creeks’ land from the government
 He fought against the whites in the Oconee War, and signed the 1790 Treaty of New York. This made the Creeks give up
their land east of the Oconee River, but secured their land west of the Oconee River. However, the treaty was ignored by
both the whites and the Creeks.
 He was a Creek chief who supported the governments’ taking of Creek territory
 He personally profited from treaties that ceded Creek land to the government
 He signed the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs with the governor of Georgia, who was his cousin. This treaty ceded all Creek
lands to Georgia for a low price. Because he did not ask permission from any of the Creeks before signing the treaty, the
Creeks punished him by executing him.
 A Cherokee Indian that was impressed with the white men’s way of written communication. Consequently, he decided
to create a Cherokee language.
 Created a syllabary, which is a set of symbols used for writing. This was the first Native American language ever created.
 Started the first Cherokee newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix
 Believed that the Cherokee should use some of the white men’s culture in order to be more accepted
 A chief of the Cherokee Indians during the Dahlonega Gold Rush and the Trail of Tears
 He also believed that if the Cherokees were to be accepted, then they would have to adopt some of the white men’s
 He worked very hard to protect the Cherokee lands from the government; he protested the Land Lottery and the Indian
Removal Act.
 Although he once saved Andrew Jackson’s life, the president refused to listen to him and forced the Indians out of the
Dahlonega Gold
Worcester v.
 In 1829, gold was discovered in North Georgia near Dahlonega, part of the Cherokee territory.
 The Georgia government took the area that gold was found in from the Cherokees.
 The legislature passed laws that restricted the rights of the Cherokees in order to benefit the white miners. It also made
all Cherokee laws invalid.
 Samuel Worcester was a white missionary in Cherokee territory that was arrested for refusing to sign an allegiance to
Analyze its role in the
the governor. He was sent to jail, but appealed his sentence with the Supreme Court.
removal of the Creeks and
The chief justice ruled that he was not guilty because state laws did not apply in Indian territories.
 The governor of Georgia and the American president refused to accept or enforce the ruling.
Analyze its role in the
removal of the Creeks and
John Marshall
Analyze his role in the
removal of the Creeks and
Andrew Jackson
Analyze his role in the
removal of the Creeks and
Trail of Tears
Analyze its role in the
removal of the Creeks and
Explain its importance as a
cause of the Civil War
States Rights’
Explain its importance as a
cause of the Civil War
Explain its importance as an
issue preceding the Civil War
Explain its importance as a
key event preceding the Civil
Compromise of
1850 & the
Explain its importance as a
key event preceding the Civil
KansasNebraska Act
Explain its importance as a
key event preceding the Civil
Dread Scott case
Explain its importance as a
cause of the Civil War
 The chief justice that ruled in favor of Worcester in the case Worcester vs. Georgia
 The president of the USA during the Indian Removal Period
 He signed the 1830 Indian Removal Act upon entering office, which allowed the United States to buy Indian lands in
exchange for lands farther west.
 He also signed the 1835 Treaty of New Echota, which seized all of the Cherokee’s land in Georgia and forced them to
move to Oklahoma.
 Resulted from the Treaty of New Echota
 It was the path that the Indians from Georgia took to Oklahoma after being forced out of their native lands by the US
government (1838-1839).
 Many Indians died of exposure, disease, and starvation along the way.
 The South’s economy depended on the usage of slaves, and the South felt strongly about slavery being allowed.
 The North’s economy did not require slavery. The North didn’t have the same perspective of slavery and did not see why
the South needed it. They thought that slavery was immoral and should be abolished.
 This created a lot of differences and tension between the South and the North and, consequently, was a major cause of
the Civil War.
 The South believed that states should be given the most governing power, and the federal government should be kept to
a minimum.
 The North believed that in order for the country to function properly, the national government must have a lot of power,
and the state governments should be given little power.
 This created a lot of differences and tension between the South and the North and, consequently, was a major cause of
the Civil War.
 In Antebellum time, nullification referred to when a state refused to abide by certain laws established by the national
 This happened when the federal government created a higher tariff on imported goods. This helped the North by making
homeland factories more competitive with international businesses. However, the South did not have many factories
and thought that the tariffs were just hurting them by making them pay more for imported goods. Some of the southern
states refused to enforce the tariff; they were nullifying the law.
 In 1820, there were an even number of slave and free states, which resulted in equal representation in the Senate. When
Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state, Congress had to admit Maine as a free state to make it even.
 Parts to the Missouri Compromise:
o Missouri entered the Union as a slave state; Maine entered as a free state
o Congress established the Mason-Dixon Line, which divided the country into slave states and free states
 This was a compromise, so, while it did make both sides angry, it satisfied some of the wants of both sides and
temporarily avoided war.
 In 1850, California wanted to enter as a free state, even though it was south of the boundary established by the Missouri
Compromise. This would also upset the balance in the Senate. After months of debating, Congress came up with the
Compromise of 1850.
 Parts to the Compromise of 1850:
o California entered as a free state; New Mexico and Utah would get to decide whether they wanted to be slave or free
o Slavery was outlawed in Washington DC
o The Fugitive Slave Act was passed, which required anybody harboring fugitive slaves to return them to their owners
 This was a compromise, so, while it did make both sides angry, it satisfied some of the wants of both sides and
temporarily avoided war.
 The Georgia Platform was the political party from Georgia that supported this compromise.
 By 1854, the issue of slavery was still a problem. When Kansas and Nebraska requested statehood, Congress decided
that any new state entering the Union would get to decide whether it would be slave or free, regardless of whether it
was in the North or the South. This would be decided by the people’s vote (popular sovereignty).
 During the voting in Kansas and Nebraska, there were many bloody riots and fights because both sides were so extreme
about their values.
 Even though Kansas voted to become a slave state, Congress rejected their vote and admitted it as a free state. This
decision ended up being a blow to the South because it realized that Congress could reject any proposal that the South
requested because the North had a higher population; therefore, it had more representatives in the House.
 Dred Scott was a slave and was taken by his owner to a free state. When his owner decided to take him back to a slave
state, Dred Scott sued because he believed he was free once he was in a free state.
 The Supreme Court ruled that Scott was not allowed to sue because he was a slave, not a citizen; therefore, his case was
 This decision angered the North because the North strongly supported Dred Scott and the abolitionist movement. This
decision presented the view that white men were far superior to slaves, whose rights were so restricted that they could
not even fight for their rights.
 Abraham Lincoln, a republican, was elected as president of the USA in 1860.
Election of 1860
Explain its importance as a
 Although he said that he had no intention of abolishing slavery, this was the last straw for the South. South Carolina
cause of the Civil War
Debate over
secession in
Explain its importance as a
cause of secession in Georgia
Battle of
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War
Battle of
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War
Battle of
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War
Union Blockade
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War;
specifically its effect on
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War;
specifically its effect on
March to the
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War;
specifically its effect on
State its importance as a key
event of the Civil War
Analyze its impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
and Tenant
Analyze their impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
Analyze their impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
13th amendment
Analyze its impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
quickly seceded from the Union following his election. Other states followed suit.
 Georgia was deciding whether or not to follow South Carolina and secede from the Union. It ended up seceding in
January of 1861.
 Alexander Stephens was an influential speaker that tried to persuade Georgians from seceding. He believed, although
Georgia’s concerns were not being heard by the federal government, Georgia should still stay loyal to the Union.
 Governor Brown, R. Toombs, and T. Cobb were very pro-secession and convinced Georgians to secede from the Union.
 In 1862, Confederate Gen. Lee tried to invade Union territory in an attempt to capture Washington DC
 Union forces pushed him back into Virginia, and the battle was considered a Union Victory.
 This battle was considered to be the bloodiest day of the Civil War, and in US history.
 Five days after the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which, unless the
Confederacy surrendered, freed all slaves in states of rebellion. Note that it did not free slaves in the border states.
 Although the USA didn’t have jurisdiction in the CSA, this document still worried the Confederacy, and it raised the spirits
of the slaves.
 In 1863, Gen. Lee again tried to invade the North and capture the Union capital by way of Pennsylvania.
 The battle lasted three days, and the Confederacy lost. This battle was the bloodiest battle of the war, with over 50,000
 It is considered to be the turning point of the Civil War— the North started winning more, and the South started losing
 Confederate Gen. Bragg defeated Union forces near Chickamauga in Northwest Georgia. However, Bragg did not follow
up on the win, and the Union forces recovered and came back, forcing Gen. Bragg to retreat.
 Considered a confederate victory although it ultimately did not help the Confederate army.
 The bloodiest battle fought in Georgia
 One of the Union’s strategies was to block of the Confederate coastline. This was meant to prevent the Confederacy
from selling its goods to foreign markets and receiving supplies from its European allies.
 The Georgian ports of Darien and Brunswick were unable to operate. Eventually, the Union took control of Savannah too.
A lack of operational ports caused Georgia to suffer; it could not make money on its abundant cotton, and it could not
get supplies for the Confederacy.
 Blockade running was a common practice in the early part of the war. Small ships would make it past the Union patrols
and get supplies. However, this became harder and harder as the Union strengthened its blockade with more ships.
 In the summer of 1864, Union Gen. Sherman fought vigorously against the Confederates in the Atlanta area. This caused
the Confederate Army to retreat and retreat, eventually allowing Sherman to take control of Atlanta.
 Sherman’s troops looted Atlanta for anything that they needed and destroyed everything else. Before he started his
March to the Sea, Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground to make all of its railroads and supplies useless to the
 After the Atlanta campaign, Sherman led his troops from Atlanta to Savannah during late 1864. They destroyed
everything that could help the Confederacy. In doing so, they burned a path 60 miles wide through Georgia.
 He destroyed farms, homes, towns, railroads, roads, food, and ammunition. Consequently, the Confederacy’s resources
and moral were ruined, and, soon afterward, Confederate Gen. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. Grant at Appomattox
Court House in Virginia on April 9, 1865.
 The largest prison during the Civil War was the Andersonville Prison, located in Georgia. It housed many Union prisoners
of war and was considered to be the most notorious prison in the war.
 It was way too overcrowded and the conditions were terrible. Many of the prisoners died from malnutrition or disease.
 It was a federal agency created after the Civil War to help freed slaves cope with their transition from slavery to
freedom. It also helped improve living for poor whites.
 Its focus was to provide clothing, food, education, and fair jobs to freed blacks and poor whites.
 Agriculture was still a major part of Georgia’s, and the South’s, economy. However, now land-owners could not use
slaves to do the farming, and they could not afford to fund enough labor to cultivate all of their land. Also, there were
freed blacks and poor whites that were uneducated and could not find work. Consequently, the practices of
sharecropping and tenant farming became common.
 Sharecropping was a system in which sharecroppers received supplies to cultivate a landowner’s land in exchange for a
part of the harvest. However, sharecroppers also needed supplies such as food and clothing for themselves and their
families; they bought these things on credit. After paying the landowner and their loans, sharecroppers often had barely
any money left over.
 Tenant Farming was a system similar to sharecropping, except that the farmer already owned farming equipment. At the
end of a harvest, the farmer would pay the landowner an agreed upon payment to compensate for the using of the
landowner’s land. Because tenant farmers did not have to pay the landowners as much as sharecroppers did, they often
made a small profit.
 The Presidential Reconstruction plan was headed by Abraham Lincoln and later Andrew Johnson, the former being the
more lenient one. This plan tried to reinstate the South without brutally punishing it. In this plan, states were readmitted
to the Union if they had 10% of their population declare loyalty to the Union and ratified the 13th amendment. Also,
former Confederate officers and wealthy land owners in the South would not be allowed to vote.
 Congress did not like the laid back approach by the Presidential Plan, so it started the Congressional Reconstruction. This
approach was more extreme and forced states to ratify the 14th and 15th amendments.
 The amendment to the US constitution that banned slavery.
14th amendment
15th amendment
Analyze its impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
Analyze its impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
Henry McNeal
Turner & other
black legislators
Analyze their impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
Ku Klux Klan
Analyze its impact on the
Reconstruction in Georgia
and other southern states
Evaluate its impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
Henry Grady
Evaluate his impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
Evaluate its impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
Tom Watson
and the
Evaluate their impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
Rebecca Latimer
Evaluate her impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
1906 Atlanta
Evaluate its impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
Leo Frank Case
Evaluate its impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
County Unit
Evaluate its impact on
Georgia between the years
of 1877-1918
 The amendment to the US constitution that granted citizens to all men born in the United States. It also banned any
states from denying any citizen equal protection of the law.
 The amendment to the US constitution that gave all male citizens the right to vote.
 The heightened black representation in the voting population caused several black legislators, such as Henry McNeal
Turner, to be appointed to the Georgia General Assembly. However, in 1868, the Georgia government deemed that the
constitution did not grant blacks the right to hold office, and they were removed from office.
 African Americans formed a large part of the Republican population.
 This was a terrorist organization formed during the Reconstruction whose mission was to keep blacks from exercising
their new rights. It accomplished this by threats, beatings, whippings, and murders to frighten blacks from voting.
 It was a group of democrats that helped to improve Georgia during the Redemption period after the Republicans lost
control of Georgia. They held the governor’s office from 1872-1890, and during that time, they helped Georgia’s
economy prosper. The three members of the Bourbon Triumvirate were Alfred Colquitt, Joseph Brown, and John
 They believed that industrializing Georgia’s economy would be better than having just an agriculturally-dependent
economy. They also attempted to rebuild Georgia’s relations with the North so that the state could get new businesses
and markets.
 They supported the idea of white supremacy. Also, they were accused of taking advantage of their position to benefit
from the Convict Lease System.
 Because of their racist values and their mismanaging of the Convict Lease System, the Bourbon Triumvirate lost its
influence in Georgia politics.
 Considered the “Spokesman of the New South”
 He used his eloquence to write newspaper articles and give speeches to convince northerners that Georgia was a
changed state and that coming to Georgia would be a great investment
 This was a successful attempt to attract money to Georgia’s agricultural industry.
 In 1881, 1887, and 1895, fairs were set up in Atlanta to display the new technology and advances that Georgia had to
offer. They attracted businesses and buyers to Atlanta and were a huge boost to Georgia’s economy.
 Because of low prices for crops and high transportation costs, farmers were not prospering during the Redemption
period. They formed groups, such as the Farmers’ Alliance, to work together to solve these problems. These actions were
known as Populism.
 Tom Watson was a politician who supported farmers and their rights. He also supported the rights of rural families. He is
best known for passing the Rural Free Delivery Bill, which provided free mail service to rural homes.
 She was a woman who was influential in both starting Prohibition and ending the Convict Lease System. She was also a
strong advocator of equal rights, for races and genders.
 She became the first woman to serve in the US Senate.
 In 1906, false rumors reached the ears of white men that black men were attacking white ladies. Combined with racial
tension, this caused white men to commit a string of violent acts against African Americans.
 News of this riot reached the rest of the rest of the country and created a bad image for Atlanta. Now the rest of the
country was beginning to realize the magnitude of the racial violence in the South.
 In 1915, a Jewish man named Leo Frank was killed for a crime he did not commit.
 He was accused of killing a 14-year old girl. He was sentenced to death, but Governor Slaton changed his sentence to a
life in prison. However, racists kidnapped Frank from prison and hung him in Marietta Square.
 This is an example of anti-Semitism (racism against Jews). Even though Frank was clearly not the killer, the jury still found
him guilty and sentenced him to death. Because of this, people took Frank out of jail and hung him because they thought
that he killed the girl.
 It was a system of voting in Georgia that began in 1917. Georgia’s counties were divided into 3 categories: urban, town,
and rural. Each county would get a certain number of votes, depending on its type. Even though urban counties each
received more votes, there were much more rural counties. Resultantly, the rural population was receiving much more
say in the state government than the urban population was. Therefore, the voting system did not accurately represent
the desires of Georgia’s population.
Jim Crow Laws
Analyze how they denied
 Laws established by southern states during the Post-Reconstruction era that mandated segregation. Public facilities were
rights to African Americans
to have separate places labeled “Whites Only” and “Colored”.
between the years of 1877
These laws were written in such a way that they did not violate the constitution, but were still racist.
Plessy v.
Analyze how it denied rights
case to the Supreme Court, which ruled that it was legal for races to be separated, and it did not violate the Constitution.
to African Americans
 This decision formed the idea of “Separate but Equal”. The court said that it was okay for governments to provide
between the years of 1877separate facilities for different races, as long as the facilities were equal. However, the colored facilities often got much
 In 1896, a man named Homer Plessy was arrested on a train for refusing to move from the White’s Only car. He took the
less funding than white facilities.
Racial violence
Booker T.
 This was an attempt by southern governments to prevent African Americans from voting. They were trying to do this by
finding loopholes in the 15th amendment.
 Disenfranchisement was done by…
o Poll Tax- a voter had to pay in order to vote. This prevented most African Americans from voting because most of
them were poor. However, it also prevented poor whites from voting.
Analyze how it denied rights
o Literacy Test- a voter had to pass a literacy test to prove that he was educated. Most African Americans were
to African Americans
uneducated because they had just come out of slavery, so this also prevented them from voting. However, there
between the years of 1877were also some poor whites that were uneducated.
o Grandfather Clause- because some of the measures instated to prevent African Americans from voting also affected
the whites, the southern governments created the Grandfather Clause. This allowed anybody who had an ancestor
that could vote before 1867 to vote. Because African Americans did not gain the right to vote until 1867, this did not
help them; it did help the poor whites to be able to vote.
o White Primaries- African Americans were not allowed to vote in Democratic Primary Elections
Analyze how it denied rights
 The KKK was conducting many terrorist acts to scare African Americans from exercising their rights
to African Americans
 Many whites did not like the growing number of liberties that African Americans were receiving, and they violently
between the years of 1877protested it in acts such as the 1906 Atlanta Riot
Explain his role in key
 He supported a gradual approach to fixing the racism problem in the south. In a speech, he explained the Atlanta
political, social, and
economic changes that
Compromise, which was a plan in which the blacks and whites would work together to improve social and economic
occurred in Georgia between situations for African Americans and then equality would eventually come. This belief was called Accommodationism.
1877 and 1918
 He shared B.T. Washington’s desire for social equity, but he did not like the gradual approach.
W.E.B. Du Bois
John and
Lugenia Burns
Alonzo Herndon
World War I
Boll Weevil
Explain his role in key
 He founded the Niagra movement after writing The Souls of Black Folk. The Niagra movement was a more aggressive
political, social, and
approach to equality that wanted equality immediately. The civil rights activists in this movement believed that they
economic changes that
should fight for “total racial equality”.
occurred in Georgia between
 He and other members of the Niagra movement founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
1877 and 1918
 Both were educators that supported giving more rights to African Americans
Explain their role in key
 John Hope was the first African American president of Morehouse College. He later became the first African American
political, social, and
president of Atlanta University. During his leadership, Atlanta University became the first US college to have graduate
economic changes that
education for African Americans. John was also a strong supporter of Du Bois, the Niagra movement, and the NAACP.
occurred in
Georgia between 1877 and  Lugenia Burns Hope was a women civil rights activist who helped assist many of the African Americans in Georgia. She
created a welfare agency for African Americans, which was the first of its kind. She also advocated for universal suffrage
for women.
Explain his role in key
 He was a wealthy African American in Atlanta who owned barber shops, properties, and an insurance company. He
political, social, and
donated much of his earnings to local institutions that advocated for the advancement of African American life.
economic changes that
occurred in
 He founded the National Negro Business League along with B.T. Washington, and he helped to create the Niagra
Georgia between 1877 and
movement along with W.E.B. Du Bois.
 WWI, which lasted from 1914-1918, started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a
Serbian. This caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, and European alliances caused other European nations to
enter the war. This large war pitted the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire)
against the Allies (France, UK, Russia, and eventually the US).
 Although the US wished to stay neutral during this war, the US began fighting in 1917, mainly because of the German’s
sinking of the Lusitania (a British ship that carried many Americans) and the Zimmerman Telegram (Germany’s request
Explain reasons and describe
for Mexico to join the Central Powers and go against the US).
Georgia’s contributions
 Georgia’s contributions:
o Soldiers: Georgia was home to five military installations that became vital during the war. About 85,000-100,000
Georgia citizens joined the military during the war.
o Training: By the end of WWI, Georgia had more military training camps than any other state, the largest of which
was Camp Gordon. Also, Georgia had an air force flight school, which trained over 2,000 pilots for the war.
o Prisoner Camp: Georgia had a prisoners of war camp that held about 4,000 prisoners.
 In the early 20th century (around 1915-1925), a beetle, called the Boll Weevil, was introduced to Georgia. This pest
Describe impact on Georgia
destroyed the cotton crops of Georgia and other Southeastern states for years.
 Because Georgia’s economy was so dependent upon “Cotton King”, it suffered a lot from this insect.
 In 1924, a major drought hit Georgia. This occurred at about the same time as the Dust Bowl in the Midwest.
Describe impact on Georgia  Combined, the boll weevil, the drought, and overuse of land caused the agriculturally-dependent economy of Georgia to
plummet, even before the Great Depression.
Explain the economic factors
that resulted in it and
describe its impact on
Discuss the impact of his
career on Georgia
Discuss its effect as a part of
the New Deal
Adjustment Act
Discuss its effect as a part of
the New Deal
Social Security
Discuss its effect as a part of
the New Deal
Discuss its effect as a part of
the New Deal
Pearl Harbor
Describe as an event leading
up to the American
involvement in WWII
Describe as an event leading
up to the American
involvement in WWII
Bell Aircraft
Military bases
Savannah and
Richard Russell
Carl Vinson
 Causes
o Stock Market Crash: During the Roaring Twenties (1920’s), many investors were overly confident about companies.
They invested a lot of their money buying shares in companies. On Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929), the value of
shares dropped unexpectedly. Scared of losing all of their money, investors sold their shares at a high loss.
o Credit: During the Roaring Twenties, many consumers believed that the economy was always going to be okay, and
they could buy whatever they wanted and could eventually pay it off. However, when the stock market crashed,
citizens lost a lot of their money and couldn’t pay off their loans. Also, banks plummeted because they could not
collect money that wasn’t there.
o Bank Distrust: When the Great Depression began, many people were scared of losing all of their money, so they
tried to withdraw their money from the bank. Because of the way banks function, they could not give everybody
their money back because nobody was able to pay off their loans. Also, banks could not give out any more loans
because it did not have deposits to do it with. When banks cannot give loans, businesses cannot grow, people
cannot buy houses, and economic development plunges.
 The impact of the Great Depression was felt throughout the country, including Georgia. Unemployment was high, people
could not pay for necessities, businesses suffered, and cotton prices dropped.
 One of his first political jobs was being the Commissioner of Agriculture for Georgia. Like Tom Watson, he supported
farmers and other people in rural areas.
 He became governor of Georgia in 1932. Talmadge was opposed to federal intervention; he was a white supremacist and
a supporter of states’ rights. Therefore, he did not like Roosevelt’s New Deal and tried his best to keep those programs
out of Georgia. As governor, he passed a lot of laws by executive order, a right given to the governor of a state that
allows him to pass a law without legislature approval. Also, he fired any public official that opposed his views and
replaced them with ones that supported his views. He served two terms between 1932-1936 (2-year terms).
 He was elected as governor again in 1940. This time, he was a little more lenient with New Deal programs and allowed
versions of them to be used in Georgia. The state’s economy grew under his leadership, but then the “Cocking Affair”
cast him into bad light with Georgia’s voters. Walter Cocking was a dean of a college and was considering allowing racial
integration in his college. Talmadge, a supporter of white supremacy, did not like this and convinced the Board of
Regents to fire Cocking. To do this, he used his signature way of getting what he wanted: replace his opposition.
However, his opposition to racial integration caused all of Georgia colleges to lose their accreditation. For this reason, he
lost the next election.
 He was elected as governor again in 1946 for his fourth term because of his opposition to allowing blacks to vote in
Democratic primaries. However, he died before he could enter office.
 The federal government provided jobs to single, young, unemployed men. These jobs included building trails, planting
trees, building parks, and conserving soil. In exchange for their work, the government provided them with food, housing,
and money.
 Its job was to increase the price of crops by decreasing the production of crops. This meddled with the system of supply
and demand and caused crop prices to increase.
 It established the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, whose job was to raise the prices of crops, vary the types of
crops that farmers grew, and protect the soil from being overworked.
 Passed in 1935, the Social Security Act gave some protection to people that were retired, unemployed, or disabled. For
the retired, it provided benefits such as money and healthcare. For the unemployed or disabled, it provided them with
necessities that they needed to stay out of poverty and helped them get jobs.
 When Roosevelt was staying in Georgia, he noticed that the rural areas did not have electricity. This was because power
companies thought it was too expensive to build power lines and facilities to provide electricity to the sparse rural
population. This caused him to pass the Rural Electrification Act in 1936.
 The federal government loaned out money to states and power companies to improve electrical service in rural areas.
Within four years, Georgia was one of the nation’s leaders in rural electrification.
 On December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. President Roosevelt called it “A Day That Will
Live in Infamy”
 This caused the United States to enter WWII on the side of the Allies
 Passed in 1941, the Lend-Lease Act gave Roosevelt to send supplies to the Allies, regardless of whether they could pay or
not. His reasoning was that the Allies were fighting a common enemy, but the US did not want to get directly involved,
so this was a way of indirectly helping the Allies.
 A company named Bell Aircraft Company assembled B-29 bombers for the US Air Force during WWII. Its manufacturing
plant was in Marietta, and it was the largest facility in the South.
Evaluate its importance in
Evaluate their importance in
 As in WWI, the military bases in Georgia played a key role in training US soldiers for the armed forces
 These ports helped with the war effort by creating “Liberty ships”. These were newly devised war ships, and Savannah
and Brunswick produced 187 Liberty ships by the time the war was over. In doing so, the ports employed thousands of
extra workers and boosted the economy of Georgia.
Evaluate his importance in  He was a senator who was a part of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee. He helped to bring wartime opportunities into
Georgia, such as bringing a dozen military bases to Georgia.
Evaluate his importance in  He was a congressman from Georgia who helped increase the United States’ military readiness by passing many bills to
improve the quantity and quality of the armed forces. He was especially involved in increasing the size of the Navy.
 Although the Holocaust was happening in Europe, reports of the tragic events still reached Georgians. The Holocaust
Explain its impact on
resulted in Georgians being more accepting towards Jews. There were also many charities in the USA that successfully
collected money to aid Jews in Europe.
Evaluate their importance in
Discuss his ties to Georgia
and his impact on the state
William B.
Explain how he contributed
to the development of
Atlanta and Georgia from
Ivan Allen, Jr.
Explain how he contributed
to the development of
Atlanta and Georgia from
Major League
Explain how they contributed
to the development of
Atlanta and Georgia from
Ellis Arnall
Discuss his impact from
Describe his role in the civil
rights movement of the 40’s
and 50’s
Benjamin Mays
Describe his role in the civil
rights movement of the 40’s
and 50’s
1946 governor’s
Describe its role in the civil
race and the end
rights movement of the 40’s
of the white
and 50’s
Martin Luther
King, Jr.
Describe his role in the civil
rights movement of the 40’s
and 50’s
1956 state flag
Describe its role in the civil
rights movement of the 40’s
and 50’s
Brown v. Board
of Education
Describe its role in the civil
rights movement of the 40’s
and 50’s
Analyze its role in the civil
rights movement of the 60’s
and 70’s
 President Roosevelt visited Warm Springs, Georgia, many times throughout his presidency in the hopes of curing his
polio. His often visits caused him to become sentimentally connected to Georgia.
 His connection helped Georgia build the Bell Aircraft plant, which produced planes for the war and created many new
jobs. Once the war was over, these workers were able to use their newly acquired skills to seek jobs outside of the
agricultural industry.
 He served 6 terms as mayor of Atlanta from 1937-1962, which was during the end of the Great Depression and included
 During his leadership, Atlanta’s population and size grew tremendously. This was an example of urbanization in Georgia
during the 20th century—many people were moving from farms to cities.
 He helped to get Atlanta out of depression with his strict budgeting strategies.
 Often called Atlanta’s “father of aviation” and the Atlanta airport is named after him
 He served as mayor of Atlanta after Hartsfield. He served from 1962-1970 during the heart of the Civil Rights movement.
 He is credited for desegregation in Atlanta. Some of the things he did include ordering all of the segregation signs
removed and integrating public facilities.
 He also worked to bring major league sports to Atlanta in the 1960’s.
 Sports contributed to cultural and recreational growth in Atlanta and Georgia during this period. The sports games
became very popular by the end of the 1900’s.
 Important figures that helped bring and develop Major League Sports in Georgia are Ivan Allen, Ted Turner, and the
Atlanta Spirit.
 Atlanta’s major league sports are the Braves (baseball), Falcons (football), Hawks (basketball), and Thrashers (hockey).
 He served as the governor of Georgia from 1943-1947
 He restored Georgia colleges’ accreditation that was revoked during E. Talmadge’s leadership
 He adjusted the format of the Georgia government to avoid corruption. For example, he removed the prison system
from the governor’s control, which avoided the problems caused by the Bourbon Triumvirate.
 He adjusted the tax system, reduced the voting age, and passed a new state constitution. Additionally, he gave African
Americans the right to vote in primary elections.
 Governor of Georgia from 1948-1955 (took over after his father died)
 During his years as Governor and his subsequent years as senator, he openly opposed desegregation and fought to keep
it from happening.
 He was an African American minister, educator, scholar, and social activist. He was president of Morehouse College in
 He was a very influential person in the American Civil Rights movement. He emphasized the idea of inherent dignity for
all human beings, and he highlighted the differences between true democracy and the current racist democracy of the
United States.
o When Ellis Arnall was governor, he allowed blacks to vote in the state’s previously all-white primaries
 In 1946, Eugene Talmadge was elected yet again for his fourth term as Governor. However, he passed away shortly
before he took office. There was a huge controversy over who would replace the governor-elect, which became known
as the Three Governors Controversy.
 Herman Talmadge, Eugene’s son, had barely enough write-in votes for the legislature to justify selecting him as
governor. Melvin Thompson, who was the lieutenant governor-elect, thought that he should be governor. The
legislature argued that the constitution was not clear on whether the lieutenant governor-elect should become
governor if he had not been put in the office yet. All the while, the incumbent governor Ellis Arnall refused to give up
his seat until the matter was settled. The legislature eventually elected Herman Talmadge as governor, but Arnall still
did not agree that the legislature had the right to do that, so he refused to give up his office. However, the Supreme
Court ruled in 1947 that Thompson was the rightful governor because he was the lieutenant governor-elect, and he
should be governor until a special election could be held. Therefore, Talmadge and Thompson both acted as governor
for two months filled with chaos. Finally, a special election was held in 1948, and H. Talmadge was official elected as
governor. Ellis Arnall and Melvin Thompson respectfully accepted the vote.
 This affected the Civil Rights movement because Herman Talmadge was opposed to desegregation, in contrast to Ellis
Arnall, who supported civil rights.
 He was a vital leader and speaker in the Civil Rights movement
 He attended Morehouse College and became a pastor.
 His civil rights work began when Rosa Parks was arrested in 1955. After this, he organized myriad forms of nonviolent
protest and gave many speeches to advocate rights for African Americans.
 Led by John Sammons Bell, the state changed its flag in 1956 to contain the Confederate battle flag. It is thought that the
General Assembly voted to use this flag to symbolize Georgia’s opposition to the decision made in Brown vs. Board of
 In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that schools could not be segregated. This repealed the previous decision made in
Plessy vs. Ferguson.
 The southern states did not like this and didn’t want to abide by it, so they prolonged desegregating school for several
years. However, eventually, the federal government cut off funding to any school that was segregated, so schools were
pressured into integrating the races.
 In Georgia, desegregation in schools faced strong opposition. The state board of education also cut of funding to schools
that refused to abide by the Supreme Court decision. Soon, federal and state laws banned segregation in schools. By
1971, all public schools in Georgia were integrated.
 This was another name for the General Assembly Committee on Schools.
 It worked to make the transition from segregation to integration easier for schools. Desegregation of schools in Georgia
began in the 1960’s.
Founding of the
Student NonViolent
 This was founded in 1960. Students at Shaw University in North Carolina met with Ella Baker, who was the executive
Analyze its role in the civil
secretary of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
rights movement of the 60’s
It encouraged students to nonviolently fight for civil rights, and it played a role in planning the 1963 March on
and 70’s
Admission of
Hamilton Holmes
Analyze its role in the civil  Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter were the first African American students to go to the University of Georgia.
and Charlayne
rights movement of the 60’s Although there were many riots to refuse admission to these two students, they were admitted in 1961.
Hunter to the
and 70’s
 This marked the governor’s and the state’s shift toward a desegregated school system.
University of
Analyze its role in the civil  This was an effort by the SNCC, Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights activists/organizations to desegregate
rights movement of the 60’s Albany, Georgia that started in 1961. The city had been continuing to follow segregated values, even six years after the
and 70’s
Brown vs. BOE case.
 The first March on Washington was in 1941 and was planned by African Americans.
March on
Civil Rights Act
Election of
Lester Maddox
Analyze its role in the civil
 The most well know March on Washington was on August 28, 1963, and was where MLK, Jr., gave his famous “I have a
rights movement of the 60’s
dream speech”. This was the second March on Washington and was planned by lots of civil rights activists, not just
and 70’s
African Americans. The goals of this march included getting jobs and freedoms for all citizens.
 All of the laws concerning rights to African Americans came together in the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Analyze its role in the civil  This banned segregation in public facilities (including schools) and businesses that were associated with the government.
rights movement of the 60’s It also banned discrimination when distributing federal funds.
and 70’s
 Later, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act was added as an amendment to protect women against discrimination in
the workplace.
Analyze its role in the civil  Served as mayor of Atlanta from 1974-1982. He was the first African American mayor of a major southern city.
rights movement of the 60’s  He worked to help African Americans get higher status jobs (this was called affirmative action). Under his leadership, the
and 70’s
city’s colored workforce augmented.
Analyze his role in the civil
 Elected governor in 1967, he supported segregation and hindered civil rights activists in Georgia from achieving their
rights movement of the 60’s
and 70’s
Andrew Young
Discuss his impact on
End of County
Unit System
Evaluate the consequences
Evaluate the consequences
Jimmy Carter
Describe his role in Georgia
Analyze its impact on
1996 Olympic
Evaluate its impact on
New immigrant
Evaluate their importance to
Georgia’s growth and
economy after 1970
 He was a direct aide to MLK, Jr., and was an educated civil rights activist. He also advocated for human rights when he
was elected to the US House of Representatives.
 He served as mayor of Atlanta from 1982-1990 (after Maynard Jackson).
 He played a major role in bringing the Olympics to Atlanta.
 In 1962, the Supreme Court ruled that the County Unit System, a method of voting in Georgia since 1917, violated the
14th amendment because it violated the “equal protection” clause.
 After this system was done away with, Georgia switched to a “one-person, one-vote” policy for voting. This allowed the
vote of an urban citizen to be of the same value as the vote of a rural citizen.
 This allowed African Americans to have a higher representation in their state government because most of them lived in
urban areas.
 In 1962, the Supreme Court also said that Georgia had to redraw (reapportion) its voting districts so that each district
had a somewhat even population (whites & blacks; republicans & democrats; etc.)
 This allowed African Americans to be better able to voice their thoughts to the state government because their vote
carried more influence. As a result, blacks were able to fight for societal change and make a difference.
 Elected as governor of Georgia from 1970
 During his governor term, he completely reorganized the state government to be more efficient and cheaper. In doing
so, he combined 300 agencies into 30. He also changed the way state officials were appointed. Previously, it was based
on political standing; Carter changed it to be based on how qualified the person was. During his reign, he appointed
people of color to high government position. Also, Carter had an influence on improving education funding in Georgia.
o Elected as President in 1976. He was the only Georgian who has served as US president.
o As president, he helped improve relations in the Middle East by negotiating a treaty between Israel and Egypt. He also
was an activist of human rights and impacted Georgia, the United States, and the world with his values.
o As president, he failed to bring the Americans that were captured during the Iranian Hostage Crisis to safety. Also, he did
not do a good job managing the American economy. Therefore, he was only in office for one term.
 As new voting laws came and the county unit system ended, more and more African Americans were present in the
voting population. African Americans were primarily Republicans, as opposed to the whites, who were mainly
Democrats. The Democrats had essentially controlled Georgia for most of its history, but starting around 1970,
Republicans were a part of Georgian government. This boost of representation to African Americans allowed for greater
equality, specifically in jobs and society.
 The Summer Olympic Games were held in Atlanta in 1996.
 In preparation for the event, Atlanta built or expanded many sporting venues and hotels.
 The Olympics were a huge boost to Georgia’s economy, both during the games and throughout the coming years. After
the Olympics, Atlanta was left with new sporting venues that it could use to attract people to the city. Also, housing
improved in Atlanta—new apartment complexes were being built and attracted people from the United States to come
to Atlanta.
 The increased immigrant population from 1970-2000 helped to fill the many job vacancies in some areas. With more
paying jobs, there was more money flowing, and the nearby stores benefitted. Overall, the new immigrant communities
were vital to the growth of Georgia’s economy and population in the late 20th century.