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Introduction What is Forensic Science? …..applies the knowledge and technology of science for the definition and enforcement of criminal and civil law. ……encompasses many scientific disciplines e.g.. Chemistry, biology, physics, geology etc. Role of the criminalist must supply accurate and objective information that reflects the events that occurred at the crime. - A crime scene ready for analysis Organization of a crime lab. 4 major federal crime labs. 1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (Dept. of Justice). 2. Drug Enforcement Administration Laboratories (Dept. of Justice). 3. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (Dept. of Treasury). 4. U.S. Postal Inspection Service. Services of a Crime Lab. Physical Services Unit Biology Unit Firearms Unit Document Examination Unit Photography Unit Optional Services 6. Toxicology Unit 7. Latent Fingerprint Unit 8. Polygraph Unit 9. Voiceprint Analysis Unit 10. Evidence Collection Unit Other specialized forensic science services. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pathology Anthropology Entomology Psychiatry Odontology Engineering Functions of a Forensic scientist. 1. Apply the principles of the natural and physical sciences to analysis of many types of evidence recovered from a crime scene. 2. Provide expert testimony in court. 3. Participate in training of law enforcement personnel in the proper recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence. Admissibility of Evidence Frye v. United States Decision set the guidelines for determining admissibility of scientific evidence Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. US Supreme court ruled that Frye Standard is not an absolute requirement. Trial judges are ultimately responsible as “gatekeepers” for admissibility and validity of evidence.