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M.Sc- Materials Science (Physics)
M.Sc- Materials Science (Chemistry)
(w.e.f. June 2010)
Semester - I
MS - I - Mathematical Techniques(C)
- 100
MS - II - Condensed Matter Physics (C)
- 100
MS - III - Analog & Digital Electronics (C)
- 100
MS - IV - Analytical Techniques - I
- 100
Practical - I
- 100
Practical - II
- 100
Semester - II
MS - V - Statistical Mechanics (C)
- 100
MS - VI - Quantum Mechanics (C)
- 100
MS - VII - Physical Chemistry
- 100
MS - VIII - Analytical Techniques - II
- 100
Practical - III
- 100
Practical - IV
- 100
Semester - III
MS - IX - Semiconductor Devices (C)
- 100
MS - X - Instrumentation (C)
- 100
MS - XI - Elective - I
- 100
MS - XII - Elective - II
- 100
List of Elective Courses
E-11 Organic Solids & Polymers
E-12 Elements of Materials Science
E-13 Dielectric & Ferroelectric Materials
E-14 Ceramic Materials
Practical - V
Practical - VI
Semester - IV
MS - XIII - Computational Methods & Programming(C)
- 100
MS - XIV - Microelectronics (C)
- 100
MS - XI - Elective - III
- 100
MS - XII - Elective - IV
- 100
List of Elective Courses
E-21 - Magnetic Materials.
E-22 - Thin - film Technology
E-23 - Nano science & Technology.
E-24 - Liquid crystals & Amorphous Materials.
Practical - VII
- 100
- 100
The Practicals Examination at Sem. IV shall be of 2 laboratory practicals &
1 Project Presentation. The project work could be initialed in Sem. III, so
as to complete it properly and well in advance. (C) Indicates common
courses of the school.
1. MS, MIS Structure and MOS FETs:
MS and MIS structures, basic equations in flat band conditions, in depletion
regions, weak and strong interactions, MIS capacitances, current flow
mechanisms in MS junctions, depletion and enhancement type MOS FETS,
capacitances in MOS FETs, small and large signal analysis, quantitative
analysis of I - V characteristics, thresholds in MOSFETS, charge trapping
and flat band voltage, study of CMOS devices.
2. Devices:
Power diodes, ratings, reverses recovery characteristics, fast recovery
diodes, transistors, characteristics, construction of SCR, two transistors
analogy, impurity profile of SCR, I - V characteristics, gate trigger
characteristics, turn on an turn - off times, losses reverse recovery
characteristics, SCR ratings, dv/dt and di/dt characteristics, thyrister types,
reverse conducting thyristors, construction and characteristics of DIACs
and TRIACs, static induction thyristors, field controlled thyristors, light
activate thyristors, programmable Unijunction transistors.
3. Charge Coupled and Transferred Electron Devices:
Charge storage, surface potential under depletion, construction of basic tow
- phase CCD, mechanism of charge transfer, charge trapping and transfer
efficiency, dark current, buried channel CCD, application of CCD,
transferred electron effect, NDR (Negative differential resistivity of voltage
and current controlled devices), formation of gunn domains, uniform and
accumulation layer, operation modes, transists and quenched diodes, layers
modes of operation, LSA mode of operation, equation, frequency responses
and overall device performance of gunn devices.
4. Optoelectronic and Advanced Solid State Devices:
Light emitting, detecting and converting devices, Luminescent devices,
luminescent efficiency, emission spectra, methods of electroluminescence
excitation, configuration and performance of LEDs, visible and IR LEDs,
semiconductor LASER device structure and characteristics of
semiconductor LASER, tunning and degradation, threshold current density,
effect of temp. Quantum well hetero structures, photoconductors,
photocurrent gain and detectivity, photodiode characteristics, quantum
efficiency, response speed, noise and optical absorption coefficient,
efficiency, p - i - n photodiodes, quantum efficiency, response speed, noise
and avalanche gains in avalanche photodiodes, fabrication of ultra fast
digital and linear IC.
Reference Book/Text Book:
1. D.A. Roustan: Bipolar Semiconductor Devices.
2. Mauro Zambuto: Semiconductor Devices.
3. Raymond Wolfe: Applied Solid State Science - Advance in Materials and
device research.
4. D. Nagchoudhari: Semiconductor Devices.
5. Karl Hess: Advanced theory of semiconductors devices.
6. Paola Anthgentti, Gluseppe Massobrio: Semiconductor Devices and
modeling with APICE.
7. S. M. Sze: Physics of Semiconductor Devices.
8. Robert E. Krieger pub. Solid State Semiconductor Physics.
9. A Dir - Bar - Lev: Semiconductor and Electronic Devices.
10. Milliman and Halkias: Electronic Devices and Circuits.
11. Botkar: Integrated Circuits.
12. S. K. Gandhi: Microelectronics.
13. M. H. Rashid: Power Electronics.
Unit 1 : Transducers ( Basic concepts and schematic of interface circuits) (14)
Transducers classification Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance, Piezoelectric,
Thermoelectric, Hall effect, Tachogenerator, Optical and Digital transducers,
Measurements of displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Torque, Strain,
Speed and Sound, flow humidity, thickness, PH, position, Chemical Sensors, Biosensors, Fiber-optic sensor, Ferroelectric sensors.
Unit 2 : Instrumentation Electronics:
Instrumentation Amplifiers, basic characteristics, D.C. Amplifiers, Isolation
amplifiers, feedback transducers system, feedback fundamentals, Inverse
transducers, temperature balance system,
Unit 3 : Signal processing circuits:
Phase sensitive detection, Absolute value circuit, peak detector, sample and hold
circuits, RMS convertor, Logarithm (Amplifier, Frequency to Voltage and Voltage
to Frequency Convertor, Wave Generator Lock in Amplifiers, SMPS, UPS)
Design of analog ON / OFF & proportional controller V to I and I to V convertor
for controlling process, design of PID controller
Unit 4 : Measurements Instruments:
Measurements of R,L, C bridge and potentio meter, Voltage, Current, Energy,
Power, Frequency /Time, Phase, Digital Voltmeter, Digital multimeters, Digital
Frequency meter, Q meter, CRO, DSO, Logic Stale Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer,
Proximity detector.
Unit 5 : Interface Systems and Standards:
Single channel and multichannel DAS and P.C. interface, Block diagram of typical
interface. Standard interface Systems (Transducers, Termination, Protection, Static
Signal Conditions, Dynamic Signal filtering, Signal manipulation).
Ref. Books:
1. Transducer Theory and Application: Jhon A Alloca, Allen Stuart (Reston
Publishing Company Inc.)
2. Transducer and Display Devices: B. S. Sonde.
3. Integrated Electronics: K. R. Botkar.
(Elective Paper)
Max, Marks- 100
1. Organic Solids:
Conducting Organics- Organic Superconductors- Magnetism in
organic materials; Single molecule magnets- fullerences- doping
fullerene- superconductors- molecular electronics. Solid State
Reactions: general principles, experimental procedures, co-precipitation
as a precursor to solid state reactions.
Preparative strategies in Solid State Chemistry: Wet chemical
methods-sol-gel, combustion, emulsion, film preparation (basis of CVD,
thermal evaporation, dc and ac solvent evaporation). Crystal growth
techniques: growth form melt and solution, low temperature solutions,
techniques- flux, slow evaporation and hydrothermal (qualitative) film
casting. Microwave synthesis, electro-chemical synthesis.
2. Polymers:
History, basic concepts of polymers, classification of polymers,
linear branched, cross -linked polymers, co-polymers, molecular weight
of polymers, number average/weight average/viscosity average/zaverage, Molecular weight determinations by membrane osmometry and
by light scattering
3. The Physical Properties of Polymers:
Amorphous, crystalline, and rubbery polymers. The crystalline state:
mechanism and kinetic of crystallization; determination of crystallinity.
The amorphous state regions of viscoelastic behaviour, measurement of
T8. The rubbery state: elastomers, Structure property relationships.
4. Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymers:
The theoretical basis for the activity: Preparation of piezoelectric and
pyroelectric polymers, Measurement of properties: Production of
polymer films by Solvent casting techniques. Annealing, stretching and
poling. Advantages and disadvantages of polymers compared with
ceramic materials. Measurement of piezoelectric and pyroelectric
Measurements and computer aided design of transducers. Applications
of polymers transducers in medicine.
5. Conducting Polymers:
Mechanism and electrical conduction of conducting polymers such
as polyacetylene, polyniline. Synthetic methods (Chemical and
electrochemical methods). Applications - batteries and electrochemical
cells, photosensitive devices, humidity and gas sensing. Future
applications- models transistors.
6. Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystal Polymers:
Mesomorphic behaviour- thermotropic and lyotropic phasesdescription of ordering in liquid crystals: the director field and order
parameters- nematic and semitic phases; phase transitions and clearing
temperature-chiral nematics- cholesteric- nematic transition-optical
properties-twisted nematic effect-structure-phase relations, liquid crystal
polymers (LCP), preparation and characterization of LCP.
Reference Books:
1. Modern aspects of solid state Chemistry, C N Rao, Plenum press, 1970
2. New directions in Solid state Chemistry, C N Rao, and J Gopalkrishnan,
Cambridge University Press. 1997
3. Physical chemistry of Macromolecules, D D Deshpande, Vikas Pub.
4. Polymer Science, V R GOurikar, N N Vishwanathan and J Sridhar, New
Age, Intl. New Delhi. 1980
5. Principles of Polymer Sciences, P Bahadur & N N Sastry, Narosa Pub,
New Delhi.
6. Polymer Chemistry, Billymer.
7. Polymer Chemistry, P J Flory.
8. Polymer Conversion, W A Holanes-Walker, Appl. Sci. Pub. London.
1. Materials: Properties and Requirements
Introduction, Classification of Engineering Materials
2. Chemical Bonding
Introduction, Crystalline and Amorphous Solids, Classification of Bonds,
Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond, Covalent Homopolar Bonds ,Metallic
Bonds, Molecular Bonds, Hydrogen Bond.
3. Classification of Solids
Introduction, Classification of Solids on the Basis of Band Theory,
Classification of Semiconductors, Elemental and Compound
Semiconductors, Crystal Structure and Bonding in Si and Ge, Applications.
4. Transport Properties of Semiconductors
Introduction, Carrier Concentration in an Intrinsic Semiconductor,
Conductivity of Semiconductors, Extrinsic Semiconductor, n - type
Semiconductor, p - type Semiconductor, Hall Effect, Variation of Electrical
Conductivity with Temperature, Variation of Fermi level with Temperature
in Extrinsic Semiconductor.
5. Optical Properties of Materials.
Introduction, Fundamental Terms, Classification of Optical Materials,
Absorption in Metals, Insulators and Semiconductors, Traps, Excitons,
Colour Centres,
6. Luminescence
Introduction, Principle, Classification of Luminescence,
Photoluminescence, Phosphors, Cathodoluminescence,
Electroluminescence, Applications.
7. Photoconductivity
Introduction, Photoconductivity, Characteristics of Photoconductivity
Materials, Photodetectors, Photodetector Bias Circuit, Performance of
Photodetector, Applications.
8. Nanophase Materials
Introduction, Synthesis, Characterization of Nanostructured Materials,
Properties of Nanophase Materials, Applications.
9. Advanced Ceramics
Introduction, Classification of Ceramics, Structure of the Ceramics,
Ceramic Processing, Properties of Ceramics, Applications.
10. Polymer Materials
Introduction, Polymerization Mechanism, Degree of Polymerization,
Classification of Polymers. Structure and one manufacturing method,
important properties and applications of commercial polymers-viz-
polyethylene. Polyvinylchloride, Polystyrene, Nylon, Polyesters, and
Reference Books:
Materials Science : V. Rajendran, A. Marikani, Tata MC Graw Hill
Materials Science of Engineering: Raghavan, Tata MC Graw Hill
Materials Science: Arumugam
Materials Science & Matallurgy : O. P. Khanna
(Elective Paper)
1. Introduction
Maxwell’s Equations, Amperes Law, Faraday’s Law, Inseparable Magnetic
Poles , Gauss’s Law , Electromagnetic Waves and Fields, Dimensions and
Units, Length, Mass, Time, Electric Charge, Derived Units, CGS System of
Units and Cgs/SI Conversion, The Unit of Debye, The Chemical Unit of
2. Electric Polarization And Relaxation
Fundamental Concepts, Electrical Charge Carriers and Their Motion,
Electromechanical Effects, The force Acting on the Boundary between Two
Different Dielectric Materials, The Force Elongating A Bubble or a
Globute in A Dielectric Fluid, The Dielectrophoretic Force, The
Electrostriction Force, The Torque Orientating A Solid Body, Electrostatic
Induction , Electric Polarization and Relaxation in Static Electric Fields,
Vacuum Space, Conducting Materials, Dielectric Materials, The
Mechanism of Electric Polarization, Electronic Polarization (Also Called
Optical Polarization), Classical Approach, Quantum Mechanical Approach,
Atomic or Ionic Polarization (Vibrational Polarization), Orientational
Polarization, Spontaneous
Polarization, Space Charge Polarization,
Hopping Polarization, Interfacial Polarization, Classification of Dielectric
Materials, Nonferroelectric Materials (Normal Dielectric or Paraelectric
Materials), Nonpolar Materials, Polar Materials, Dipolar Materials,
Ferroelectric Materials, Internal Fields, Local Fields for Nondipolar
Materials, The Clausius - Mosotti, Equation, The Lorentz - Lorenz
Equation, The Reaction Field for Dipolar Materials, The Debye Equation,
The Onsagar Equation, Statistical - Mechanical Approaches and the
Kirkwood Equation, The Frohlich Equation, Electric Polarization and
Relaxation in Time - Varying Electric Fields, The Time Domain
Approach and the Frequency - Domain Approach, Complex Permitivity,
Time Dependent Electric Polarization Case A, Case B, Kramers - Kronig
Equations, Debye Equations, Absorption, and Dispersion for Dynamic
Polarizations, The Effects of the Local Field, The Effects of DC
Conductivity, The Cole - Cole Plot, Temperature Dependence of Complex
Permitivity, Field Dependence of Complex Permitivity Semiconducting
Materials Ferroelectric Materials, Insulating Materials, Dielectric
Relaxation Phenomena, The Hamon Approximation, Distribution of
Relaxation Times, The Relaxation between Dielectric Relaxation and
Chemical Structure.
3. Optical and Electro - Optic Processes.
Modulation of Light, Double Refraction and Birefringence Quarter - Wave
Plate (QWP), Optical Activity, Electro - Optic Effect or Linear Electro Optic Ceramics, The Photorefractive Effect, The Magneto - Optic Effect,
The Faraday Effect, The Voigt Effect, The Acousto - Optic Effect,
Luminescence, Photoluminescence, Fluorescence, Photophorescence and
Phosphors, Electroluminescence Classical, Electroluminescence, Injuction,
Electroluminescence, Photoemission, Photoemission from Electrical
Contacts From a Metal into wide Bandwidth Semiconductors From a
Narrow Bandwidth Emitter into Wide Bandwidth Semiconductors, From a
Metal into Narrow Bandwidth Crystals, Photovoltaic Effects, Bulk
Photovoltaic Effects, The Dember Effect, The Photoelectro - Magnetic
(PEM) Effect, Contact Potential, Photovoltaic Effects, Schottky Barrier,
Photovoltages, MIS Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Behaviour of P - N Junctions
PIN Structures for Amorphous Si - based Photovoltaic Devices,
Photosynthesis Photovoltaic Effects, Anomalous Photovoltaic Effects.
Ferroelectrics, Piezoelectrics and Pyroelectrics.
Introductory Remarks, Ferroelectric Phenomena, General Features,
Phenomenological Properties and Mechanisms BaTiO3 - Type Ferroelectrics
KH2PO4 - Type Ferroelectrics , Alloys of PbO, ZrO2, and TiO2(PZT alloys) Type Ferroelectric Ceramics, PVDF [(CH2 - CF2)a] - Type Ferroelectric
Antiferroelectric Transition, Formation and Dynamics of Domains,
Ferroelectric Materials.
Applications of Ferroelectrics Capacitors Thermo - Autostabilization
Nonlinear Dielectric Elements (TANDEL) High - Energy Electrical Pulse
Generators, Memories, Piezoelectric Phenomena, Phenomenological
Approach to Piezoelectric Effects, Piezoelectric Parameters and their
Measurements, Piezoelectric Materials, Application of Piezoelectrics, Gas
Igniters, Delay Lines, Piezoelectric Positions and Actuators, Piezoelectric
Transformers, Pyroelectric Phenomena, Phenomenological Approach to
Pyroelectric Effects, Pyroelectric Parameters and Their Measurements,
Pyroelectric and Thermally Sensitive Materials, NTC Materials, PTC
Materials, Applications of Pyroelectric Radiation, Detectors, Pyroelectric
Burglar Alarm Systems, Pyroelectric Thermometry, Pyroelectric Energy,
References Books:
1. Dielectric Phenomena in Solids: Kwan Chi Kao & F. R. de Boer
2. Introduction to Solid State Physics : C. Kittle
3. Introduction to Solids: Azoroff.
4. Fundamentals of Solid State Physics: Saxena, Gupta, Saxena:
5. Solid State Physics : R. L. Singhal
6. Materials Science and Engineering : V. Raghavan
7. Solid State Physics :A. J. Dekkar
Practical - V
Project - I
Unit 1: Ordinary Differential Equations:
Types of Differential Equations, Euler Method, Applications to non-linear and
vector equations. The leap-Frog method, Runge Kutta method, The PredictorCorrector method, The Intrinsic Method.
Unit 2: Partial Differential Equations:
Types of Equations, Elliptic equations- Laplace’s equation, Hyperbolic equationswave equation, Eulerian and Lagrangian methods, Parabolic equations-Diffusion,
Conservative Methods- The equation of continuity, Maxwell’s equations,
Unit 3: Matrix Algebra:
Types of Matrics, Simple matrix problems, Elliptic equations- Poissons equations,
Systems of equation and Matrix inversion, Iterative methods- The Jacobi Method,
Matrix Eigenvalue Problems-Schrodingers equation.
Unit 4: Monte Carlo methods and Simulation:
Random number generators, Monte Carlo integration, the metropolis algorithm,
The Ising model, Quantum Monte Carlo.
Text and Reference Books:
1. Potter D, Computational Physics, Wiley, Chichester, 1973.
2. Press W H et. al, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing
CUP, Cambridge, 1992.
3. Wolfrom S, Mathematica - A System For Doing Mathematics By
Computer, Addison Wesley, 1991.
4. Angus Mekinnon, Computational Physics - 3rd/ 4th Year Option
1. Electronic Grade Silicon:
Crystal structure of Si (111) and (100) surface planes, Crystal growth by
Czochralaski method, requirements of proper growth, zone process, refining,
properties of growth crystal.
2. Diffusion:
Interstitial and substitutional diffusions, diffusivity, laws governing diffusion,
constant source and instantaeous source diffusion, Solid Source, liquid source and
gas source Boron and Phosphorus diffusion systems.
3. Epitaxial Process:
Vapour and gas phase epitaxy for Si, Chemisty and growth kinetics, epitaxial
growth of n and p - layers, evaluation of grown layer, oxide growth and properties
of oxide layer, ion implantation, high energy ion implantation.
4. Monolithic Components:
Oxide formation, electronic properties of oxide layer, etching, masking, photo resist pattering, resist materials, characteristics of a good photo - resist, types
5. Monolithic Components:
p - n junction and dielectric isolation, fabrication of planar diodes, p - n - p and n p - n transistors, diffused resistors and capacitors, thin film resistors and
capacitors, metallization and interconnections, metallization applications,
metallization choice, metallization problem. VLSI integration, IC processing p MOS and IC technologies, MOS memory, IC - technology.
6. Assembling and Packaging:
Die separation, bonding and attachments, load attachment, encapsulation, package
sealing, flat package, TO - 5 package, package testing, thermal considerations.
Reference Books:
1. Theory and practice of microelectroncs - S. K. Gandhi.
2. VLSI technlolgy (2nd Edition) S. M. Sze (MGH)
3. Integrated Ckts: Design principles and Fabrication: Warner.
4. Integrated Circuits : K. R. Botkar
Topics for Tutorials:
The problem/ exercise / short questions answers/ block diagrams given in
the reference books will from the Tutorial Course.
MS - E 21: MAGNETIC MATERIALS (Elective Paper)
1. Introduction
Measurement of Field Strength, Hall Effect, Electronic Integrator or
Fluxmeter, Magnetic Measurements in Closed Circuits, Demegnetizing
Fields, Magnetic Shielding, Demagnetizing Factors, Magnetic
Measurements in Open Circuits, Instruments for Measuring Magnetization,
Vibrating - Sample Magnetometer, Altering (Field) Gradient Magnetometer
- AFGM or AGM, (also called Vibrating Reed Magnetometer), Magnetic
Circuits and Parameters, Permanent Magnet Materials, Susceptibility
2. Diamagnetism and Para magnetism
Introduction, Magnetic Moments of Electrons, Magnetic Moments of
Atoms, Theory of Diamagnetism, Diamagnetism Substances, Classical
Theory of Para magnetism, Quantum Theory of Para magnetism, Gyro
magnetic Effect, Magnetic Resonance
3. Ferromagnetism
Introduction, Molecular Field Theory, Exchange Forces, Band Theory,
Ferromagnetic Alloys, Theories of Ferromagnetism
4. Antiferromagnetism
Introduction, Molecular Field Theory, Above TN, Below TN, Comparison
with Experiment, Neutron Diffraction, Antiferromagnetic, Ferromagnetic,
Rare Earths , Antiferromagnetic Alloys.
5. Ferrimagnetism
Introduction, Structure of Cubic Ferrites, Saturation Magnetization,
Molecular Field Theory, Above Tc, Below Tc, General Conclusions,
Hexagonal Ferrites, Other Ferromagnetic Substances, y - Fe2O3, Garnets,
Alloys, Summary : Kinds of Magnetism
6. Magnetic Anisotropy
Introduction, Anisotropy in Cubic Crystals, Anisotropy in Hexagonal
Crystals, Physical Origin of Crystal Anisotropy, Anisotropy Measurement,
Torque Curves, Torque Magnetometers, Anisotropy Measurement (from
Magnetization Curves), Fitted Magnetization Curve, Anisotropy Constants,
Polycrystalline Materials
7. Magnetostriction and the Effects of Stress
Introduction, Magnetostriction of Single Crystals, Cubic Crystals,
Magnetostriction of Polycrystals, Physical Origin of Magnetostriction,
Form Effect, Effect of Stress on Magnetic Properties, Effect of Stress on
Magnetostriction, Applications of Magnetostriction, ∆E Effect,
8. Domains and the Magnetization Process
Introduction, Domain Wall Structure, Neel Walls, Magnetostatic Energy
and Domain Structure, Uniaxial Crystals, Cubic Crystals, Domain Wall
Motion, Magnetization in Low Fields, Magnetization in High Fields,
Shapes of Hysteresis Loops.
Reference Books:
1. K. H. J. Buschow & F. R. de Boer: Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic
2. C. Kittle : Introduction to Solid State Physics.
3. Azoroff : Introduction to Solids.
4. Saxena, Gupta, Saxena: Fundamentals of Solid State Physics.
5. R. L. Singhal: Solid State Physics.
6. V. Raghavan: Materials Science and Engineering.
7. A. J. Dekkar : Solid State Physics.
(Elective Paper)
Unit - 1 Vacuum Evaporation
a) Deposition techniques: Choice of a process
b) Evaporation at reduced pressures: Mean free path of vapor molecules.
c) The design and operation of a vacuum evaporation, plant, vacuum
valves and oil vapor baffle, vacuum gauges, vacuum seals, safety
d) Achievement of high vacuum: Applications of oil and mercury diffusion
pumps, pumping speed at low pressures, bankable evaporation system
for production of highly pure deposits.
Unit - 2 Surface Cleaning and Sources of Vapors
a) Surface cleaning: Chemical cleaning, ion bombardment cleaning,
electrical discharge in gas, electron bombardment, durability of vacuum
deposited films.
b) Vapor Sources: Filament and foil vapor sources, radiation heated vapor
source, electron bombardment heating.
Unit - 3 Deposition Techniques for Thin Films:
PVD, CVD, sputtering, plasma, MOCVD, epitaxy, EBE, MBE, electroless,
sol. Gel, spray, solution growth or chemical Bath (Students should be aware
of the qualitative knowledge of the instruments).
Unit - 4 Nucleation, Growth and Structure of Thin Films
a) Nucleation:
Condensation process, Languir - Frenkel theory, capillary and atomistic
theories, sticking coefficient, condensation center, condensate
b) Growth process:
Liquid - line coalescence, coalescence model, deposition parameters
(kinetic energy effect oblique deposition electrostatic effect).
c) Physical structure: Crystallite size, surface roughness, density of thin
Unit - 5 Characteristation of Thin Films (Data Analysis only)
XRD, surface morphology (SEM, STM, AFM) EDS, Augur electron
spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, optical
measurements (band gap), transport measurements (Hall measurements,
electrical conductivity (two probe, four probe), Seeback coefficient).
Unit - 6 - Application and Thin Film Devices
Thin film transistors, solar cells, selective coatings, Reflection and
antireflection coatings, waveguide applications, filters, polarizers, computer
memory devices, superconducting magnets, radiation detectors
(Bolometers), tunnel devices.
Reference Books:
1. Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films, Chapman & Hall (1970) - L
2. Thin Film phenomena McGraw - Hill (1969) - K L. Chopra.
3. Thin Film Technology and Applications -- K. L. Chopra & L. K.
Malhotra, TMH publ. Co; (1994), New Delhi.
4. Physics of semiconductor (2nd edition) -- S. M. Zee.
5. Advanced Course of Thin Films - S. Mohan.
(Elective Paper)
1. Introduction
Background of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Definition of
2. Band Structure And Density of States At Nanoscale
Introduction, Energy Bands ,Density of States at Low - dimensional
3. Electrical Transport In Nanostructure
Electrical Conduction in Metals ,Classical Theory - The Drude Model
Quantum Theory - The Free Electron Model Conduction in
Insulators/Ionic Crystals ,Electron Transport in Semiconductors,
Various Conduction Mechanisms in 3D (Bulk), 2D(Thin Film) and
Low - dimensional Systems, Thermionic Emission Field - enhanced
Thermionic Emission (Schottky Effect), Field - assisted Thermionic
Emission from Traps (Poole - Frenkel Effect)Arrehenius Type Thermally
Activated Conduction Variable Range Hopping Conduction, Polaron
4. Growth Techniques of Nanomaterials
Introduction, Top - down vs. Bottom - up Technique, Lithographic Process
and its Limitations ,Nonlithorgraphic Techniques ,Plasma Arc Discharge
Sputtering ,Evaporation ,Chemical Vapour Deposition ,Pulsed Laser
Deposition ,Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Sol - Gel Technique
Electrodeposition ,Other Processes
5. Characterization Tools of Nanomaterials
Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), Introduction , Basic Principles of
SPM Techniques ,The Details of STM, Summary of STM ,General
Concept and Definite Characteristics of AFM, Scanned - Proximity Probe
Microscopes Laser Beam Deflection AFM Cantilevers ,Piezoceramics,
Feedback Loop Alternative Imaging Modes.
Electron Microscopy Introduction, Resolution vs. Magnification
Scanning Electron Microscope SEM Techniques, Electron Gun
Specimen Interactions Environmental SEM Transmission Electron
Microscope, High Resolution TEM Contrast Transfer Function.
Introduction ,The Era of New Nanostructure of Carbon
Buckminsterfullerene, Carbon Nanotubes , Nanodiamond, BN Nanotubes
Nanoelectronics ,Single Electron Transistor ,Molecular Machine
Reference Books:
1) Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: K.K. Chattopadhyay
and A.N. Banerjee, PHI Publisher
2) Nanoscience and Technology: V. S. Murlidharan, A. Subramanum.
3) Nanotubes and Nanofibers: Yury Gogotsi
4) A Handbook of Nanotechnology : A. G. Brecket
5) Instrumentations and Nanostructures - A. S. Bhatia
6) Nanotechnology: Nanostructures and Nanomaterials - M. B. Rao
(Elective Paper)
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