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Wallace Amos (1936- ) Wallace (Wally) Amos is known
for his development and marketing of a brand of
chocolate-chip cookies under the name “Famous Amos.”
In a world of mass-produced food products, Amos hit
upon a food liked by most people, the American homestyle chocolate-chip cookie. Two years after opening his
first store in Los Angeles, Amos was the head of a large
corporation, or company, selling cookies as well as other
“Famous Amos” products, worldwide.
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) worked hard for civil
rights. In 1954, he won the Brown v. the Board of
Education case, in which the Supreme Court ended racial
segregation in public schools. Marshall was appointed to
the Supreme Court in 1967, and served for 24 years. He
was the first African American Supreme Court Justice. He
died in Maryland on January 24, 1993.
Kadir Nelson (1974- ) Kadir Nelson is an illustrator who
starting drawing pictures at the age of three. His artwork is
captured in numerous award-winning picture books,
including Henry's Freedom Box by Ellen Levine and Abe’s
Honest Words by Doreen Rapport. He received the Coretta
Scott King Award for his illustrations in Moses:When Harriet
Tubman Led Her People to Freedom by Carole Boston
Weatherford. In 2008 he wrote and illustrated his first book, We
Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball. He
enjoyed writing the book so much that he plans to write more.
Rosa Parks (1913-2005) Rosa Parks was a civil rights
leaders who sparked the Montgomery bus boycott and
other efforts to end segregation when she refused to
surrender her bus seat to a white passenger.
Harriet Tubman (ca. 1820-1913) Harriet Tubman was a
slave who escaped to the North for freedom. Once she
was free, she led more than 300 slaves to freedom over
the next ten years. She used a system called the
Underground Railroad to help others to get to freedom.
She owned property in upstate New York. Her parents
and other refugees lived there. Tubman was a spy and
scout for the Union troops during the Civil War. After the
war she opened a home on her farm in New York for old
Black people. She attended the women's rights meetings
in Seneca Falls. The first Black Heritage postage stamp
had a picture of Harriet Tubman on it.
Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784) Phillis Wheatley is known
as the first African-American poetess and the first AfricanAmerican woman to have her works published. Her work
is highly looked upon, today. It marks the beginning of
African-American literature. She is well-known for her
poem about the first U.S. president, George Washington.
Bill Gates (1955- ) Bill Gates grew up with the computer industry. He became
a leader through the widespread use of his own product, Microsoft. He was
born in Seattle, Washington and attended Harvard University before starting
his company in 1976. His is considered a leader in the evolution of the
computer industry. He has been considered one of the wealthiest men in the
world, but he has given money to many charities and organizations as well as
to scientific research. Although he is no longer C.E.O. of the Microsoft,
Corporation, he is busy with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Cyrus McCormick (1809-1884) Cyrus McCormick was the son of a
farmer/blacksmith/inventor. He used his talents to invent, improve,
manufacture, and market of a successful mechanical reaper. The reaper was
used to cut the grain, bind it, and stack it in the fields. Before the reaper, a
farmer could only plant as much wheat as he could harvest because it ruined
easily. The reaper allowed farmers to plant more wheat. Reapers and other
machines caused a change in farming because mechanical instruments were
need to make life easier for farmers.
Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) Maria Mitchell was taught by her astronomer
father. She was the first professional woman astronomer in the United States
and became a professor of astronomy at Vassar College. She was the first
woman to be a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She
served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Louis Pasteur discovered that heat could kill
bacteria. This helped people realize why liquids such as milk spoiled. His
discovery introduced the field of microbiology. He proved that the growth of
bacteria resulted from germs in the air. The process of heating bacteria to kill
them is known as "pasteurization." Pasteur also invented a vaccine to counter
the effects of rabies. Pasteur directed the Pasteur Institute to the research of
rabies until his death.
Jonas Salk (1914-1995) Jonas Salk was a doctor who found a vaccine for
polio. When Salk went to college, he planned to be a lawyer. His gained an
interest in medical science and then decided to become a physician. While he
was in medical school, he researched the flu virus. He wanted to know if the
virus could be stopped from infecting people. He was successful and used
this knowledge to help with a discovery of the polio vaccine. With this
discovery of it, he became world famous over night. An interesting point is
that he refused to patent the vaccine for monetary gain and instead said that it
was for the people.