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Transcript
SOCIAL LEARNING/OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behavior is learned
from the environment through the process of observational
learning. Children observe the people around them behaving in various
ways. This is illustrated during the famous bobo doll experiment (Bandura,
1961). This type of learning can theoretically have both pro-social and antisocial effects.
Individuals that are observed are called models. In society children are
surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family,
characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at
school. Theses models provide examples of masculine and feminine
behavior to observe and imitate. (Modeling is the process of observing and
imitating a specific behavior)
They pay attention to some of these people (models) and encode their
behavior. At a later time they may imitate (i.e. copy) the behavior they have
observed. They may do this regardless of whether the behavior is ‘gender
appropriate’ or not but there are a number of processes that make it more
likely that a child will reproduce the behavior that its society deems
appropriate for its sex.
Some scientists believe that some neurons in our frontal lobe fire when
performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s
mirroring of another’s actions may enable imitation and empathy. These
neurons are called mirror neurons.
Reflecting on Classical and Operant Conditioning
Applications (school,
sports, work, home, selfimprovement)
Classical
Conditioning
Operant
Conditioning
Limits, Concerns, Connections