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US-China Education Review B, ISSN 2161-6248
September 2013, Vol. 3, No. 9, 690-702
Effective Communication in Educational Administration
Ibrahim Habaci, Efraim Ezgin Çelik
Mehmet Habaci, Fadime Adigüzelli, Sultan Kurt
Canakkale 18 Mart University,
Kiev National Dragomanov Pedagogical University,
Canakkale, Turkey
Ukrania, Turkey
Communication has great value for humans. People with good communication skills are able to convey their
thoughts, knowledge, ideas, etc., effectively to other people. As in all dimensions of social life, in educational
organizations, good communication is crucial. For an active, qualified, and productive education, effective
communication skills are needed among school managers and teachers, both in the school environment and outside
of it. Communication in educational administration includes manager-employee, student-employee, teacher-teacher,
and teacher-student relationships. Effective communication in a school setting influences the motivations and
satisfaction of managers, teachers, and students. Managers with effective communication skills make it easier for
the organization to reach targets. Effective communication between teachers can be even more fruitful. Employees,
managers, and teachers in schools should analyse the communication process, and use it effectively in educational
activities. This case will not only help the school achieve its objectives, but also play an important role in
socializing students.
Keywords: education, communication, student, teacher, manager
Communication is an indispensable fact of human life. Firstly, a human being communicates with his/her
mother even while in the womb, via the placenta. In the 10th week, he/she communicates with people via
his/her sense organs. Over time, the effect and style of communication increase in complexity. As a social
being, a human is required to communicate with other people for survival. Humans are influenced by the
communication of the real world and vice-versa. In today’s world, sometimes, called the “communication era”,
educational organizations are set up to integrate people into the new “communicative” world. Effective
communication in a school setting allows change and the proper shaping of the world, as well as providing a
great advantage for the school in reaching its objectives. Maintaining an effective communication process in
education depends on the managers responsible for the educational settings, teachers, who play the most
fundamental role in the shaping of education, students, who have the potential to shape the world, and families,
which are important in shaping children as social beings.
The Aim and Significance of the Study
The aims of this study are to explore, in the light of related literature, the effects of effective
Ibrahim Habaci, Ph.D., assistant professor, Department of Educational Administration, Canakkale 18 Mart University.
Efraim Ezgin Çelik, specialist; research assistant, Department of Educational Administration, Canakkale 18 Mart University.
Mehmet Habaci, Ph.D., Department of Educational Administration, Kiev National Dragomanov Pegagogical University.
Fadime Adigüzelli, Ph.D., Department of Educational Administration, Kiev National Dragomanov Pegagogical University.
Sultan Kurt, Ph.D., Department of Educational Administration, Kiev National Dragomanov Pegagogical University.
communication on educational settings and their quality, and examine the communication skills of managers,
teachers, and students in schools and classrooms. Communication in schools should be handled not only from
the perspective of educational administration, but also taking into account the social dimension: This paper also
investigates the internalization of communication by managers and teachers, and the effects of this. This has
significance with regard to the overall effectiveness of educational activities, the socialization of students,
individual expression, the robust pursuit of organizational objectives, etc..
Research Model
This study adopted a documental literature review approach. This approach is defined as collecting data
from existing documents (Karasar, 2012, p. 183). Documental reviewing as a data-collecting tool is
indispensable for almost all research.
Definition of Communication
Humans seek to convey messages to each other in a family, school, classroom, or indeed, in any social
environment in order to pursue self-expression, establish their perception of their surroundings, augment their
awareness of others, and maintain their existence as social beings.
The etymological origin of “communication” dates back to Latin, and the words “communıs” and
“communicare” (Gürüz  Eğinli, 2008, p. 5).
Communication affects people’s thoughts and attitudes as well as leading to the sharing of knowledge,
sensations, and thoughts. In other words, communication is a system of relationships to convey knowledge
between people (Gürüz  Eğinli, 2008, p. 5).
Communication is a knowledge-conveying process between an source and a receiver who understands the
message correctly (İşcan, 2013, p. 3).
The Components and Process of Communication
Communication has five components. The source is a person who has been influenced by the content of
the message, which is mobile between the source and the receiver. The channel is the means by which the
message is transmitted. Lastly, feedback refers to the reaction of the message receiver.
The source is considered as the basis of communication. The source is the starting point, a person who has
thoughts, ideas, and messages to convey (Gürüz  Eğinli, 2008, p. 9). A source who explains the message
properly and effectively has reliability, moral values, skills in emphasis, and education.
The message is considered to be all meaningful units that pass between source and receiver. Each message has
a meaning, which the source seeks to share. However, the receiver is not necessarily able to understand the same
meaning as the source (Kaya, 2010, p. 8). This difference in understanding signifies an unsuccessful transmission
of the message, which necessitates a negotiation of meaning to some extent. In order for effective communication
to take place, messages should be clear and transmitted by a suitable channel. They should be transmitted in good
time and there should be no external factors influencing the message between source and receiver.
This refers to the methods and techniques which bear the message to the receiver in accordance with the
objectives of the source in the process of communication (Ergin, 2008, p. 69). The channel can sometimes be a
person who starts the communication with gestures, mimicking, vocalisations, facial expressions, or words. It
could also be a book, a scenario, the Internet, or currently the most-used mass medium. The receiver generally
gives feedback to the source by the same channel after the message is received. The feedback is required to be
parallel with the content of the message carried by the channel.
The receiver is a person or group who analyses the messages coming from source, in accordance with
some specific biological and psycho-social process, and who responds to these messages orally or non-orally
(Erdem, 2005, p. 223). As interpersonal communication is mutual, the receiver replaces the source in the
process of feedback.
Feedback is defined as the perception and response of the receiver in relation to the message sent by the
source. After the receiver accepts a message from the source and analyses it, he or she gives feedback. The
extent to which the transmitted message is understood or not is demonstrated in the feedback. Accordingly, the
process of feedback has great value in effective communication. The components of communication are
illustrated below (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. The components and process of communication.
Noise refers to anything that affects the proper perception of a message by the receiver. The sources of
noise can be physical, neurophysiologic, or psychological (Kaya, 2010, p. 11).
Significance of Communication
Communication is both an individual and socio-cultural notion. Communication principally enables
relationships with people. It has an important role in a person’s self-development. Existence of self and
acceptance by others are provided by communication. Communication is also the biggest provider of
self-realization, as well as providing the ability to share among human beings.
Communication’s social dimensions include: Providing necessary information to the society, helping the
socialization process of people, motivating people towards objectives, preparing discussion, providing
education, providing cultural development, entertaining, and providing social integration between individuals
and societies (Kaya, 2010, p. 15).
The communication process is used to change people’s behaviours by establishing a networking system to
provide interpersonal links and effective coordination (Bursalıoğlu, 2002, p. 110).
Failed communication is the main source of disagreement, resentment, and misunderstanding in today’s
world. Failed communication results in much wasting of time as a result of misunderstandings in schools,
families, and in all dimensions of social life. It also causes moral deformations (Bridge, 2003, p. 8).
Communication Barriers and Errors
Interpersonal communication barriers signify all the factors preventing effective communication between
people concerning negotiation of the same meaning (Gürüz  Eğinli, 2008, p. 209). General communication
barriers include the following:
(1) Prejudice;
(2) Misunderstanding of the objective of communication;
(3) Lack of confidence in the source;
(4) Not providing the needs of the receiver;
(5) A restricted common life setting;
(6) Difference between social capitals;
(7) High level of anxiety;
(8) Lack of love and respect;
(9) Errors in speech and diction;
(10) Wrong choice of words;
(11) Physical and psychological situation of source;
(12) Not listening effectively;
(13) Not determining the aim of the communication;
(14) Not preparing the communicational setting properly;
(15) Factors related to role and status.
Factors Facilitating Communication
In order for robust communication to take place, the communicational setting is required to be well
designed. The easiness and comfort of communication depend on factors including the following: Being free
from prejudice, selecting appropriate communication channels in terms of ethical and moral values, use of “I”
instead of “you”, abstaining from accusative statements, making pertinent repetitions, maintaining an
atmosphere of confidence between receiver and source, and behaviour attracting the interest of the receiver,
using meaningful symbols and codes, maintaining communication in accordance with general moral values,
determining the objective of communication in advance in accordance with the cultural background of the
receiver, and establishing mutual perceptions of the message by both sides.
Communication in Management Processes
Communication is directly associated with all management processes. Communication takes place almost
all the time in this context (Habaci, 2013, p. 269). Robust and effective communication depends on managers
using their responsibilities properly, and employees having knowledge of these responsibilities. The objective
in communication is to change something in the person who is being contacted (Türkmen, 2003, p. 28).
Effective communication is the best path to realize common objectives in an organization. In today’s
world, where communication has gradually been declining, communication strategies differ between managers
to employees; that is, horizontal and vertical communication types are seen. Communication is the continuous
process which enables organizational culture to be conveyed between people, maintaining a robust future for
the organization. An effective organization is always communicating with the world as well as its own
School directors are expected to have a comprehensive knowledge of humanities, impressive
communication skills, and leadership personalities (Açıkalın, 1998, as cited in Habaci, 2013, p. 269). With
these qualities, school directors can construct an effective school culture and organizational setting. He/she can
thus develop teacher satisfaction and maintain a reliable educational environment (Çelik, 2000, as cited in
Habaci, 2013, p. 269).
Directors should communicate both horizontally and vertically in organizations and seek to develop their
communication with employees. They should also establish information offices to ensure the proper flow of
information. This will remove communication barriers and open new channels. It is the responsibility of
directors to participate in communication, motivate people, discourage gossip, respect varied views, and make
use of different communication tools (Şişman, 2012, p. 191). In addition, Karagözoğlu cited the following
(Karagözoğlu, 1985, pp. 64-70):
(1) A robust, hierarchical communication network should be maintained;
(2) The director should adopt a policy of communicating with all parties;
(3) The director should not forget his status as an employee as well, and be close to all employees;
(4) The director should properly analyse symbols and principles in transmitted information;
(5) The director should coordinate formal and informal communication in accordance with the objectives
of the organization;
(6) The director should develop a communication model consistent with the hierarchical system of the
(7) The director should refrain from acts hindering communication in the organization, and seek to
improve any such environment that exists;
(8) The director should organize meetings to solve organizational problems and address others’ ideas;
(9) The director should maintain an independent setting in which idea and thoughts can be expressed at
(11) The director should make use of non-oral communication, such as gestures, and not digress from
(11) Employees should be kept aware of the hierarchical structure;
(12) The director should not use his/her office to harm others.
Communication in Education
When the notion of communication is discussed in terms of education, two dimensions can be seen clearly.
One is administration, and the other involves teaching and learning.
Educational institutions determine social behaviours, cultures, organizational structures, and interpersonal
relationships. Learning democratic behaviour, the power of independent and scientific thinking, and critical,
creative, and productive thinking skills are all shaped by educational institutions.
Directors and vice-directors have great importance in educational settings. In order to attain school
objectives, develop school qualities, maintain school culture, and create a positive environment, mutual
communication needs to be increased. An effective education depends on the responsibilities of the director,
vice-director, and teachers. A director should communicate robustly with his/her staff, as well as members of
parent-teacher associations, parents, bus drivers, etc. (Habaci, 2013, p. 270).
Learning has been defined as “a product of life and a permanent behavioural change”. The aim of the
source is always to change the behaviour of the receiver. The aim of communication is therefore not the content
of the message but the giving of the message to the receiver. The aim and responsibility of a teacher is to
provide students with target behaviours within the framework of educational curricula. In other words, teachers
should first make these target cognitive and affective behaviours clear psycho-motor. Communication is a
process of the sharing of ideas, knowledge, attitudes, emotions, news, and skills, and through this process,
behaviours can be changed. ”Learning” signifies the permanent behavioural change as a result of
communication processes; learning can, therefore, be considered a product of effective communication. No
learning can occur without effective communication (Ergin & Birol, 2005, p. 30).
In communication processes in education, the source is the teacher and the receiver is the student. The
message is the course book, the content of the curricula, or the voice of the teacher. The channel is the teaching
processes or materials used. The responses of the students represent the feedback (see Figure 2).
Method (Channel)
Feedback-Response and Behaviours of Students
Figure 2. Communication process in education.
Communication in School
The objectives of communication in schools are to maintain school culture and prepare tasks. People in the
school must be informed about all the tasks executed. In this way, many reflexive opinions are created.
Communication is a complicated and important process that takes place everywhere, all of the time.
Teachers make their lessons via oral, written, video, computer, and many other means. Students learn through
similar tools. Communication is particularly important for directors, who must understand the notion of
communication because communication constitutes the main core of interpersonal relationships, organizational
processes, and the structures of the school (Hoy  Miskel, 1998, p. 341). One of the main conditions for
attaining success in education is maintaining an effective environment for communication in the organization.
If people listen to each other attentively, communication will be impressive and solution-oriented. There are
many people in a school—director, vice-director, teachers, students, and other employees, and they should all
be in harmony with each other. Hence, in order for school success to develop, communication must be seen as a
seminal and essential notion (Habaci, 2013, p. 268).
Communication Networks
A communication network is a formal and/or informal series of systems by which people can
communicate at ease. These networks can include horizontal relationships within a hierarchical structure. In
order to maintain effective and robust communication in school, and to make sure all employees are kept
informed about events in the school, these networks need to be managed and maintained properly.
Communication in school involves director-teacher, teacher-teacher, and teacher-student relationships;
outside of school, school-family communication is also important.
Communication Skills of Directors
A robust communication network in school makes for effective communication that will help maintain
cultural and social development. Maintaining effective communication is the responsibility of directors.
In order for educational organizations to establish robust communication, directors should be able to
empathize with employees. Communication channels need to be constructed in organizations, and these
channels must always be open so that every employee can participate in any decision process related to the
organization. The director of the school should be informed about informal as well as formal communication
networks between groups and individuals; he/she should also be familiar with this process. If the director is not
familiar with communication networks in the school, this may negatively influence his/her decision-making.
An educational director is required to be able to communicate effectively, work with others cooperatively,
and support and train employees. Directors should have effective communication skills, with different points of
view in order to communicate with people from different cultural backgrounds. Educational organizations
should be based on the principles of communication and service.
An effective director of an educational organization should have many qualities connected to
communication proficiency. Some of these are listed below.
(1) Planing communication well;
(2) Timing the transmitting of information appropriately;
(3) Initiating communication with self-confidence;
(4) Communicating without prejudice;
(5) Taking precautions for people having prejudices;
(6) Selecting appropriate messages according to needs and interests of employees;
(7) Being equipped with sufficient knowledge on important;
(8) Being able to provide exact information for employees;
(9) Ability to communicate without any discrimination;
(10) Ability to use varied communication networks;
(11) Being consistent with the real life context;
(12) Dressing appropriately;
(13) Abstaining from any act hindering communication;
(14) Listening to others;
(15) Being able to empathise with employees;
(16) Correctly transmiting messages;
(17) Paying attention to feedback;
(18) Analytically analysing messages after communication.
Proficiency in social relationships is the most important feature of a director. This proficiency is more
crucial for educational managers because education is a well-organized system, and directors should
communicate with parties outside of the organization as well as those within it.
Director-Teacher Communication
As almost all individuals in an educational organization have the same craft knowledge and abilities,
mutual communication is easier to achieve than in more heterogeneous groups.
In a communication process, there is a constant interaction between receiver and source. In order to
coordinate, manage, and influence the teachers and other employees, a director should have knowledge of
his/her employees’ thoughts, so, he/she can predict their behaviours and responses in advance.
The quality of communication between director and teachers enables the development of communication
channels and the quality of teaching. In this two-way communication between director and teacher, there are
several duties. The director should inform teachers about the components of the profession, policies related to
education, and the success of the profession. In addition, teachers should inform the director about their
professional problems and issues with colleagues. This two-way communication must be face-to-face. Directors
and teachers are expected to express themselves properly in this oral communication. If directors behave
improperly to their employees, and consider teachers to be beneath them, this will close all the communication
channels. If two-way communication is developed between the director and teachers in a school, teachers grow
to be proud of working with their director. This will increase awareness of the director among teachers, and
vice-versa. If this kind of communication is not developed, communication will remain a hierarchical process,
gradually, closing communication channels and thwarting the school’s objectives.
Teachers carry great responsibility for the well-being of society, and educational effectiveness should not
be disrupted by any communicational problems with the director. As for students, they should gain many
critical skills, such as productive, democratic, and analytical skills. This will create a democratic setting for
Teacher-Teacher Communication
In the literature, it is often stated that teachers have many roles to play in a school. Actually, only one role
should be attributed to teachers—leadership. Teachers need leadership skills to motivate and guide students.
Accordingly, teachers should recognize problems in advance and focus on the solutions. Classrooms should be
managed collectively (Aydın, 2010, p. 211).
The relationships and communication processes between teachers in a school should be in parallel to the
targeted objectives of the organization. The attitudes and behaviours of teachers who have been making a
common effort are the factors which positively influence the knowledge and experiences of students.
As well as formal relationships and communication in school, teachers continue communication within
their own groups. The unpredictable nature of school life leads to this kind of communication being constructed
by teachers. However, internal organizational necessity is the main reason for intercommunication.
Communication among teachers is a natural process in a school. It involves all kinds of spontaneous
intercommunication (Hoşgörür, 2007, p. 166). Teachers are expected to adhere to general communication
principles in this process. This case is generally checked by the director. Poor communication leads to
prejudices, as well as negatively influencing moral values and the success of students.
Teacher-Parent Communication
The socialization of individuals starts with the family. Family traditions have a great influence on a person.
Each child grows according to the system of his/her family. Many factors influence children, such as love,
respect, or tolerance in the family, or a family’s emphasis on problem-solving. The family has a prominent
effect on children’s integration into society (Hoşgörür, 2007, p. 158).
Families expect their children to be successful. Academic guidance is also given to children by their
families. This can lead to many conflicts between family and school in terms of children’s academic success
(Fidan, 2012).
Teachers should always communicate with children and their parents out of school. This communication
should not only take the form of teachers’ complaints to the parents: It will be based on the academic success of
children, their social situations, and their socializing. Teachers should choose a face-to-face communication
style when communicating with parents. Apart from daily, weekly, and monthly meetings with parents, they
should visit their homes. During these meetings, a clear and understandable language style should be used.
Teachers should attempt to carry out these meetings at all costs. They should be in a communication process
with parents as regards the feeding of students, caring for them, playing games, creating a suitable studying
environment, etc..
Effective Communication in the Classroom
Communication is one of the most important issues in classroom management. Developing the quality of
an educational organization is only possible with consistency with the teacher’s communication in the
classroom. All types of activities in the classroom are principally based on effective communication.
The main reason for effective communication in the classroom is to create an environment in which
messages can be effectively transmitted between teacher and students (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). Communication
should be two-way, beyond the concept of “teacher speaks and students listen” (Woolfolk, 1995, as cited in
Silman, 2007, p. 44). Communication in the classroom is the multifaceted flowing of knowledge; one-way
communication is not to be favoured. Communication should take place between teacher and students and
between students and students (Balay, 2009, p. 15).
The quality of communication between teacher and students influences a student’s success and behaviour.
Students prefer a teacher being friends with them. When a teacher is friendly with students, students’ attitudes
towards the teacher will be influenced positively (Celep, 2004, p. 76). In addition to this, when teachers
communicate with students, they should approach them as if they were adults. Yet, teachers should also
construct necessary social relationships. A teacher should use his/her body language, voice, and social distance
Effective Listening
The concentration level of students is very important in effective listening—which can also be called
“active” listening. That is to say, students should concentrate on the subject in question. People use their
cognitive abilities to listen. Student should ask questions to himself/herself during courses, and should analyse
topics in a detailed way (Habaci, 2013, p. 272).
Body Language and “You” Language
When teachers encounter negative cases in the educational environment, they should express their
disapproval regarding these cases without judging their students. When a teacher uses body language, he/she
explains his/her feelings more effectively and sincerely. In “you” language, there is no direct judgement of
others; this language helps students think about their behaviours and evaluate themselves properly. “You”
language can also be accusative, helping to cause weakness and conflicts in the classroom.
Effective Language Use
Creating a democratic classroom environment enables students to feel confident in the learning process.
Students need to express themselves and take part in a group where value is attributed to the student (Silman,
2007, p. 54). When a teacher gives feedback to students about their behaviours, he/she should avoid
judgemental statements and should guide the students to understand the consequences of their behaviour. The
more the cognitive level of students develops, the more the level of effective language use increases.
Using of Body Language
Communication should be maintained, not only orally, but also through making eye contact, body
language (smiling, approval by nodding, blinking, etc.), walking style, etc. (Başar, 2005, p. 81). In order to
create such an environment in the classroom, the personal knowledge of the teacher should be sufficient. Body
language skills are acquired, at first, by formal education and then through ordinary life.
Making Eye Contact
Making eye contact has great value in the classroom. This is because if the listener makes eye contact with
someone else, they are listening to him/her rather than the teacher, and gives value to him/her. Making eye
contact is important in preventing distractions and distractibility (Habaci, 2013, p. 272). It is an efficient
technique in a classroom, which also helps control the classroom in general. If a teacher makes eye contact with
all the students in the classroom, this will motivate them.
Interpersonal Social Distance
Social distance of people to each other in everyday life specifies and influences the quality of relationships
(Tayfun, 2007, p. 160). A distance of 50 cm is our personal confidence zone for family members and close
friends. Colleagues can enter a zone of only 50 cm-120 cm. If the distance increases, communication will
become very formal (Tomul, 2005, p. 168). The distance between people is crucial for the robustness of
communication. The distance setting should be given according to the sincerity of people wishing to
communicate with each other (Habaci, 2013, p. 272).
Empathetic Approach
Empathy is defined as the ability to understand others by imagining oneself in another person’s place.
Empathetic listening leads to an understanding of people’s judgements. If two-way empathetic communication
is maintained in a classroom, judgements, prejudices, and unfriendly criticism are removed.
Positive Determination
Determination is defined as defending a view to the end without conceding. Positive determination means
expressing a problem or a subject frankly by using body language and active behaviour (Silman, 2007, p. 46).
Negative behaviour in the classroom can be combated by the teacher by using an effective language style and
body language. Gestures and mimicking are also very important.
Waiting Period
An exact waiting period for a question is crucial for the effectiveness of the response (Habaci, 2013, p.
Communication Errors, Barriers, and Apprehension in Education
General communication errors have a negative influence on the relationship between the source and the
receiver. The most frequent communication errors in educational environments are: vague communication
objectives lack of trust between teacher and students, failure to meet students’ needs, high levels of anxiety, not
giving feedback to compliments, prejudice, misunderstanding of teacher’s statements, drawing different
conclusions from the same statement, improper speech style, diction, or use of language, inappropriate speed of
speech, vague statements, accusative language, starting lessons without any schedule, deviation of
communication in courses, expectation differences between teacher and students, errors arising from role and
status, improper use of body language, disregarding cultural patterns in the classroom, etc..
Communication apprehension is defined as anxiety and apprehension related to communication with a
person. Communication apprehension is a fear, for example, the fear of speaking in the classroom. This fear
factor generally grows in the first years of education, and oral communication, social skills, and self-confidence
of students are deeply influenced by it. Communication apprehension generally stems from low material
abilities, deficiency in speaking skills, social introversion, low social confidence, social alienation, cultural, and
ethnic differences, etc. (Altıntaş, 2005, p. 125).
Conclusions and Suggestions
Communication has great value for humans in all areas of social life. People who communicate effectively
are able to convey their thoughts properly, and thus create a more sophisticated life setting. Communication,
rhetoric, diction, and drama lessons should be included in the curricula of secondary schools and faculties of
education, including the curricula of the YÖK (Turkish Council of Higher Education), MEB (Ministry of
National Education). The most important criteria regarding communication are as follows:
Concerning Directors
(1) Directors should deal with the notion of communication as leaders in educational institutions;
(2) Communication must be initiated with constructive ideas;
(3) Barriers of communication need to be recognised and analysed;
(4) All available communication means should be exploited (Bursalıoğlu, 2002, p. 119);
(5) A properly driven communication network should be created in the school;
(6) Communication should be carried out both in and out of school;
(7) External factors in the school should be balanced;
(8) Communication networks should be used in accordance with the objectives of school;
(9) The communication process should be used properly to include employees in the school management;
(10) An independent communication environment should be created.
Concerning Teachers
(1) Respect and compassion should be shown to the students;
(2) Communication with students should always take place;
(3) Positive statements should be given regarding students’ expectations (Silman, 2007);
(4) Confidence should be instilled in the students;
(5) A power zone in the classroom should be created with deep knowledge;
(6) Behaviour with students should be frank, and lesson units selected properly according to the cognitive
and cultural level of the students;
(7) Two-way communication is needed; one-way communication interrupts students’ activity;
(8) Feedback should be a main concern;
(9) Students should be informed about their level;
(10) The right channels should be selected;
(11) Open-ended questions should be asked to the students;
(12) Closed-ended questions should be preferred if only some subjects are in question;
(13) Students should be seen as adults;
(14) The subject should be reviewed in advance and researched when necessary;
(15) Comprehensible language should be used in the process of teaching;
(16) Tolerance regarding student mistakes should be shown;
(17) No discrimination should be shown to students;
(18) Communication with students should take place out of school as well;
(19) Eye contact should be maintained with students;
(20) Students should be called by their names;
(21) Incoherent behaviour should be avoided in and out of school;
(22) Students should be listened to for long enough, without interrupting;
(23) “I” language should be preferred over “you” language;
(24) When speaking with parents, no accusative statements related to students should be used;
(25) Teachers should play a guiding role for parents when speaking with their children.
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