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Wallace Amos (1936- ) Wallace (Wally) Amos is known for his development and marketing of a brand of chocolate-chip cookies under the name “Famous Amos.” In a world of mass-produced food products, Amos hit upon a food liked by most people, the American homestyle chocolate-chip cookie. Two years after opening his first store in Los Angeles, Amos was the head of a large corporation, or company, selling cookies as well as other “Famous Amos” products, worldwide. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) worked hard for civil rights. In 1954, he won the Brown v. the Board of Education case, in which the Supreme Court ended racial segregation in public schools. Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1967, and served for 24 years. He was the first African American Supreme Court Justice. He died in Maryland on January 24, 1993. Kadir Nelson (1974- ) Kadir Nelson is an illustrator who starting drawing pictures at the age of three. His artwork is captured in numerous award-winning picture books, including Henry's Freedom Box by Ellen Levine and Abe’s Honest Words by Doreen Rapport. He received the Coretta Scott King Award for his illustrations in Moses:When Harriet Tubman Led Her People to Freedom by Carole Boston Weatherford. In 2008 he wrote and illustrated his first book, We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball. He enjoyed writing the book so much that he plans to write more. Rosa Parks (1913-2005) Rosa Parks was a civil rights leaders who sparked the Montgomery bus boycott and other efforts to end segregation when she refused to surrender her bus seat to a white passenger. Harriet Tubman (ca. 1820-1913) Harriet Tubman was a slave who escaped to the North for freedom. Once she was free, she led more than 300 slaves to freedom over the next ten years. She used a system called the Underground Railroad to help others to get to freedom. She owned property in upstate New York. Her parents and other refugees lived there. Tubman was a spy and scout for the Union troops during the Civil War. After the war she opened a home on her farm in New York for old Black people. She attended the women's rights meetings in Seneca Falls. The first Black Heritage postage stamp had a picture of Harriet Tubman on it. Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784) Phillis Wheatley is known as the first African-American poetess and the first AfricanAmerican woman to have her works published. Her work is highly looked upon, today. It marks the beginning of African-American literature. She is well-known for her poem about the first U.S. president, George Washington. Bill Gates (1955- ) Bill Gates grew up with the computer industry. He became a leader through the widespread use of his own product, Microsoft. He was born in Seattle, Washington and attended Harvard University before starting his company in 1976. His is considered a leader in the evolution of the computer industry. He has been considered one of the wealthiest men in the world, but he has given money to many charities and organizations as well as to scientific research. Although he is no longer C.E.O. of the Microsoft, Corporation, he is busy with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Cyrus McCormick (1809-1884) Cyrus McCormick was the son of a farmer/blacksmith/inventor. He used his talents to invent, improve, manufacture, and market of a successful mechanical reaper. The reaper was used to cut the grain, bind it, and stack it in the fields. Before the reaper, a farmer could only plant as much wheat as he could harvest because it ruined easily. The reaper allowed farmers to plant more wheat. Reapers and other machines caused a change in farming because mechanical instruments were need to make life easier for farmers. Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) Maria Mitchell was taught by her astronomer father. She was the first professional woman astronomer in the United States and became a professor of astronomy at Vassar College. She was the first woman to be a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Louis Pasteur discovered that heat could kill bacteria. This helped people realize why liquids such as milk spoiled. His discovery introduced the field of microbiology. He proved that the growth of bacteria resulted from germs in the air. The process of heating bacteria to kill them is known as "pasteurization." Pasteur also invented a vaccine to counter the effects of rabies. Pasteur directed the Pasteur Institute to the research of rabies until his death. Jonas Salk (1914-1995) Jonas Salk was a doctor who found a vaccine for polio. When Salk went to college, he planned to be a lawyer. His gained an interest in medical science and then decided to become a physician. While he was in medical school, he researched the flu virus. He wanted to know if the virus could be stopped from infecting people. He was successful and used this knowledge to help with a discovery of the polio vaccine. With this discovery of it, he became world famous over night. An interesting point is that he refused to patent the vaccine for monetary gain and instead said that it was for the people.